Hyeon-Man Baek

Korea Basic Science Institute KBSI, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (14)45.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we present the feasibility of using a parallel RF transmit with multiple RF sources imaging method (MultiTransmit imaging) in polymer gel dosimetry. Image quality and B1 field homogeneity was statistically better in the MultiTransmit imaging method than in conventional single source RF transmission imaging method. In particular, the standard uncertainty of R 2 was lower on the MultiTransmit images than on the conventional images. Furthermore, the MultiTransmit measurement showed improved dose resolution. Improved image quality and B1 homogeneity results in reduced dose uncertainty, thereby suggesting the feasibility of MultiTransmit MR imaging in gel dosimetry.
    Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 06/2014; 1(1):1. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic profiling of core needle biopsy (CNB) samples using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) could be used for predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained, CNB tissue samples were collected from 37 malignant lesions in 37 patients before NAC treatment. The metabolic profiling of CNB samples were performed by HR-MAS MRS. Metabolic profiles were compared according to pathologic response to NAC using the Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Various metabolites including choline-containing compounds were identified and quantified by HR-MAS MRS in all 37 breast cancer tissue samples obtained by CNB. In univariate analysis, the metabolite concentrations and metabolic ratios of CNB samples obtained with HR-MAS MRS were not significantly different between different pathologic response groups. However, there was a trend of lower levels of phosphocholine/creatine ratio and choline-containing metabolite concentrations in the pathologic complete response group compared to the non-pathologic complete response group. In multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MR metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between the pathologic response groups. This study showed OPLS-DA multivariate analysis using metabolic profiles of pretreatment CNB samples assessed by HR- MAS MRS may be used to predict pathologic response before NAC, although we did not identify the metabolite showing statistical significance in univariate analysis. Therefore, our preliminary results raise the necessity of further study on HR-MAS MR metabolic profiling of CNB samples for a large number of cancers.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83866. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether tumor size, MRS parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements could be applied to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Ninety patients with breast cancer (median size, 4.5 cm; range, 1.6-9.5 cm) were evaluated with single-voxel (1) H MRS and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed in 41 of these patients using a 1.5-T scanner before and after completion of NAC. Pre- and post-treatment measurements and changes in tumor size, MRS parameters [absolute and normalized total choline-containing compound (tCho) integral and tCho signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)] and ADCs in pCR versus non-pCR were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance of each parameter. After NAC, 30 patients (33%) showed pCR and 60 (67%) showed non-pCR. At pretreatment, ADC was the only significant parameter in differentiating between pCR and non-pCR [(0.83 ± 0.05) × 10(-3) versus (0.97 ± 0.14) × 10(-3) mm(2) /s] (p = 0.014). Post-treatment measurements after completion of NAC and changes in tumor size (both p < 0.001), MRS parameters (p = 0.027 and p = 0.020 for absolute tCho integral, p = 0.036 and p = 0.023 for normalized tCho integral, and p = 0.032 and p = 0.061 for tCho SNR) and ADC (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001) were significantly different between the pCR and non-pCR groups, except for changes in tCho SNR. In ROC analysis, the areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of 0.63-0.73 were obtained for tumor size and MRS parameters. AUCs for pre- and post-treatment ADC and changes in ADC were 0.75, 0.80 and 0.96, respectively. The optimal cut-off of the percentage change in ADC for predicting pCR was 40.7%, yielding 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Patients with pCR showed significantly lower pretreatment ADCs than those with non-pCR. The change in ADC after NAC was the most accurate predictor of pCR. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    NMR in Biomedicine 05/2012; 25(12):1349-59. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to determine whether the peak integral and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of total choline-containing compounds obtained by MR spectroscopy (MRS) correlate with histologic biomarkers currently used for predicting prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Single-voxel proton MRS using a 1.5-T scanner was performed in 184 patients (mean age, 48 years; range, 28-72 years) with breast cancer. We obtained absolute total choline-containing compound peak integral, total choline-containing compound peak integral normalized for the volume of interest, and SNR after MRI. On surgical pathology, pathologic subtype and prognostic factors such as nuclear grade, histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), HER-2≠neu, extensive intraductal component (EIC), lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman rank correlation. The total choline-containing compound SNR, absolute total choline-containing compound peak integral, and normalized total choline-containing compound integral were significantly higher for invasive ductal carcinoma, cancer of high nuclear or histologic grade, and EIC-negative cancer (p < 0.001) than for in situ or other invasive carcinomas (p = 0.005), cancer of low nuclear or histologic grade (p = 0.009), and EIC-positive cancer (p = 0.017). There was a significant difference in the total choline-containing compound SNR between ER-positive and -negative groups (p = 0.007) and between triple-negative and non-triple-negative groups (p = 0.002). A positive correlation was found between the volume of interest (p < 0.001), tumor size (p = 0.011), and three MRS parameters (p = 0.003). Our study suggests that proton MRS can play a role in predicting prognostic indicators of tumor aggressiveness in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 05/2012; 198(5):W488-97. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To retrospectively evaluate the fidelity of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging data preservation at a range of accelerations by using compressed sensing. The protocols were approved by the institutional review board of the university, and written informed consent to acquire and analyze MR spectroscopic imaging data was obtained from the subjects prior to the acquisitions. This study was HIPAA compliant. Retrospective application of compressed sensing was performed on 10 clinical MR spectroscopic imaging data sets, yielding 600 voxels from six normal brain data sets, 163 voxels from two brain tumor data sets, and 36 voxels from two prostate cancer data sets for analysis. The reconstructions were performed at acceleration factors of two, three, four, five, and 10 and were evaluated by using the root mean square error (RMSE) metric, metabolite maps (choline, creatine, N-acetylaspartate [NAA], and/or citrate), and statistical analysis involving a voxelwise paired t test and one-way analysis of variance for metabolite maps and ratios for comparison of the accelerated reconstruction with the original case. The reconstructions showed high fidelity for accelerations up to 10 as determined by the low RMSE (< 0.05). Similar means of the metabolite intensities and hot-spot localization on metabolite maps were observed up to a factor of five, with lack of statistically significant differences compared with the original data. The metabolite ratios of choline to NAA and choline plus creatine to citrate did not show significant differences from the original data for up to an acceleration factor of five in all cases and up to that of 10 for some cases. A reduction of acquisition time by up to 80%, with negligible loss of information as evaluated with clinically relevant metrics, has been successfully demonstrated for hydrogen 1 MR spectroscopic imaging.
    Radiology 03/2012; 262(3):985-94. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    Hyeon-Man Baek
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) for characterizing breast lesions at 1.5T, and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of in vivo breast (1)H-MRS using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. 112 patients (99 malignant and 13 benign tumors) who were scanned with the MRI/MRS protocol were included in this study. Choline-containing compounds (tCho) levels were measured and compared with histological findings. The measured tCho levels in this work had range of 0.08-9.99 mmol/kg from 65 (66%) of 99 patients with malignant tumors. Of the 13 benign lesions, (1)H-MRS detected one as false positive, with tCho level of 0.66 mmol/kg. The optimal tCho level cutoff point that yielded the highest accuracy was found to be >0.0 mmol/kg. The resulting sensitivity was 66% and specificity 92% for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. The tCho levels were found to be higher in invasive cancer compared to ductal carcinoma in situ or benign lesions, possibly associated with more aggressive behavior or faster cell replication in invasive cancer. Quantitative in vivo (1)H-MRS may provide useful information for characterizing histopatholoigical types in breast cancer.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2012; 2012:508295. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy using core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens and histologic prognostic factors currently used in breast cancer patients. After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study, CNB specimens were collected from 36 malignant lesions in 34 patients. Concentrations and metabolic ratios of various choline metabolites were estimated by HR-MAS MR spectroscopy using CNB specimens. HR-MAS spectroscopic values were compared according to histopathologic variables [tumor size, lymph node metastasis, histologic grade, status of estrogens receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2 (a receptor for human epidermal growth factor), and Ki-67, and triple negativity]. Multivariate analysis was performed with Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). HR-MAS MR spectroscopy quantified and discriminated choline metabolites in all CNB specimens of the 36 breast cancers. Several metabolite markers [free choline (Cho), phosphocholine (PC), creatine (Cr), taurine, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, total choline (tCho), glycine, Cho/Cr, tCho/Cr, PC/Cr] on HR-MAS MR spectroscopy were found to correlate with histologic prognostic factors [ER, PR, HER2, histologic grade, triple negativity, Ki-67, poor prognosis]. OPLS-DA multivariate models were generally able to discriminate the status of histologic prognostic factors (ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67) and prognosis groups. Our study suggests that HR-MAS MR spectroscopy using CNB specimens can predict tumor aggressiveness prior to surgery in breast cancer patients. In addition, it may be helpful in the detection of reliable markers for breast cancer characterization.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e51712. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop a special proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) phantom, to establish and verify a quality assurance (QA) protocol, and to perform QA for a MR system. For a complete QA protocol, seven principal quality factors (PQFs) were measured. For evaluation of localization and quantification accuracy, two PQFs which are difficult to measure in commercial phantoms, we developed the layered dumbbell-shaped phantom. The performance sensitivity of our phantom was determined as a function of the voxel size on three occasions over ∼1 year. All MRS QA factors were optimized on two different MRI/MRS systems. The correlation between the metabolite signal intensity and the metabolite concentration was verified. The seven principal MRS QA factors studied can be used to evaluate MR spectra as well as to measure the stability of MR systems. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part B (Magn Reson Engineering) 35B: 168–179, 2009
    Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B Magnetic Resonance Engineering 07/2009; 35B(3):168 - 179. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare changes in the concentration of choline-containing compounds (tCho) and in tumor size at follow-up after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) between patients who achieved pathologic complete response (pCR) and those who did not (non-pCR). This study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA; each patient gave informed consent. Thirty-five patients (mean age, 48 years +/- 11 [standard deviation]; range, 29-75 years) with breast cancer were included. Treatment included doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by a taxane-based regimen. Changes in tCho and tumor size in pCR versus non-pCR groups were compared by using the two-way Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to differentiate between them and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was compared. In the pCR group, the tCho level change was greater compared with change in tumor size (P = .003 at first follow-up, P = .01 at second follow-up), but they were not significantly different in the non-pCR group. Changes in tumor size and tCho level at the first follow-up study were not significantly different between the pCR and non-pCR groups but reached significance at the second follow-up. In ROC analysis, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic parameters had AUCs of 0.65-0.68 at first follow-up; at second follow-up, AUC for change in tumor size was 0.9, AUC for change in tCho was 0.73. Patients who show greater reduction in tCho compared with changes in tumor size are more likely to achieve pCR. The change in tumor size halfway through therapy was the most accurate predictor of pCR.
    Radiology 04/2009; 251(3):653-62. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Cancer 10/2008; 123(5):1219-21. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide functional information, including vascular volume, vascular permeability and choline (Cho) metabolism. In this study, we applied these two imaging modalities to quantitatively characterize 36 malignant breast lesions in 32 patients and analyzed the correlation between them. Cho concentration was quantified by single-voxel (1)H MRS using water as an internal reference. The measured Cho levels ranged from 0.32 to 10.47 mmol/kg, consistent with previously reported values. In 25 mass-type lesions, the Cho concentration was significantly correlated with tumor size (r=.69, P<.0002). In addition, the Cho level was found to be significantly higher in lesions presenting as mass-type lesions compared to non-mass-type diffuse enhancements (P=.035). The enhancement kinetics from tissues covered within each MRS voxel were measured and analyzed with a two-compartmental model to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters K(trans) and k(ep). A significant correlation was found between the Cho level and the pharmacokinetic parameter k(ep) (r=.62, P<.0001), indicating that tissues with a high Cho level have higher wash-out rates in DCE MRI. The results suggest a correlation between Cho metabolism and angiogenesis activity, which might be explained by the association of Cho with cell replication and angiogenesis required to support tumor growth.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2008; 26(4):523-31. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies specifically reporting MRI of fibrocystic change (FCC) of the breast are very few and its MRI features are not clearly known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the MRI features of FCC of the breast. Thirty-one patients with pathologically proven FCC of the breast were retrospectively reviewed. The MRI study was performed using a 1.5-T MR scanner with standard bilateral breast coil. The imaging protocol consisted of pre-contrast T1-weighed imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced axial T1-weighed imaging. The MRI features were interpreted based on the morphologic and enhancement kinetic descriptors defined on ACR BIRADS-MRI lexicon. FCC of the breast had a wide spectrum of morphologic and kinetic features on MRI. Two types of FCC were found, including a more diffuse type of nonmass lesion (12/31, 39%) showing benign enhancement kinetic pattern with medium wash-in in early phase (9/10, 90%) and a focal mass-type lesion (11/31, 35%) with enhancement kinetic usually showing rapid up-slope mimicking a breast cancer (8/11, 73%). MRI is able to elaborate the diverse imaging features of FCC of the breast. Our result showed that FCC presenting as a focal mass-type lesion was usually overdiagnosed as malignancy. Understanding MRI of FCC is important to determine which cohort of patients should be followed up alone or receive aggressive management.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2008; 26(9):1207-14. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the MRI features between estrogen receptor (ER) positive and negative breast cancers. Breast MRI of 90 consecutive patients confirmed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 51 ER positive and 39 ER negative, were analyzed. The tumor morphology and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) kinetics were evaluated based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon and compared. Enlarged axillary lymph nodes on MRI and choline (Cho) detection using MR spectroscopy (MRS) were also analyzed and compared. For patients receiving axillary node dissection the pathological nodal status was also compared. ER negative breast cancer had bigger tumors compared to ER positive cancer (3.6 +/- 2.0 cm vs. 1.8 +/- 1.3 cm, P < 0.00005). ER negative cancer was more likely to exhibit nonmass type enhancements compared to ER positive cancer (P < 0.005). Enlarged axillary lymph nodes were more frequently identified on MRI in ER negative compared to ER positive patients (P < 0.05). After excluding patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, auxiliary lymph node status did not show significant difference between ER positive and ER negative cancer on MRI and pathology. ER negative cancer was more likely to show the malignant type enhancement kinetics (P = 0.15), rim enhancement (P = 0.15), and Cho detection on MRS (P = 0.23) compared to ER positive cancer, but it did not reach a level of statistical significance. ER negative breast cancer was more aggressive, with larger tumor size, more non-mass-type enhancement lesions, and a higher percentage showing enlarged axillary nodes on MRI. These features might be related to its poorer cellular differentiation and/or a higher angiogenesis.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2008; 27(4):825-33. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo investigate the application of MR spectroscopy using chemical-shift imaging (CSI) for characterizing human breast lesions at 1.5T, and to evaluate the diagnostic performance using ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analysis.Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients (35–73 years old, mean 52), with 27 malignant and 9 benign lesions, underwent anatomical imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and CSI. The ROC analysis was performed and the cutoff point yielding the highest accuracy was found to be a choline (Cho) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >3.2.ResultsThe mean Cho SNR was 2.8 ± 0.8 (range, 1.8–4.3) for the benign group and 5.9 ± 3.4 (2.1–17.5) for the malignant group (P = 0.01). Based on the criterion of Cho SNR >3.2 as malignant, CSI correctly diagnosed 22 of 27 malignant lesions and 7 of 9 benign lesions, resulting in a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 78%, and overall accuracy of 81%. If the criterion was set higher at Cho SNR >4.0 the specificity improved to 89% but sensitivity was lowered to 67%.Conclusion The ROC analysis presented in this work could be used to set an objective diagnostic criterion depending on preferred emphasis on sensitivity or specificity. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2008;27:1114–1121. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 04/2008; 27(5):1114 - 1121. · 2.57 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

131 Citations
45.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Korea Basic Science Institute KBSI
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • California Southern University
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • University of California, Irvine
      Irvine, California, United States
    • China Medical University Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      Taichung, Taiwan, Taiwan