[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human protein kinases (HPKs) have profound effects on cellular responses. To better understand the role of HPKs and the signaling networks that influence influenza virus replication, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of 720 HPKs was performed. From the screen, 17 HPKs (NPR2, MAP3K1, DYRK3, EPHA6, TPK1, PDK2, EXOSC10, NEK8, PLK4, SGK3, NEK3, PANK4, ITPKB, CDC2L5 (CDK13), CALM2, PKN3, and HK2) were validated as essential for A/WSN/33 influenza virus replication, and 6 HPKs (CDK13, HK2, NEK8, PANK4, PLK4 and SGK3) were identified as vital for both A/WSN/33 and A/New Caledonia/20/99 influenza virus replication. These HPKs were found to affect multiple host pathways and regulated by miRNAs induced during infection. Using a panel of miRNA agonists and antagonists, miR-149* was found to regulate NEK8 expression, miR-548d-3p was found to regulate MAPK1 transcript expression, and miRs -1228 and -138 to regulate CDK13 expression. Up-regulation of miR-34c induced PLK4 transcript and protein expression and enhanced influenza virus replication, while miR-34c inhibition reduced viral replication. These findings identify HPKs important for influenza viral replication and show the miRNAs that govern their expression.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66796. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a primary cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants, young children, and the elderly worldwide, and despite decades of effort, there remains no safe and effective vaccine. RSV modifies the host immune response during infection by CX3C chemokine mimicry adversely affecting pulmonary leukocyte chemotaxis and CX3CR1+ RSV-specific T-cell responses. In this study we investigated whether immunization of mice with RSV G protein polypeptides from strain A2 could induce antibodies that block G protein-CX3CR1 interactions of both RSV A and B strains. The results show that mice immunized with RSV A2 G polypeptides generate antibodies that block binding of RSV A2 and B1 native G proteins to CX3CR1, and that these antibodies effectively cross-neutralize both A and B strains of RSV. These findings suggest that vaccines that induce RSV G protein-CX3CR1 blocking antibodies may provide a disease intervention strategy in the efforts to develop safe and efficacious RSV vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are an important emerging threat to public health. It is thought that sialic acid (sia) receptors are barriers in cross-species transmission where the binding preferences of AIV and human influenza viruses are sias α2,3 versus α2,6, respectively. In this study, we show that a normal fully differentiated, primary human bronchial epithelial cell model is readily infected by low pathogenic H5N1, H5N2 and H5N3 AIV, which primarily bind to sia α2,3 moieties, and replicate in these cells independent of specific sias on the cell surface. NHBE cells treated with neuraminidase prior to infection are infected by AIV despite removal of sia α2,3 moieties. Following AIV infection, higher levels of IP-10 and RANTES are secreted compared to human influenza virus infection, indicating differential chemokine expression patterns, a feature that may contribute to differences in disease pathogenesis between avian and human influenza virus infections in humans.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e21183. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a ubiquitous respiratory virus that causes serious lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. Studies have shown that RSV infection modulates chemokine expression patterns, suggesting that particular cytokine expression profiles may be indicators of disease severity. In this study, we show that RSV F or G protein treatment of fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells induces apical and basolateral secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8), interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted). Purified RSV G (attachment) protein was shown to stimulate the secretion of interleukin 1alpha and RANTES, whereas purified F (fusion) protein elicited the production of IL-8, IP-10, and RANTES. Studies of ultraviolet-inactivated RSV showed that treatment of normal human bronchial epithelial cells induces apical IL-8, IP-10, and MCP-1 secretion independent of infection, suggesting that RSV proteins alone modify the chemokine response pattern, which may affect the early immune response before infection.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2010; 201(8):1201-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor