ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were first to analyze neurocognitive outcomes of patients after open-chamber cardiac surgery to determine whether carbon dioxide pericardial insufflation reduces incidence of neurocognitive decline (primary end point) as measured 6 weeks postoperatively and second to assess the utility of carbon dioxide insufflation in cardiac chamber deairing as assessed by transesophageal echocardiography.
A multicenter, prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial compared neurocognitive outcomes in patients undergoing open-chamber (left-sided) cardiac surgery who were assigned carbon dioxide insufflation or placebo (control group) in addition to standardized mechanical deairing maneuvers.
One hundred twenty-five patients underwent surgery and were randomly allocated. Neurocognitive testing showed no clinically significant differences in z scores between preoperative and postoperative testing. Linear regression was used to identify factors associated with neurocognitive decline. Factors most strongly associated with neurocognitive decline were hypercholesterolemia, aortic atheroma grade, and coronary artery disease. There was significantly more intracardiac gas noted on intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in all cardiac chambers (left atrium, left ventricle, and aorta) at all measured times (after crossclamp removal, during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, and at declaration of adequate deairing by the anesthetist) in the control group than in the carbon dioxide group (P < .04). Deairing time was also significantly longer in the control group (12 minutes [interquartile range, 9-18] versus 9 minutes [interquartile range, 7-14 minutes]; P = .002).
Carbon dioxide pericardial insufflation in open-chamber cardiac surgery does not affect postoperative neurocognitive decline. The most important factor is atheromatous vascular disease.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 05/2012; 144(3):646-653.e1. · 3.41 Impact Factor