[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness of two biomarkers-procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP)-in addition to the CURB-65 score for assessing the site of care and the etiology of non-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We conducted a prospective observational study from April 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007, in a single teaching hospital in northern Spain among patients with non-severe CAP. In addition to collecting data needed to determine the CURB-65 score, microbial cultures were taken and levels of PCT and CRP were measured. We compared the prognostic accuracy of these biomarkers with the CURB-65 score to predict hospitalization and microbial etiology using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A total of 344 patients with non-severe CAP were enrolled; 73 were admitted to the hospital and 271 were treated on an outpatient basis. An etiologic diagnostic was made for 44 %, with atypical pathogens predominating. Levels of PCT and CRP increased with increasing CURB-65 scores. Patients admitted to the hospital had higher PCT and CRP levels than outpatients (p < 0.001). For predicting hospitalization, PCT had a better area under the ROC curve (AUC) (0.81) than the CURB-65 score alone (0.77). For PCT plus the CURB-65 score, the AUC increased significantly from 0.77 to 0.83. In patients with bacterial CAP, the biomarker levels were significantly higher than among patients with atypical or viral etiology (p < 0.001). PCT with a cut-off point of 0.15 ng/mL was the best predictor for bacterial etiology and for select patients eligible for outpatient care. In conclusion, levels of PCT and CRP positively correlate with increasing severity of CAP and may have a role in predicting both patients who can safely receive outpatient care and the microbial etiology in patients with low CURB-65 scores.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/2012; · 3.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to develop a prognostic index for severe complications among hospitalized patients with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 618 inpatients with 2009 H1N1 virus infection admitted to 36 Spanish hospitals between July 2009 and February 2010. Risk factors evaluated included host-related factors and clinical data at admission. We developed a composite index of severe in-hospital complications (SIHC), which included: mortality, mechanical ventilation, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and requirement for resuscitation maneuvers. Six factors were independently associated with SIHC: age >45 years, male sex, number of comorbidities, pneumonia, dyspnea, and confusion. From the β parameter obtained in the multivariate model, a weight was assigned to each factor to compute the individual influenza risk score. The score shows an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.77. The SIHC rate was 1.9 % in the low-risk group, 10.3 % in the intermediate-risk group, and 29.6 % in the high-risk group. The odds ratio for complications was 21.8 for the high-risk group compared with the low-risk group. This easy-to-score influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection risk index accurately stratifies patients hospitalized for H1N1 virus infection into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups for SIHC.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/2012; 31(10):2693-2701. · 3.02 Impact Factor