Kyung Eun Lee

Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea

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Publications (133)499.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Plasmonic nanostructures are synthesized by decorating B- or N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with Au nanoparticles. While the plasmonic nanoparticles promote exciton generation and dissociation, the B- and N-doped CNTs enable charge-selective transport enhancement in the organic active layer. Such concurrent enhancements of all the principal energy-harvesting steps improve device efficiency up to 9.98% for organic single-junction solar cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Advanced Materials 12/2014; · 15.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers in cell differentiation has been demonstrated only for a limited number of cell types. Here, we used a wellestablished protocol for BMP2-induced neuronal differentiation of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) to examine the function of BMP2-induced ROS during the process. We first show that BMP2 indeed induces ROS generation in NCSCs and that blocking ROS generation by pretreatment of cells with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) as NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor inhibits neuronal differentiation. Among the ROSgenerating Nox isozymes, only Nox4 was expressed at a detectable level in NCSCs. Nox4 appears to be critical for survival of NCSCs at least in vitro as down-regulation by RNA interference led to apoptotic response from NCSCs. Interestingly, development of neural crest-derived peripheral neural structures in Nox4-/- mouse appears to be grossly normal, although Nox4-/- embryos were born at a sub-Mendelian ratio and showed delayed over-all development. Specifically, cranial and dorsal root ganglia, derived from NCSCs, were clearly present in Nox4-/- embryo at embryonic days (E) 9.5 and 10.5. These results suggest that Nox4-mediated ROS generation likely plays important role in fate determination and differentiation of NCSCs, but other Nox isozymes play redundant function during embryogenesis.
    Molecules and Cells 11/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A possible association between the combination of genetic variations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the stable doses of warfarin was examined in patients from the Ewha-Severance Treatment (EAST) Group of Warfarin. Around 42.5% of the overall interindividual variability in warfarin dose requirements was explained by the multivariate regression model; the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) genotype accounted for 29.6%, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 genotype for 4.3%, age for 3.6%, the CYP4F2 genotype for 3.3%, and CAR/HNF4α (rs2501873/rs3212198) for 1.7%. Our results showed that the combination of CAR and HNF4α genotypes could be determinants of stable warfarin doses.
    Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 10/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 346 (29 July–27 September 2013) drilled seven sites covering a wide latitudinal range in the body of water bordered by the Eurasian continent, the Korean Peninsula, and the Japanese Islands, as well as two closely spaced sites in the East China Sea. This expedition recovered 6135.3 m of core with an average recovery of 101%—a record amount of core recovered during any single IODP expedition. Expedition 346 was the first scientific drilling expedition ever to focus exclusively on the climate system in this region, which is at once so critical yet potentially vulnerable to the challenges society faces in the coming years of global climate change. With the East Asian Monsoon directly affecting the water supply of one-third of the global population, the expedition scientific results and postexpedition research that will follow have direct bearing on society’s understanding of this complex atmosphere-ocean climate system. The high quality of materials recovered and the complete documentation of their geological, geochemical, and geophysical context will lead to an unparalleled series of future studies by the expedition Science Party as well as many other scientists over the coming decades. Cores obtained during this expedition will be used to test the hypothesis that Pliocene–Pleistocene uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, and the consequent emergence of the two discrete modes of Westerly Jet circulation, caused the amplification of millennial-scale variability of the East Asian summer monsoon and East Asian winter monsoon and provided teleconnection mechanism(s) for Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles. Recent and novel advances in drilling technology and newly developed analytical tools enabled the collection and examination of sediment records that were impossible to acquire even a few years ago. The newly engineered half advanced piston corer enabled recovery of the deepest piston core in Deep Sea Drilling Project/Ocean Drilling Program/IODP history (490.4 m in IODP Hole U1427A); that achievement was also the deepest continuously recovered piston cored sequence, initiated at the mudline and penetrating to ~500 m core depth below seafloor, Method A (m CSF-A). Technological advances delivered a series of “new surprises” (e.g., pristine dark–light laminae from ~12 Ma sediment recovered by piston core from 410 m CSF-A at IODP Site U1425 and from 210 m CSF-A at IODP Site U1430) that will stimulate new scientific inquiry into climate dynamics during a time frame and with a high fidelity that could have only been imagined by scientists even a short time ago. High-resolution geochemistry studies targeting the anaerobic oxidation of methane and the relation ships between metal chemistry and the degradation of organic carbon were performed to study the fate of organic carbon in the marine system and constrain rates of microbial reactions in the deep biosphere with a novel fluid extraction technique. Finely tuned comparisons were developed between disparate geographic locations and demonstrated synchroneity in this marginal sea’s regional response to internal and external climate-related forcing.
    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program: Preliminary Reports 09/2014; 346.
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    ABSTRACT: Graphene oxide (GO) is aqueous dispersible oxygenated graphene, which shows colloidal discotic liquid crystallinity. Many properties of GO based materials, including electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, are limited by the small flake size of GO. Unfortunately, typical sonochemical exfoliation of GO from graphite generally leads to broad size and shape distribution. Here, we introduce a facile size selection of large size GO exploiting liquid crystallinity and investigate on the size dependent N-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis. In the biphasic GO dispersion that both isotropic and liquid crystalline phases are equilibrated, large size GO flakes (> 20 μm) are spontaneously concentrated within the liquid crystalline phase. N-doping and reduction of the size selected GO exhibits that N-dopant type is highly dependent on GO flake size. Large size GO demonstrates quaternary dominant N-doping and the lowest onset potential (-0.08 V) for oxygen reduction catalysis, signifying that quaternary N-dopants serve for principal catalytic sites in N-doped graphene.
    ACS Nano 08/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the rheological properties of liquid crystalline graphene oxide (GO) aqueous dispersion. GO dispersions exhibit typical shear thinning behaviors of liquid crystals, which is described by power law or simple Curreau model. Irrespective of the shear rate, shear viscosity exhibits sudden decrease with the increase of GO composition around a critical volume fraction, ϕc = 0.33%, demonstrating typical colloidal isotropic–nematic phase transition. Dynamic measurements reveal the liquid-like (isotropic phase, G′ > G″) behavior at a low GO composition (ϕ ∼ 0.08%) and solid-like (liquid crystalline) behavior at higher compositions (ϕ ∼ 0.45%), where G′ exceeds over G″. Nematic gel-like phase is confirmed at a higher GO composition over ϕ > 0.83%, where both G′ and G″ moduli are nearly independent of frequency (ω). Simple power law scaling arguments are introduced to model the dependence of yield stress and viscoelastic moduli on the GO composition. We also observed the yield stress and rigidity percolation transition above phase transition composition ϕc > 0.33% with a percolation exponent of 1.3 ± 0.1. These rheological insights provide valuable information for the liquid crystalline processing of GO based materials including fibers, sheets and other complex structures for electronic/optoelectronic and energy storage/conversion applications.
    Carbon 08/2014; 80:453–461. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of indoor allergens associated with asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Chicken immunoglobulin (Ig) Y is known to be a good alternative to mice and rabbit antibody production. In this study, we produced IgYs specific to HDMs and investigated their IgE immunoreactivities.
    Yonsei Medical Journal 07/2014; 55(4):999-1004. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) are relatively rare, but cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that the HLA-B5801 allele and renal impairment are strongly associated with SCARs. Recent American College of Rheumatology guideline recommends that, prior to treatment with allopurinol, the HLA–B5801 genotype of gout patients at high risk for SCARs, including Korean patients with chronic renal insufficiency, should be determined. However, whether such genotyping is cost-effective is unknown. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of HLA-B5801 genotyping for treatment of gout in patients with chronic renal insufficiency in Korea.Methods. A decision analytic model over a time period of 12 months was employed to compare the cost and outcomes of treatment informed by HLA-B5801 genotyping with that of a conventional treatment strategy using a hypothetical cohort of gout patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Direct medical costs were obtained from real SCAR patients from two tertiary hospitals. Outcomes were measured as a total expected cost and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.Results. In the base model, the total expected cost and probability of continuation of gout treatment without SCARs with the conventional and HLA-B5801 screening strategies were US $1,193 and US $1,055, and 97.8% and 100%, respectively. The result was robust according to sensitivity analyses.Conclusion. Our model suggests that gout treatment informed by HLA-B5801 genotyping is less costly and more effective than treatment without genotyping, and HLA-B5801 genotyping could considerably reduce the occurrence of allopurinol-induced SCARs and related deaths. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
    Arthritis Care & Research. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Continental slopes cover about 10% of Earths surface and represent the primary repository for sediment and organic carbon accumulation on long-time scales. For decades, the geochemical community has introduced and discussed various models for how ocean carbon and sulfur chemistry changes over time. Remarkably, in most of these models, the seafloor on continental slopes is either absent or passive. In the latter case, the prevailing view is as follows. During burial, organic carbon passes through a gauntlet of microbially mediated reaction in shallow sediment, especially including organoclastic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Although these reactions generate dissolved species (HCO3-, HS-, CH4), burial fluxes exceed those of upward advection or diffusion. The end process, therefore, is accumulation of remnant solid organic carbon, authigenic carbonate, and authigenic Fe-sulfides. As suggested in several recent papers, this view may be incorrect. Instead, on the slope, a good fraction of solid organic carbon bypasses organoclastic sulfate reduction to produce dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and methane at depth. Large portions of these species return toward the seafloor because upward dissolved fluxes exceed burial. However, upward migrating methane reacts with dissolved SO42- to produce HCO3- and HS- via AOM in shallow sediment. The end process is still accumulation of remnant solid organic carbon, authigenic carbonate, and authigenic Fe-sulfides, but the fluxes are linked through the formation, storage and consumption of methane.It is entirely possible that variations in methane cycling within slope sediments drive significant long-term and short-term changes in ocean carbon and sulfur concentrations. To entertain this idea, however, the broad Earth Science community needs quantified fluxes of solid and dissolved components from appropriate settings. One current problem is that very few locations on continental slopes that have detailed pore water profiles extending 200 m below the seafloor with companion sedimentary records.IODP Expedition 346 drilled multiple holes at seven sites across the Japan Sea/East Sea. The primary objective behind this cruise was late Neogene and Quaternary paleoceanography: more specifically, to reconstruct changes in surface and deep ocean water properties, riverine outflow, and dust input over the last 5-10 million years, which might be linked to the evolution and temporal differences in the Asian monsoon system. One interesting outcome of this goal was that the sites span a wide range of slope environments with considerable variation in organic carbon accumulation. Another was exquisite sediment recovery, with spliced cores between holes giving complete records from the seafloor to several hundred meters. Expedition 346 provided a golden opportunity to chase the dynamic geochemical cycling of carbon and sulfur on continental margins. Using a combination of rhizon sampling and whole round squeezing, about 680 pore water samples were collected at the seven sites and analyzed for a broad array of dissolved species. The shipboard pore water geochemistry profiles generated on Expedition 346 are truly remarkable in terms of species examined, their detail across zones of chemical reaction, and the ability to directly couple them to the sedimentary record. Here, on behalf of the Expedition 346 scientists, we discuss the generation of the pore water profiles and their significance to carbon and sulfur cycling on continental slopes. For example, at Site U1427, there is no question as to the dominant process and where species are being produced and consumed in shallow sediment. Upward migrating CH4 is reacting with SO42- via AOM to produce HCO3- and HS-, the first product leaking to the seafloor, the latter product being consumed into sulfide minerals.
    Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2014, Kanagawa (Japan); 04/2014
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    ABSTRACT: In general, traditional gene carriers contain strong cationic charges to efficiently load anionic genes, but this cationic character also leads to destabilization of plasma membranes and causes severe cytotoxicity. Here, we developed a PCR-based nano-factory as a safe gene delivery system. A few template plasmid DNA can be amplified by PCR inside liposomes about 200 nm-diameters and the quantity of loaded genes highly increased by more than 8.8 fold. The liposome membrane was composed of neutral lipids free from cationic charges. Consequently, this system is non-toxic, unlike other traditional cationic gene carriers. Intense RFP expression in CHO-K1 cells showed that the amplified genes could be successfully transfected to cells. Animal experiments with luciferase gene also showed in vivo gene expression by our system without toxicity. We think that this PCR-based nano-factory system can overcome the toxicity problem that is the critical limitation of current gene delivery to clinical application.
    ACS Nano 04/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Valosin-containing protein (VCP), also known as p97, is an AAA(+) ATPase that plays an essential role in a broad array of cellular processes including the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Recently, ERAD-specific deubiquitinating enzymes have been reported to be physically associated with VCP, although the exact mechanism is not yet clear. Among these enzymes is ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 1 (OTU1). Here, we report the structural basis for interaction between VCP and OTU1. The crystal structure of the UBXL domain of OTU1 (UBXLOTU1) complexed to the N-terminal domain of VCP (NVCP) at 1.8 Å-resolution reveals that UBXLOTU1 adopts a ubiquitin-like fold and binds at the interface of two subdomains of NVCP using the (39)GYPP(42) loop of UBXLOTU1 with the two prolines in cis- and trans-configurations, respectively. Mutagenesis study shows that this loop is not only critical for the interaction with VCP but also for its role in the ERAD pathway. Negative staining EM shows that one molecule of OTU1 binds to one VCP hexamer with a KD of 0.71 μM. Analytical size exclusion chromatography demonstrates that OTU1 can bind VCP in both the presence and absence of a heterodimer formed by ubiquitin-fusion degradation protein 1 (UFD1) and nuclear localization protein 4 (NPL4).
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporters (ASBT) are the intestinal transporters that form intermediate complexes with substrates and its conformational change drives the movement of substrates across the cell membrane. However, membrane-based intestinal transporters are confined to the transport of only small molecular substrates. Here, we propose a new strategy that uses high-affinity binding macromolecular substrates to functionally transform the membrane transporters so that they behave like receptors, ultimately allowing the apical-basal transport of bound macromolecules. Bile acid based macromolecular substrates were synthesized and allowed to interact with ASBT. ASBT/macromolecular substrate complexes were rapidly internalized in vesicles, localized in early endosomes, dissociated and escaped the vesicular transport while binding of cytoplasmic ileal bile acid binding proteins cause exocytosis of macromolecules and prevented entry into lysosomes. This newly found transformation process of ASBT suggests a new transport mechanism that could aid in further utilization of ASBT to mediate oral macromolecular drug delivery.
    Scientific Reports 02/2014; 4:4163. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a remarkably rapid method for assembling pristine graphene platelets into a large area transparent film at a liquid surface. 2-3 layer pristine graphene platelets temporally solvated with NMP are assembled at the surface of a dilute aqueous suspension using an evaporation-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability and then are driven together by Marangoni forces. The platelets are fixed through physical binding of their edges. Typically, 8-cm-diameter circular graphene films are generated within two minutes. Once formed, the films can be transferred onto various substrates with flat or textured topologies. This interfacial assembly protocol is generally applicable to other nanomaterials, including 0D fullerene and 1D carbon nanotubes, which commonly suffer from limited solution compatibility.
    Nano Letters 02/2014; · 13.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: How a pool of undifferentiated neural progenitor cells is maintained in the developing nervous system is an issue that remains unresolved. One of the key transcription factors for self-renewal of these cells is Sox2, the forced expression of which has been shown to inhibit neuronal differentiation in vivo. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of Sox2 activity, a ChIP-on-chip assay has been carried out for Sox2, and multiple candidate direct target genes have been isolated. In this report, we provide evidence indicating that Sox6, which like Sox2 belongs to the SRY-related HMG box transcription factor family, is a bona-fide direct regulatory target of Sox2. In vivo, Sox6 expression is seen with a temporal lag in Sox2-positive neural precursor cells in the ventricular zone, and Sox2 promotes expression of Sox6 as a transcriptional activator. Interestingly, gain- and loss-of-function assays indicate that Sox6 in turn is required for the maintenance of Sox2 expression, suggesting that a positive feedback loop, which functions to inhibit premature neuronal differentiation, exists between the two transcription factors.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) encapsulated in self-assembled peptide (SAP) hydrogels in a rat knee model for the prevention of osteoarthritis (OA) progression.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9 Suppl 1:141-57. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Layer-by-layer gelation of reduced graphene oxide through spontaneous reduction at a metal surface is developed by S. O. Kim and co-workers on page 615. This allows 3D shape engineering and arbitrary scaling up, according to need. Gel sheets with a porous hydrated network show excellent energy-storage performances when they are used as supercapacitor electrodes, demonstrating a high areal capacity as well as a high rate capability.
    Advanced Materials 01/2014; 26(4):505. · 15.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of levodopa (L-dopa) from nasal powder formulations using highly water-soluble levodopa methyl ester hydrochloride (LDME). In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were carried out with formulated LDME nasal powders. After oral and intravenous administration of L-dopa and carbidopa and intranasal administration LDME to the rat, L-dopa concentrations were determined in plasma and the brain using high-performance liquid chromatography. The absolute bioavailabilities of nasal preparations with and without Carbopol were 82.4 and 66.7 %, respectively, which were much higher than that of oral delivery (16.2 %). The drug-targeting efficiencies [area under the curve (AUC) in brain/AUC in plasma] of L-dopa in the nasal formulations (0.98-1.08) were much higher than that of oral preparation (0.69). These results suggest that LDME nasal powder formulations would be useful delivery systems of L-dopa to the brain.
    European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2013; · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    Kyung Eun Lee
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    ABSTRACT: O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair protein, the loss of MGMT expression was commonly known due to hypermethylation of CpG islands in its promoter region. Overexpression of p53 protein may be associated with downregulated MGMT expression in brain tumors. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of MGMT expression loss and its correlation with p53 overexpression in endometrial cancers. MGMT and p53 expression was examined in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 36 endometrial cancer cases using immnunohistochemical staining. The loss of MGMT expression was detected in 11 (30.6%) out of the 36 endometrial cancers and p53 immunoreactivity was detected in 23 (63.9%) out of the 36 endometrial cancers. Ten (90.9%) of the 11 cases with negative MGMT immunoreactivity showed positive p53 expression, so the loss of MGMT expression was significantly associated with the p53 overexpression (P=0.03). These findings suggest that the loss of MGMT expression may be one of factors capable of p53 overexpression in endometrial cancer. Further studies are needed to define the relation between MGMT and p53 for examining the mechanisms of tissue-specific MGMT expression.
    Journal of cancer prevention. 12/2013; 18(4):351-4.
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the volatile profiles in soy sauce according to inoculation with Tetragenococcus halophilus and/or Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Totals of 107 and 81 volatiles were respectively identified by using solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction. The various volatile compounds identified included acids, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans and furan derivatives, and phenols. The major volatiles in the samples treated with T. halophilus were acetic acid, formic acid, benzaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, while those in the samples inoculated with Z. rouxii were mainly ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl propanoate, 2/3-methylbutanol, 1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. The results indicate that T. halophilus produced significant acid compounds and could affect the Z. rouxii activity, supporting the notion that yeasts and lactic acid bacteria respectively have different metabolic pathways of alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation, and produce different dominant volatile compounds in soy sauce.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 11/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lipid entities of cell membranes are components of the immune system and important mediators of inflammation. Despite increasing interest in the function of epithelial cells in inflammation, the role of cholesterol in this process has not been described. Here, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion on the inflammatory process in airway epithelial cells via the expression of interleukin (IL)-8 as a marker of inflammation. A 549 cells were treated with 0.5% methyl-β-cyclodextrin as a selective cholesterol extractor. The IL-8 level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reassessed after cholesterol repletion. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors were used to determine the upstream signaling pathway for IL-8 production in cholesterol-depleted cells. We found a relationship between the amount of cholesterol in A 549 cells and inflammation of the airway. IL-8 production was increased in cholesterol-depleted A 549 cells and restored by cholesterol repletion. IL-8 production was decreased by pretreatment with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126 but not with JNK inhibitor II or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190. Our findings suggest that inflammatory responses are increased in cholesterol-depleted epithelial cells via the MAPK signaling system, predominantly by the ERK pathway. We conclude that the lipid components of airwayepithelial cells may play a role in the inflammatory process.
    Allergy, asthma & immunology research 11/2013; 5(6):402-8. · 3.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

840 Citations
499.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Chonnam National University
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      • Center for Theragnosis
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dongduk Women's University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2014
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Catholic University of Pusan
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2013
    • Korea University
      • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chungbuk National University
      • School of Science Education
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2005–2013
    • Korea Maritime University
      • • Division of Marine Environment and Bioscience
      • • College of Ocean Science and Technology
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2002–2013
    • Ewha Womans University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Samsung Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2010
    • Hannam University
      • • Department of Advanced Materials
      • • Department of Polymer Science and Engineering
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Chonbuk National University
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2007–2009
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • National Creative Research Initiative Center for Smart Supramolecules and Department of Chemistry
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Seoul National University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea