[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shaken baby syndrome is a serious form of physical child abuse, which is frequently overlooked. It is defined as vigorous manual shaking of an infant who is being held by the extremities or shoulders, leading to whiplash-induced intracranial and intraocular bleeding and no external signs of head trauma. This syndrome is seen most commonly in children under 2 years, mainly in children under 6 months. This article summarizes issues related to clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk factors, and interventions for healthcare professionals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a series of 10 children with intracranial hypertension complicating fulminant hepatic failure submitted to intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring for intensive care and transplantation management.
Information from pediatrics patients acute liver failure admitted to our hospital was collected in a standard protocol form. We analyzed data from 10 patients, medium age 5.2 years old. In this period we studied aspects as ICP transducer used, number of days with ICP monitoring and complications of ICP monitoring.
Hepatitis A was diagnosed in five patients and hepatitis B in two cases. The initial ICP were 2 to 24 mmHg in transducer. Seven patients died, four due to intracranial hypertension, included the patient operated for subdural hematoma, and three with transplantation failure. Only a case of hematoma was verified.
The application of ICP monitoring allows intensive care for aggressive ICP management. It can be used in children without adaptations.
Revista de neurologia 03/2009; 48(3):134-6. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 15-year-old boy presented with a gunshot wound in the left cerebellar hemisphere. He was confused and left cerebellar signs were noted. The patient underwent the first surgery for debridement of the entry wound in the left parietal region and second surgery to remove the bullet. However, the bullet could not be located via a left unilateral suboccipital craniectomy in the park bench position, because it had migrated to the opposite side due to the effects of gravity in just a few hours. Skull radiography obtained just before the third surgery showed that the bullet had returned to the left side, and it was removed easily via the previous craniectomy in the sitting position. The clinical course suggests that in removing a bullet, skull radiography or computed tomography should be obtained just before surgery, or even intraoperatively, and that those findings should be the basis for the surgical procedure and operative position.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 44-year-old female presented with Duret hemorrhage due to transtentorial herniation by extradural hematoma as a complication after craniotomy for treatment of spontaneous middle cranial fossa cerebrospinal fluid leakage through the oval window. Brain computed tomography revealed linear hemorrhage in the midbrain and the rostral pons. She awoke after 2 weeks in a coma, despite showing ocular bobbing and bilateral intranuclear ophthalmoplegia. She was discharged from the hospital with minimal neurological defects. Duret hemorrhage is usually fatal, but this case shows that early surgical decompression is the most important factor to avoid the worst sequelae.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extradural hematoma (EDH) is considered to be a rare complication of head trauma in children, and represents a serious and urgent pathology from which complete recovery can be expected if specialized treatment is instituted in time. In this article, the authors report the potential danger to a hydrocephalic shunted child who was apparently asymptomatic at the time of hospital admission with a mild head injury and developed an EDH of venous origin. This child had a rapid (time interval from injury to decerebrate posture of about 2 h), atypical (remained asymptomatic most of the time until abruptly deterioration) and fatal course, stressing the importance of early diagnosis and rapid therapy in order to avoid the death of the patient. The authors discuss the role of the ventriculoperitoneal shunting system in the lack of clinical symptoms associated with the presence of a giant EDH and a rapid and fatal course, and stress the importance of computed tomographic (CT) scanning in these patients, even if they are asymptomatic. If a skull fracture is suspected, a CT scan must be performed without delay.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors describe a case of an infant with congenital factor X deficiency. The patient presented with a central nervous system hemorrhage followed by hydrocephalus. He underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and, during the postoperative period, developed a spontaneous epidural hematoma, which was evacuated. The clinical and pathophysiological aspects of this case are discussed based on a literature review.