[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zaprionus indianus is a drosophilid native to the Afrotropical region that has colonized South America and exhibits a wide geographical distribution. In contrast, Z. sepsoides is restricted to certain African regions. The two species differ in the size of their testes, which are larger in Z. indianus than in Z. sepsoides. To better understand the biology and the degree of differentiation of these species, the current study evaluated spermatogenesis in males of different ages by conventional staining techniques and ultrastructural analysis. Spermatogenesis and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa were similar in the two species, and the diploid number was confirmed to be 2n = 12. A greater number of spermatozoa were observed in young Z. indianus (1-3 days old) compared to Z. sepsoides males, which showed a higher frequency of cells at the early stages of spermatogenesis. The head of the sperm was strongly marked by silver staining, lacto-acetic orcein and the Feulgen reaction; the P.A.S. reaction revealed glycogen granules in the testes of both species. Both species presented similar arrangement of microtubules (9+9+2), two mitochondrial derivatives of different size and 64 spermatozoa per bundle. Such similarity within the genus Zaprionus with other species of Drosophila, indicates that these structures are conserved in the family Drosophilidae. The differences observed the number and frequency of sperm cells in the early stages of spermatogenesis, between the young males of Z. indianus and Z. sepsoides, are features that may interfere with reproductive success and be related to the invasive potential of Z. indianus.
Genetics and Molecular Biology 03/2013; 36(1):50-60. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One century after the discovery of Chagas disease, it is still considered as a major health problem, causing more deaths in the Americas than any other parasitic disease. The northwest region of São Paulo, a macro-region that includes cities with a high-quality of life, has particularly high rates of Chagas disease. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the number of patients with Chagas disease, and to identify the triatomine fauna in the northwest region of São Paulo State, and to cytogenetically analyze Triatoma sordida mutants, thus providing new knowledge to control these species and avoid possible infections by Chagas disease. A total of 700 Chagas patients of both genders and variable age, who were born in and residents of the northwest region of the State of São Paulo were recruited for this study. Regarding the entoepidemiological fauna, both T. sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were captured from 2004 to 2011 in the northwest region of the São Paulo; however, T. sordida was the predominant species. Some of these collected triatomines were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in several developmental stages. Furthermore, the lactoacetic orcein method was used for cytogenetic analysis. Several abnormalities were observed during meiosis of the T. sordida mutants, including condensed chromosomes with no chiasma, chromatin bridges between the autosomes, and some non-pairing homologous chromosomes. Thus, our study suggests that Chagas disease is currently not under control in Brazil. Furthermore, we suggest that cryptic speciation may be occurring in populations of T. sordida of Brazil. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms behind these phenomena.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we analyzed fibrillarin nucleolar protein expression in CBs of spermatogenic cells from testicular follicles of Triatoma sordida and Triatoma infestans. In the structural and ultrastructural analysis, it was used impregnation by silver ions, immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy using antibodies against fibrillarin. Regarding the results, the fibrillarin nucleolar protein marked the nucleus and some cytoplasmic spots of germ cells during spermatogenesis in triatomines. These data suggest that fibrillarin could be a constituent of the CB that was most likely derived from nucleolar fragmentation. This is the first time that fibrillarin protein expression has been shown in the CB during spermatogenesis progression in triatomines. The knowledge regarding CB constituents may help to expand the understanding of the physiological role of this structure and the role that it plays in the reproductive biology of triatomines, which are vectors of Chagas Disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The etiologic agent of Chagas Disease is the Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted through blood-sucking insect vectors of the Triatominae subfamily, representing one of the most serious public health concerns in Latin America. There are geographic variations in the prevalence of clinical forms and morbidity of Chagas disease, likely due to genetic variation of the T. cruzi and the host genetic and environmental features. Increasing evidence has supported that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are responsible for the generation of the inflammatory infiltrate and tissue damage. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms, protein expression levels, and genomic imbalances are associated with disease progression. This paper discusses these key aspects. Large surveys were carried out in Brazil and served as baseline for definition of the control measures adopted. However, Chagas disease is still active, and aspects such as host-parasite interactions, genetic mechanisms of cellular interaction, genetic variability, and tropism need further investigations in the attempt to eradicate the disease.
Journal of Tropical Medicine 01/2012; 2012:357948.