[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: Hearing loss can be associated with a decrease in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure because changes in CSF pressure induce changes in perilymph pressure. Hearing loss after neurosurgical procedures have been reported but clinical information on hearing loss after the placement of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts, the most commonly used CSF shunt for hydrocephalus patients, is limited. This study is aimed to show the relationship between VP shunt and hearing loss. Study Design: Prospective study. Methods: Pure tone threshold and electrocochleography were preoperatively performed in 9 patients (18 ears) undergoing elective VP shunt placement. Five-day and 1-month post-shunt placement hearing thresholds were compared with baseline data. A correlation analysis was conducted between the threshold and summating potential/action potential (SP/AP) ratio changes at 5 days and 1 month after shunt placement. Cochlear aqueduct dimensions measured by high-resolution computed tomography were compared between ears with and without hearing loss. Results: About 40% of subject ears showed hearing loss with a threshold elevation of at least 15 dB in one or more frequencies. After VP shunt placement, the mean threshold of all ears showed a significant increase in most frequencies and the pure tone average. The change in the SP/AP ratios was significantly correlated with the change in the pure tone average at both 5 days and 1 month after shunt placement. Cochlear aqueduct dimensions were not correlated with hearing loss occurrence. Conclusions: Hearing thresholds may increase following VP shunt placement, possibly due to secondary endolymphatic hydrops.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy for recurrent anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA).
A multi-center retrospective trial enrolled seventy-two patients with histologically proven AO/AOA who underwent TMZ chemotherapy for their recurrent tumors from 2006 to 2010. TMZ was administered orally (150 to 200 mg/m(2)/day) for 5 days per 28 days until unacceptable toxicity occurred or tumor progression was observed.
TMZ chemotherapy cycles administered was median 5.3 (range, 1-41). The objective response rate was 24% including 8 cases (11%) of complete response and another 23 patients (32%) were remained as stable disease. Severe side effects (≥grade 3) occurred only in 9 patients (13%). Progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was a median 8.0 months (95% confidence interval, 6.0-10.0). The time to recurrence of a year or after was a favorable prognostic factor for PFS (p<0.05). Overall survival (OS) was apparently differed by the patient's histology, as AOA patients survived a median OS of 18.0 months while AO patients did not reach median OS at median follow-up of 11.5 months (range 2.7-65 months). Good performance status of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 and 1 showed prolonged OS (p<0.01).
For recurrent AO/AOA after surgery followed by radiation therapy, TMZ could be recommended as a salvage therapy at the estimated efficacy equal to procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy at first relapse. For patients previously treated with PCV, TMZ is a favorable therapeutic option as 2nd line salvage chemotherapy with an acceptable toxicity rate.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 12/2013; 54(6):489-95. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, plays a critical role in prostate cancer onset and progression, and its transcriptional function is mediated largely by distinct nuclear receptor co-regulators. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1) functions as an AR co-activator. CCAR1 interacted with and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. Depletion of CCAR1 caused reduction in androgen-dependent expression of a subset of AR target genes. We further showed that CCAR1 is required for recruitment of AR, MED1 and RNA polymerase II to the enhancers of AR target genes and for androgen-induced long-range prostate specific antigen enhancer-promoter interaction. The molecular mechanism underlying CCAR1 function in AR-mediated transcription involves CCAR1-mediated enhanced recruitment of GATA2, a pioneer factor for AR, to AR-binding sites. CCAR1 stabilized the interaction between AR and GATA2 by interacting directly with both proteins, thereby facilitating AR and GATA2 occupancy on the enhancers. Furthermore, CCAR1 depletion inhibited the growth, migration, invasion of prostate cancer cells and reduced the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells in vivo. Our results firmly established CCAR1 as an AR co-activator that plays a key role in AR transcription complex assembly and has an important physiological role in androgen signaling and prostate tumorigenesis.
Nucleic Acids Research 07/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims and background. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy of combined hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temozolomide in patients with primary glioblastoma. Methods and study design. Thirty-nine patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma were accrued. Using the simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 50 Gy in 5-Gy fractions was applied to the gross tumor volume, together with 40 Gy in 4-Gy fractions and 30 Gy in 3-Gy fractions to the 1- and 2-cm margins from the gross tumor volume, respectively. Patients were also treated with concurrent temozolomide during intensity-modulated radiotherapy, followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. Results. Median follow-up was 16.8 months (range, 4.3-54.3). Tumor progression was observed in 28 patients (71.8%), and the median time to progression was 6.8 months. Median survival was 16.8 months, and it was affected significantly by the extent of surgery. During adjuvant temozolomide treatment, 3 patients (9.7%) developed grade 3-4 hematologic or hepatic toxicity. Radiation necrosis developed in 7 patients (17.9%) and massive necrosis, requiring emergency surgery, in 1 patient (2.6%). Conclusions. The regimen of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temozolomide showed a relatively good outcome in patients with glioblastoma. Further studies are required to define the optimal fraction size for glioblastoma using this highly sophisticated radiation technique.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims and background. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy of combined hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temozolomide in patients with primary glioblastoma.
Methods and study design. Thirty-nine patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma were accrued. Using the simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 50 Gy in 5-Gy fractions was applied to the gross tumor volume, together with 40 Gy in 4-Gy fractions and 30 Gy in 3-Gy fractions to the 1- and 2-cm margins from the gross tumor volume, respectively. Patients were also treated with concurrent temozolomide during intensity-modulated radiotherapy, followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide.
Results. Median follow-up was 16.8 months (range, 4.3-54.3). Tumor progression was observed in 28 patients (71.8%), and the median time to progression was 6.8 months. Median survival was 16.8 months, and it was affected significantly by the extent of surgery. During adjuvant temozolomide treatment, 3 patients (9.7%) developed grade 3-4 hematologic or hepatic toxicity. Radiation necrosis developed in 7 patients (17.9%) and massive necrosis, requiring emergency surgery, in 1 patient (2.6%).
Conclusions. The regimen of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temozolomide showed a relatively good outcome in patients with glioblastoma. Further studies are required to define the optimal fraction size for glioblastoma using this highly sophisticated radiation technique.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
To determine the benefit of surgical management in recurrent glioblastoma, we analyzed a series of patients with recurrent glioblastoma who had undergone surgery, and we devised a new scale to predict their survival.Methods
Clinical data from 55 consecutive patients with recurrent glioblastoma were evaluated after surgical management. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling were used to identify prognostic variables for the development of a predictive scale. After the multivariate analysis, performance status (P = .078) and ependymal involvement (P = .025) were selected for inclusion in the new prognostic scale. The devised scale was validated with a separate set of 96 patients from 3 different institutes.ResultsA 3-tier scale (scoring range, 0-2 points) composed of additive scores for the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (0 for KPS ≥ 70 and 1 for KPS < 70) and ependymal involvement (0 for no enhancement and 1 for enhancement of the ventricle wall in the magnetic resonance imaging) significantly distinguished groups with good (0 points; median survival, 18.0 months), intermediate (1 point; median survival, 10.0 months), and poor prognoses (2 points; median survival, 4.0 months). The new scale was successfully applied to the validation cohort of patients showing distinct prognosis among the groups (median survivals of 11.0, 9.0, and 4.0 months for the 0-, 1-, and 2-point groups, respectively).Conclusions
We developed a practical scale to facilitate deciding whether to proceed with surgical management in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. This scale was useful for the diagnosis of prognostic groups and can be used to develop guidelines for patient treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Augmentation index (AIx) and pulse pressure amplification (PPA, here the aortic/brachial pulse pressure ratio) are an age-related emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, it has not been clearly shown that AIx and PPA predict a high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between non-invasively measured aortic wave reflection (AWR) and PPA and CAD. METHODS: The study group consisted of 80 patients who were admitted to our institute for elective coronary angiography. We non-invasively measured augmentation pressure (AP), AIx, and PPA using radial applanation tonometry. RESULTS: When the extent of CAD was divided by no or minimal CAD, 1- or 2- and 3-vessel disease (VD), there was a significant association between the extent of CAD and AIx and PPA in patients aged <65 years, but not in patients aged ≥65 years. In multivariate regression analysis after controlling the traditional risk factors, the odds ratio of having 3VD was significant in patients aged <65 years: 2.15 (1.04-4.44; p=0.039) per 5% increase of AIx and 2.02 (1.15-3.55; p=0.015) per 0.05 increase of PPA, but not in patients aged ≥65 years. The severity of CAD expressed as a Gensini score showed a significant correlation with AP, AIx, and PPA in patients aged <65 years, but not in patients aged ≥65 years. CONCLUSION: Increasing of non-invasively measured AWR and PPA is related to the severity of CAD, particularly in younger patients up to 65 years of age.
Journal of Cardiology 05/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare primary low-grade astrocytic tumor classified as WHO II. It is generally benign, but disease progression and malignant transformation have been reported. Prognostic factors for PXA and optimal therapies are not well known.
The study period was January 2000 to March 2012. Data on MR findings, histology, surgical extents and adjuvant therapies were reviewed in twenty-two patients diagnosed with PXA.
The frequent symptoms of PXA included seizures, headaches and neurologic deficits. Tumors were most common in the temporal lobe followed by frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. One patient who died from immediate post-operative complications was excluded from the statistical analysis. Of the remaining 21 patients, 3 (14%) died and 7 (33%) showed disease progression. Atypical tumor location (p<0.001), peritumoral edema (p=0.022) and large tumor size (p=0.048) were correlated with disease progression, however, Ki-67 index and necrosis were not statistically significant. Disease progression occurred in three (21%) of 14 patients who underwent GTR, compared with 4 (57%) of 7 patients who did not undergo GTR, however, it was not statistically significant. Ten patients received adjuvant radiotherapy and the tumors were controlled in 5 of these patients.
The prognosis for PXA is good; in our patients overall survival was 84%, and event-free survival was 59% at 3 years. Atypical tumor location, peritumoral edema and large tumor size are significantly correlated with disease progression. GTR may provide prolonged disease control, and adjuvant radiotherapy may be beneficial, but further study is needed.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 05/2013; 53(5):281-7. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vertebral distraction is routinely performed during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Overdistraction can injure the facet joints and may cause postoperative neck pain consequently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of distraction force during ACDF.
This study included 24 consecutive patients with single level cervical disc disease undergoing single level ACDF. We measure the maximum torque just before the the arm of the Caspar retractor was suspended by the rachet mechanism by turning the lever on the movable arm using a torque meter. In order to turn the lever using the torque driver, we made a linear groove on the top of the lever. We compared the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between the high torque group (distraction force>6 kgf·cm) and the low torque group (distraction force≤6 kgf·cm) at routine postoperative intervals of 1, 3, 5 days and 1, 3, 6 months.
The VAS scores for posterior neck pain had a linear correlation with torque at postoperative 1st and 3rd days (y=0.99×-1.1, r(2)=0.82; y=0.77×-0.63, r(2)=0.73, respectively). VAS scores for posterior neck pain were lower in the low torque group than in the high torque group on both 1 and 3 days postoperatively (3.1±1.3, 2.6±1.0 compared with 6.0±0.6, 4.9±0.8, p<0.01). However, the difference in NDI scores was not statistically significant in all postoperative periods.
Vertebral distraction may cause posterior neck pain in the immediate postoperative days. We recommend not to distract the intervertebral disc space excessively with a force of more than 6.0 kgf·cm.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 05/2013; 53(5):288-92. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Yap family of basic leucine zipper (bZip) proteins contains eight members. The Yap family proteins are implicated in a variety of stress responses; among these proteins, Yap1 acts as a major regulator of oxidative stress responses. However, the functional roles of the remaining Yap family members are poorly understood. To elucidate the function of Yap2, we mined candidate target genes of Yap2 by proteomic analysis. Among the identified genes, FRM2 was previously identified as a target gene of Yap2, which confirmed the validity of our screening method. YNL134C and YDL124W were also identified as candidate Yap2 target genes. These genes were upregulated in strains overexpressing Yap2 and possess Yap2 target sequences in their promoter regions. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that YNL134C and YDL124W have Yap2 binding motif. These data will help to elucidate the functional role of Yap2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune thyroid disease presenting with transient thyrotoxicosis as well as transient hypothyroidism. Several factors have been thought to be the initiating event in subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis. However, subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis that develops after thyroid lobectomy has not yet been reported in the literature. We report a case of subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis after lobectomy in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old Korean woman was referred to our center for a thyroid tumor operation. She was diagnosed with suspicious papillary thyroid carcinoma by fine needle aspiration at a local medical clinic. The thyroid ultrasonography demonstrated a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland with a 0.4x0.3cm hypoechoic nodule in the left lobe. Left thyroid lobectomy by endoscopic thyroidectomy was performed via a transaxillary approach, and the nodule was confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. On postoperative day 1, a thyroid function test revealed hyperthyroidism, and on postoperative day 8, a thyroid function test again revealed hyperthyroidism with decreased radioactive iodine uptake. Thyroid function tests showed euthyroid on postoperative day 48 and hypothyroidism on postoperative day 86. She was treated with levothyroxine. CONCLUSION: Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis can develop after thyroid lobectomy. Thyroid autoantigen released during thyroid lobectomy may cause the onset or exacerbation of the destructive process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many cases of RET proto-oncogene mutations of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) have been reported in Korea. However, MTC with V804M RET proto-oncogene germline mutations have not been reported in Korea. A 33-yr-old man was diagnosed with a 0.7-cm sized thyroid nodule. Laboratory testing revealed serum calcitonin was elevated. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection for the thyroid tumor. RET gene analysis was performed in both the index patient and his family. There were no V804M RET mutation and abnormal laboratory findings within his family except the index patient. Therefore, this patient was a de novo V804M RET germline mutation.
Journal of Korean medical science 01/2013; 28(1):156-9. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Narębski Point area of King George Island of Antarctica, ornithogenic soils form on land under Chinstrap and Gentoo Penguin rookeries. The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial community compositions in the gradient of contamination by penguin feces; mineral soil with no contamination, and soils with medium or high contamination. The discrimination between mineral soils and ornithogenic soils by characterization of physicochemical properties and bacterial communities was notable. Physicochemical analyses of soil properties showed enrichment of carbon and nitrogen in ornithogenic soils. Firmicutes were present abundantly in active ornithogenic soils, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in a formerly active one, and several diverse phyla such as Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria in mineral soils. Some predominant species belonging to the Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria may play an important role for the mineralization of nutrients in ornithogenic soils. Results of this study indicate that dominant species may play an important role in mineralization of nutrients in these ecosystems.
The Journal of Microbiology 12/2012; 50(6):1081-5. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare disorder, but the incidence is increasing and its clinical manifestations are various. We report a case of PCL, which mimics an acute coronary and aortic syndrome. A 51 year-old female was presented with chest pain radiating to the back. Her initial electrocardiogram revealed T wave inversion in the leads of V 5-6, II, III and aVF. Additionally, cardiac troponin-T was slightly elevated. Chest radiography showed marked mediastinal widening. Computed tomography scan showed a huge pericardial mass. The histopathologic findings of the mass were compatible with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. She died of refractory ventricular tachycardia, probably, due to an extensive infiltration of PCL to the myocardium.
Korean Circulation Journal 11/2012; 42(11):776-80.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, lymph node metastasis (LNM) has been regarded as an important factor influencing loco-regional recurrence and survival rate in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the detection rate and metastasis rate of the Delphian lymph node (DLN) and clinical patterns related to regional LNM, and to examine how DLN metastasis affects PTC treatment. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 413 patients with pathologically confirmed PTC from among 452 patients who underwent thyroid surgery between January 2010 and October 2010 in the Department of Endocrine Surgery at Kosin University Gospel Hospital in Busan, South Korea. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses revealed a significantly higher proportion of cases with lymphovascular invasion (56.6% vs. 12.5%, P <0.001), central neck node metastasis (88.6% vs. 34.5%, P <0.001) and lateral neck node metastasis (47.2% vs. 10.2%, P <0.005) among cases with DLN metastasis compared to those without. The negative predictive value (NPV) of DLN metastasis with regard to the presence of contralateral central LNM for cases with a tumor size 1 cm or smaller than 1 cm was found to be 93.3% (127/136). CONCLUSION: When DLN metastasis is not detected in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC), thyroid lobectomy on the affected side and ipsilateral central neck lymph node dissection should be sufficient. In addition, even in cases where lateral neck LNM is not detected on preoperative examination, if DLN metastasis is detected postoperatively, more careful attention should be paid to the lateral neck nodes during follow-up.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 10/2012; 10(1):226. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various patterns of calcification have been detected in benign and malignant thyroid nodules on ultrasonography (US). Microcalcification has been found to be highly associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, other patterns of calcification have unclear clinical significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate which pattern of calcification could be predictive of malignancy. A total of 1,431 thyroid nodules of 1,078 patients who received preoperative ultrasound examinations and subsequently underwent thyroidectomy were retrospectively reviewed. The types of calcification were defined as follows: microcalcification, annular-like peripheral calcification, crescent-like peripheral calcification, intranodular coarse calcification, and calcified spot. Of these 1,431 nodules, 1,305 (91.1%) were thyroid carcinomas and 126 (8.9%) were benign nodules. Calcifications were detected in 38.6% (552/1,431) of all nodules. Calcifications were found in 40.2% (524/1,305) of malignant nodules and 22.2% (28/126) of benign nodules. Of the 524 malignant nodules with calcification, microcalcification was the most common pattern, occurring in 42.9% (225/524), and annular type was the least common pattern, occurring in 5.9% (31/524). Among the calcification types, only microcalcification and intranodular had a significant association with malignancy (p = 0.001, 0.035), with OR values of 3.5 (95% CI, 1.6-7.7) and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1-5.6). Though using the patterns of calcification alone for predicting malignancy had limitation, microcalcification and intranodular calcification were significantly associated with malignancy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central neurocytomas (CN) are rare intraventricular tumors with benign clinical behavior that typically affect young adults. Although a favorable prognosis is generally expected after adequate management, there is no general consensus on the standard of therapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of radical surgery for the management of CN.
Between 1996 and 2010, 12 patients with CN (eight males and four females; range, 18 to 62 years; mean age, 28.5 years) were surgically treated in our institution. The initial goal of therapy was complete resection through a frontal transcortical approach, and repeat surgery was done in cases of residual or recurrent disease. The mean follow-up period was 51.2 months (range, 14-149 months).
Complete resection was achieved in all patients either with primary (nine patients, 75 %) or second-look surgery (three patients, 25 %). No mortalities occurred and there were four surgery-related complications (two events of transient hemiparesis, one transient aphasia, and onepostoperative subdural hygroma). All patients were alive with normal activities of daily living at the last follow-up. Two patients (16.6 %) experienced a single recurrence at 26 and 66 months, one of whom underwent redo-surgery.
For the management of CN, complete resection is feasible, effective, and safe. Repeat surgery may be a viable option in cases of residual or recurrent disease and the use of radiotherapy can be avoided in this young population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracranial extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is extremely rare, with only seven patients previously reported. We present a case report of a 21-year-old woman admitted for weakness in her right extremities and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hydrocephalus and a well-enhanced large mass around her left thalamus. A left parietal craniotomy and a cortisectomy at the superior parietal lobule were performed. Total surgical resection was also performed, and pathology results confirmed an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor, and the patient underwent radiotherapy. After six months of radiotherapy, the patient's headache and weakness had improved to grade IV. This malignant tumor showed high rates of recurrence in previous reports. We here report another occurrence of this highly malignant and rare tumor in a patient treated using total surgical excision and adjuvant radiotherapy.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 09/2012; 52(3):246-9. · 0.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the safety and outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide for Korean patients with a newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
Patients were recruited from four institutions between 2004 and 2007. The patients received fractionated focal irradiation in daily fractions of 2 Gy given 5 days per week for 6 weeks and daily temozolomide, followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response, and safety.
A total of 103 patients were enrolled in this study. Ninety-six patients (93%) completed the CCRT and 54 patients (52%) received 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. The response rate was 73% (53/73) and the tumor control rate was 92% (67/73). Of the 96 patients who completed the CCRT, the median OS was 18.0 months and the 1- and 2-year OS rates were 74 and 38%, respectively. The median PFS was 10.0 months and the 1- and 2-year PFS rates were 33 and 16%, respectively. The only significant prognostic factor of survival was the extent of surgical resection (p<0.05). CCRT resulted in grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxic effects in 8% of patients. No opportunistic infections were noted.
This study is the first prospective multi-institutional report of CCRT and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide for patients with a newly diagnosed glioblastoma in Korea. The current protocol may prolong the survival of Korean patients with a glioblastoma and may be tolerable in terms of toxicity.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 08/2012; 52(2):92-7. · 0.60 Impact Factor