[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe medial humeral epicondylitis in cats based on radiographic, anatomic, and histologic observations.
Prospective cohort study.
Feline cadavers (n = 60).
Extended craniocaudal, and extended and flexed mediolateral radiographic projections were taken of both elbows of 60 consecutive European shorthair cats that died or were euthanatized. Elbows with new bone formation at the medial epicondyle were dissected and embedded in methyl-methacrylate (MMA). For comparison, both elbows of a cat with no radiographic changes were prepared in a similar manner. Sections of the MMA blocks were Giemsa stained and examined with light microscopy.
Bilateral new bone formation was identified radiographically at the medial aspect of the humeral epicondyle in 6 cats (10%). All of these cats had mineral deposition in the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Other findings were cartilage damage (n = 3 cats), an additional loose medial joint body (1), and tendinosis (3). The ulnar nerve was flattened and displaced caudally, and signs of chronic epineural fibrosis were present in 2 severely affected cats.
Ten percent of this feline population had radiographic evidence of medial humeral epicondylitis with chronic degeneration, mineralization, and metaplastic bone formation in damaged fibrillar matrix involving the origin of the humeral head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. New bone formation caused displacement and compression of the ulnar nerve in severely affected elbows. Based on our findings, medial humeral epicondylitis appears to be a common disorder in cats with potential clinical sequelae.
Veterinary Surgery 08/2012; 41(7):795-802. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurements of the canine skull are of main interest in brachycephalic dogs. They are suspected to have di-seases associated with the shortened nose, which are summarized under the term brachycephalic syndrome. The relative length of the nose has become an important feature in breeding and research, although a defi nitive correlation to the brachycephalic syndrome still has not been proven (Knecht, 1979; Harvey, 1982; Aron und Cro-we, 1985; Koch et al., 2003). Classifi cations of skull types can be made by two methods. The traditional phenoty-pic assignment into brachycephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic is based on the assumption, that dogs of a specifi c breed have more or less uniform skull sha-pes. However, alterations due to breeding and differences be tween individual dogs of the same breed must lead to modifi cations. Therefore and for a more subtle classifi -cation, skull measurements were introduced (Brehm et al., 1985; Evans, 1993; Regodon et al., 1993), The existing indexation methods from Evans (1993) and Brehm et al. (1985) are based on cadaver studies. They classify brachycephalic dogs as having a cranial length to facial length ratio (LL-index) of > 1.60 or a skull length to skull width ratio (LW-index) of < 1.44. However, the authors also mentioned the considerable range of those indices within a breed. Regodon et al. (1993) were the fi rst to propose a classifi cation based on radiographs of canine skulls with the craniofacial angle (CFA) as a cri-terion. The CFA is defi ned by a line along the base of the skull, and another line along the hard palate. The CFA of 10 dogs from 5 breeds were retrieved and it was found that the ranges clearly overlapped. The existing indices have their limitations for clinical use, either being based on cadavers (LL-index, LW-index) or not resulting in meaningful assignments of the individual skull meas-urement to the phenotypic appearance of the respective breed (CFA). We therefore propose a possible new skull index (S-index), which can be easily derived from radio-graphs of living animals and should refl ect the phenotype of each individual. Such an index has also the potential to be linked to airstream parameters (Wiestner et al., 2007) and to the clinical manifestation of respiratory problems of each individual. It offers an insight to different skull shapes between dogs of the same breed. We also propose a boundary value, which should have the potential to classify between brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic skull shapes. The new S-index is an approximation to the LL-index, retrieved form cadavers by Brehm et al. (1985). The in-dex however was taken from radiographs in dorsoventral direction (Fig. 1). It is calculated by the length of the fa-cial skull divided by the length of the cerebrum. In this context the length of the facial skull was defi ned as the distance from the rostral border of the incisal bone to the rostral border of the cavum cranii. The length of the cerebrum was measured from the rostral border of the cavum cranii to the caudal outline of the occipital bone, beginning at the dorsal border of the great foramen. The S-index was compared to the LW index and the CFA on 57 dogs of different breed, sex, age and size. They were presented to the University of Zurich for planned surgical procedures (mainly neutering). The owners agreed to the procedures necessary for this study. From all dogs, radio-graphs of the skull in dorsoventral (hard palate parallel to the table, Fig. 1) and laterolateral direction (hard palate perpendicular to the table, Fig. 2) were taken. The S-and LW-index (dorsoventral views) and CFA (laterolateral views) were determined (Tab. 1). A boundary value (BV) for the S-index was evaluated which allows for a separation of the brachycephalic and the non-brachycephalic breeds by the following method. First, the dogs in the present study were classifi ed on the basis of the established separating BV for the LW-index (Brehm et al., 1985). Secondly, the BV of S-index was determined such that the highest score in coincidence of classifi cation occurred for both, the brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic breeds . In this manner, it was found that all dogs having an S-index equal or below the BV of 1.25 are considered to have a brachycephalic skull shape (Tab. 1). In parallel the respective CFA were listed.
SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 01/2012; 154(5):217-220. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine angles of insertion for laminar vertebral fixation of L1 and L2 by use of a locking plate in dogs and to confirm screw placement by use of computed tomography (CT).
Vertebral specimens harvested from 8 canine cadavers.
The point of insertion and minimum and maximum insertion angles for laminar and facet screws for laminar vertebral stabilization were determined by use of CT. A precontoured locking plate was then placed by use of 1 locking screw in the lamina of each lumbar vertebra and 1 nonlocking screw in the facet joint. The position and angle of the screws were examined by use of CT, and penetration into the vertebral canal was recorded.
Mean ± SD insertion angles for L1 and L2 were 18 ± 4° and 21 ± 5° toward the vertebral canal and 11 ± 4.4° and 10 ± 3° in a dorsal direction, respectively. Insertion angles for the facet joint were between 24 ± 4° ventrally and 12 ± 2° dorsally. Insertion of the screw did not penetrate the vertebral canal for 23 of 24 (96%) screws. For 23 of 24 inserted screws, the previously determined angle was maintained and purchase of bone and cortices was satisfactory.
Placement of laminar and facet screws in canine vertebrae was possible and can be performed safely if angles of insertion determined pre-operatively via CT are maintained.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 12/2011; 72(12):1674-80. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare biomechanical characteristics of vertebral segments after vertebral body plating or laminar stabilization following complete incision of the annulus fibrosus.
Vertebral segments from T13 through L3 obtained from 18 canine cadavers.
A 4-point bending moment was applied in flexion and extension to the intact vertebral segments to determine a baseline range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ). Vertebral columns were then destabilized by creating a defect in the intervertebral disk via complete incision of the ventral aspect of the annulus fibrosus. The bending moment was applied again after stabilization was accomplished via vertebral body plating or with laminar stabilization (n = 9 vertebral segments/stabilization technique). The ROM and NZ were compared with their baseline values and among treatment groups. Finally, load-to-failure testing was performed in flexion.
Mean relative ROM and NZ for segments treated with laminar stabilization were significantly lower than those for segments treated with vertebral plates.
Analysis of in vitro results suggested that laminar stabilization of vertebral segments provided greater stiffness than did vertebral body plating.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 12/2011; 72(12):1681-6. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To (1) determine suction tip (intermittent and continuous mode) contamination rate in orthopedic surgery in dogs and cats; (2) examine the effect of surgical time on contamination; and (3) report bacteria isolated. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Clean orthopedic surgeries (n = 50). METHODS: Surgical procedures were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) continuous (n = 25) or (2) intermittent suction (n = 25). A control suction was operated in each surgery. Samples for aerobic and anaerobic bacteriologic examination were collected from the surgical suction at 0, 20, 60 minutes, and at the end of surgery, and from the control suction at the end of the surgery only. Comparison of continuous and intermittent suction data, and the effect of surgical time on contamination rate were analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis followed by a Cox proportional hazards model. P < .05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Aerobic contamination occurred in 22 of 50 surgical procedures and there was no anaerobic growth. There was no significant difference between continuous and intermittent suction mode groups (P = .40). Surgical time did not influence the contamination rate (P = .79). Bacterial cultures mainly revealed coagulase-negative Staphylococci, however multiresistant bacteria were isolated. CONCLUSIONS: We failed to find superiority of the intermittent operation mode of the suction tip over the continuous mode. A safe time frame before contamination of the suction tip occurs that could not be defined.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on patellofemoral (PF) contact mechanics, and alignment of the PF and femorotibial (FT) joints in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs.
Ex vivo biomechanical study.
Unpaired cadaveric hind limbs (n=9).
Digital pressure sensors placed in the PF joint were used to measure contact force, contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under an axial load of 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135°. The FT and PF poses were obtained using a 2-dimensional computer digitization technique. Each specimen was tested under normal, CrCL-deficient, and TTA-treated conditions. Data was normalized and analyzed, after testing for normality by Wilk-Shapiro, using 1 sample T-test, paired T-test, and ANOVA; P≤.05 was considered significant. Bonferroni's correction was used when needed.
A significant cranioproximal tibial displacement and increase in patellar tilt were found in the CrCL-deficient joints. Both FT and PF alignments were restored after TTA. Contact areas and peak pressure did not vary between conditions. Peak pressure location displaced proximally from intact to CrCL-deficient condition and returned to normal after TTA. Total force measured in the CrCL-deficient stifle and TTA conditions were significantly lower than in the control.
TTA restored the normal FT and PF alignment, and reduced the retropatellar force by about 20%.
Veterinary Surgery 08/2011; 40(7):839-48. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To retrospectively evaluate the outcome of internal fixation of trauma- related pelvic floor fractures using a ventral abdominal approach in cats.
Clinical examination and radiographic findings at presentation, after surgery, and at follow-up were assessed. Information gathered included concurrent injuries, surgical technique used, lameness and pain scores, and radiographic signs of implant stability.
Ten European shorthair cats were included in the study. Pelvic floor fractures were stabilised using locking plates in nine cats, and symphyseal separation was fixated using hemicerclage wire in one cat. Additional procedures included reduction of sacroiliac luxation in nine cats with positional screws placed in six cats, and plate stabilization of sacral fractures in one cat. All cats were able to walk within five days of surgery. No orthopaedic or neurological deficits were observed in seven cats at follow-up. Neurological deficits were observed in one cat. Signs of pain at implant sites due to inadequate surgical technique were noted in two cats. Anatomical reduction of the pelvic floor was achieved in eight cats.
Stabilization of the pelvic floor and repair of sacroiliac luxation and other injuries by a ventral abdominal approach in cats led to an overall successful outcome. Fixation of the pelvic floor in cats with intact acetabular and ilial bones should be considered in patients with multiple pelvic fractures in combination with sacroiliac joint luxation or sacral fracture, pelvic canal narrowing, traumatic abdominal hernia, and other abdominal injuries.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 01/2011; 24(2):137-41. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether fully normalised vertical ground reaction forces and stance times obtained at a trot depend on dog breed or body conformations.
Peak vertical forces (PVF), vertical impulses (VI), stance times (ST), and ratio of forelimb impulse to total impulse (RVI) of 54 dogs of seven different breeds were normalised to body weight and body size according to the theory of dynamic similarity, and were tested for differences between breeds. Breeds were Borzoi, Bernese Mountain dog, Great Dane, Labrador Retriever, Landseer, Rhodesian Ridgeback, and Rottweiler. Body length ratio (BLR) and body mass index (BMI) were also compared between breeds.
Significant differences between breeds were found for the normalised forelimb PVF, VI and ST, and hindlimb PVF. Looking at individual breeds, it was most evident that Borzois had a lower forelimb VI, and a higher hindlimb PVF than the other breeds. This resulted in Borzois having a lower RVI compared to other dogs, indicating a more caudally located centre of gravity. Only a few differences in gait parameters were found between other dog breeds. The BMI was significantly lower in Borzois than in other breeds, but was otherwise not associated with gait parameters.
Force plate data of dogs of different breeds are not necessarily comparable, even after full normalisation to body weight and body size. Group comparisons should only be made when the groups consist of breeds with similar body conformations.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 01/2011; 24(2):106-12. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate and compare healing, with and without the use of bone graft, of the gap created during tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA).Study Design: Prospective study and case series.Animals: Dogs treated with TTA (n=67).Methods: Prospective study: Mediolateral radiographic projections (6 weeks and 4 months) after TTA without use of bone graft (group I, n=14) were compared with radiographs of consecutive TTA in which the gap was filled with autologous cancellous bone graft (group II, n=14). Two scoring techniques (A, B) were used. Score A was used to grade the overall osteotomy healing (0=no healing, 4=healed osteotomy). Score B evaluated, independently of each other, healing in 3 sites: proximal to the cage (B1), between cage and plate (B2), and distal to the plate (B3). Case series: nongrafted TTA (4–25 weeks, n=39) were evaluated for healing (Score A). Data was analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA. Significance was set at P≤.05.Results: Prospective study: Score A, B2, and B3 showed no difference in healing between groups at 6.8 weeks and 4.2 months. Score B1 revealed, in both rechecks, a significantly higher density in group II. Case series: Radiographs at 11.59±5.99 weeks scored 3.3 (2–4). No healing related complications were observed.Conclusion: The osteotomy gap created during TTA healed within expected time regardless of bone graft use.
Veterinary Surgery 12/2010; 40(1):27 - 33. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To (1) evaluate radiographic changes associated with osteoarthrosis (OA) before and after tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) and (2) determine if these changes are indicative of limb function as determined by kinetic gait analysis.
Prospective clinical study.
Dogs (n=35) with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficient stifles (38).
Variables recorded were: complete or partial CCL rupture, meniscal lesions, arthroscopically graded cartilage lesions, complications, and revision surgeries. Radiographic evaluation and kinetic gait analysis (vertical ground reaction forces [GRFs]) were conducted pre- and 4-16 months postoperatively (mean, 5.9 months). Radiographs were evaluated without knowledge of operative findings and functional outcome. A score (0-3) based on new bone production at 11 specific sites was used to grade OA. Soft tissue changes were classified separately as normal or excessive. Preoperative scores were correlated with clinical variables. Postoperative scores and progression of OA scores were correlated with clinical variables and GRFs.
OA remained unchanged in 17 joints and progressed in 21 (55%). Dogs with meniscal lesions had higher OA scores preoperatively, but not at follow-up. Dogs with severe cartilage lesions at surgery had more progression of OA. GRFs improved after surgery and were not correlated with any of the radiographic OA scores.
Progression of OA was greater in the presence of severe cartilage lesions at surgery. OA scores were not correlated with GRFs.
Progression of OA is generally expected to occur after TTA despite improvement of limb function.
Veterinary Surgery 03/2010; 39(4):425-32. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A six-year-old, female, spayed Labrador Retriever was evaluated for progressive lameness of one year duration, ending in non-weight-bearing of the right hindlimb. The dog had a history of severe coxarthrosis of both hip joints, and had a HELICA hip prosthesis implanted in the right hip 18 months before. On survey radiographs, the acetabular and femoral components appeared unstable, with a large void in the proximal femur and a lacy periosteal reaction on the trochanter. Arthrocentesis was performed to rule out septic loosening. As culture samples were negative, the dog underwent surgery. We report the successful revision of an unstable HELICA screw hip prosthesis with a Zurich cementless total hip replacement. The patient had a good clinical and radiological outcome seven months postoperatively.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 01/2010; 23(3):177-81. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the results of application, and identify complications, of the 2nd generation of Zurich Cementless Total Hip Replacement (ZCTHR).
Client-owned dogs (n=60) that had ZCTHR (n=65).
Dogs with ZCTHR (2001-2003) with a minimum follow-up > or =6 months were evaluated. Data included signalment, cup position, longest follow-up, complications, management of complications and outcome.
Mean follow-up was 22.68 months. Eleven cases (17%) had postoperative complications: femoral fracture (n=1; 1.5%), prosthesis luxation (7; 11%), cup loosening (2; 3%), and implant failure (1; 1.5%); 9 cases were successfully revised. Explantation of implants was performed in 1 case because of infection, and 1 dog was euthanatized after reluxation.
ZCTHR can restore function in dogs affected by disabling diseases of the coxofemoral joint. The press-fit fixation of the cup allowed for corrections in cases of incorrect positioning. Cases with aseptic loosening were revised successfully by impacting larger cups. Newer stems of this generation are shot peening treated to increase their resistance to breakage. In our cases, infection is a disastrous event, leading to implant removal. After resolution of complications, a successful final outcome was achieved in 97% of THR.
ZCTHR offers a reliable alternative for treating dogs with disabling diseases of the hip joints.
Veterinary Surgery 01/2009; 38(1):70-80. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To retrospectively evaluate stabilisation of long-bone fractures in cats and small dogs using the Unilock system.
Medical histories and radiographs of consecutive patients with long-bone fractures stabilised with the Unilock system were reviewed. Cases with follow-up radiographs taken at least four weeks postoperatively were included. Signalment of the patient, fracture localisation and type, primary fracture repair or revision surgery, single or double plating, and complications for each patient were noted. Additionally, implant size, number of screws, number of cortices engaged with screws, and number of empty holes across the fracture were evaluated in fractures where a single plate had been applied.
Eighteen humeral, 18 radial, 20 femoral, and 10 tibial fractures were treated. The Unilock system was used for primary repair in 44 fractures and for revision surgery in 22 fractures. Two plates were applied in 17 fractures, and a single plate was applied in 49 fractures. Follow-up radiographs were taken four to 109 weeks postoperatively. Complications were seen in 12 animals and 13 fractures (19.7%). Fixation failure occurred in seven fractures (10.6%). Cases with a single plate that suffered fixation failure had thinner screws in relation to bone diameter than cases with double plates, and more screws in a main fragment than those without fixation failure.
The Unilock system is a suitable implant for fracture fixation of long bones in cats and small dogs.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 01/2009; 22(5):398-405. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate a technique for repair of sacroiliac luxation with positional screw insertion from the ventral surface of the sacral wing via a ventral abdominal approach.
Hemipelvis specimens from cadavers of 5 small- to large-breed dogs and 9 European shorthair cats.
An optimal entry point and a safe drill corridor for implant placement were determined (4 hemipelvis specimens). Anatomic landmarks were identified, and the surgical technique for a ventral abdominal approach was described. Single positional screw placement was performed across the sacroiliac joint in 23 hemipelvis specimens. Screws were aimed at 25 degrees (n=2), 35 degrees (2), and 45 degrees (19) angles to the vertical axis in a transverse plane (alpha angles) and at a 90 degrees angle to the longitudinal axis in a dorsal plane (beta angle). Implant placement was assessed by radiographic evaluation of the cadavers and of the hemipelvis specimens devoid of soft tissue.
By use of alpha angles of 35 degrees and 45 degrees, 20 of 21 implants were placed adequately; screws crossed the sacroiliac joint and penetrated the wing of the ilium without damaging adjacent nerves. The measured median alpha angle was 38 degrees , and the median beta angle was 88 degrees. One complication was recorded.
Cortical positional screw placement from the ventral aspect of the sacral wing by use of a ventral abdominal approach could be an alternative to conventional techniques. This novel technique may be useful for repair of bilateral sacroiliac luxation, treatment of concomitant soft tissue injuries of the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity or abdominal wall, and repair of pelvic floor fractures in a single approach.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 05/2008; 69(4):542-8. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate sacroiliac luxation repair with positional screw insertion from the ventral surface of the sacral wing via a ventral abdominal approach in cats.
18 European shorthair cats.
All cats underwent clinical examination including orthopedic and neurologic examination and assessment of lameness and pain before and immediately after surgery and 6 and 16 weeks after surgery. All sacroiliac luxations were stabilized with a single positional 2.4-mm cortical titanium self-tapping screw. The pelvic floor was also repaired in selected cats. Screw entry points and angles determined in a prior study of cadavers were used. Radiographs were taken before surgery and during follow-up evaluations to assess postoperative sacroiliac luxation reduction, implant placement, and repair stability.
All implants were placed correctly. Iatrogenic sciatic nerve injuries occurred in 2 cats. Median time to ambulation was 1.5 days for cats with sacroiliac luxation as the sole injury. Radiographic outcome of sacroiliac luxation repair was excellent in 15 of 17 repairs, good in 1 of 17 repairs, and poor in 1 of 17 repairs. Clinical outcome was excellent in 11 of 15 cats and good in 4 of 15 cats.
Insertion of a positional screw across the sacroiliac joint via a ventral abdominal approached can be an alternative to conventional techniques of sacroiliac luxation repair in cats. This novel technique allowed repair of bilateral sacroiliac luxation, repair of pelvic floor fractures, and treatment of soft tissue injuries of the abdominal cavity or abdominal organs with a single approach.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 05/2008; 69(4):549-56. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess functional outcome in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) disease after tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) using force plate gait analysis, and to evaluate parameters potentially influencing outcome.
Prospective clinical study.
Consecutive clinical patients (n = 37) with CrCL-deficient stifles (n = 40).
The stifle joints were examined arthroscopically prior to TTA. Meniscal release was not performed if the medial meniscus was intact. Open medial arthrotomy and partial meniscectomy were performed in the presence of meniscal tears. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured preoperatively and at follow-up examinations four to 16 months postoperatively (mean: 5.9 months). The ground reaction forces of a group of 65 healthy dogs were used for the comparison. The potential effects of clinical parameters on functional outcome were evaluated statistically.
Complete CrCL rupture was identified in 28 joints, and partial CrCL rupture in 12 joints. The medial meniscus was damaged in 21 stifles. Vertical ground reaction forces were significantly higher at follow-up (P < 0.01), but remained significantly lower than those of control dogs (P < 0.01). Complications were identified in 25% of joints, and the dogs with complications had significantly lower peak vertical forces at follow-up than the dogs without complications (P = 0.04). Other clinical parameters did not influence outcome.
Tibial tuberosity advancement significantly improved limb function in dogs with CrCL disease, but did not result in complete return to function. Complications adversely affected functional outcome.
A return to a function of approximately 90% of normal can be expected in dogs with CrCL disease undergoing TTA.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 02/2008; 21(3):243-9. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes the temporary fixation of a traumatic shoulder luxation in a large-breed dog using a 3.5-mm Locking Round-Hole Reconstruction Plate (LRHRP) to provide stable internal splinting, allowing healing of the injured ligaments, joint capsule, glenohumeral ligaments, tendons, and muscles for restoration of joint stability. The use of a temporary plate with a locking system should be considered as an option in the treatment of canine shoulder joint luxations with severe tissue damage.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 02/2008; 21(2):166-70. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using univariate analysis, the correlation between signalment, history, outcome and radiographic diagnosis made on whole-body radiographs was investigated in 100 consecutive feline trauma patients of an urban clinic. The radiographic findings included: 53 thoracic injuries, 39 abdominal injuries, 34 pelvic injuries, 28 soft tissue injuries, 26 spinal injuries, and 19 cases with signs of hypovolemia. Only four radiographs were considered normal. Surgical intervention was carried out in 51 cases. Of the 100 cases, 73 survived, 23 were euthanatized, and four died. A significant positive correlation with euthanasia was found when compared to patient age (p=0.0059), abdominal trauma (P=0.0500), spinal fractures (P=0.0468), and soft tissue injuries (P=0.0175). A significant negative correlation with survival was found when compared to patient age (P=0.0358), abdominal trauma (P=0.0439), intraperitoneal free air (P=0.0041), and soft tissue injury (P=0.0288). The results of this study indicate that whole-body radiographs are useful in detecting injury in the thorax, abdomen, spine, pelvis and soft tissues, and are valuable in the diagnostic work-up of feline trauma patients.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 02/2008; 21(1):36-40. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This in vitro study compares the femorotibial shear in canine stifles with intact and transected cranial cruciate ligaments (CrCL), before and after tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) by measuring the distance between origin and insertion of the cruciate ligaments.
Radiodense markers were inserted into bones at the attachment sites of the cruciate ligaments in sixteen cadaveric stifles of adult dogs. Each stifle was then mounted in a testing apparatus. The distances between the markers were measured on mediolateral radiographs, performed on each stifle under three different situations: intact, after CrCL transection, and after performing a TTA. Stifles were loaded to create a constant tibiofemoral reaction force by maintaining the load parallel to the patellar ligament. Radiographs were taken in a preloaded and loaded state in the intact stifle and only in a loaded state after CrCL transection, and after performing a TTA.
Loading the stifle joints after transection of the CrCL resulted in a mean lengthening of the CrCL marker distance of 22.4%. Loading the transected CrCL stifles after performing a TTA resulted in a mean shortening of the CrCL marker distance by 3.0% compared to the loaded intact condition.
This study demonstrates that, in loaded stifles with transected CrCLs, TTA causes a caudal shift in the cranial shear force, counteracting cranial subluxation of the tibia.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 02/2008; 21(5):385-90. · 1.03 Impact Factor