[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlike other important Solanaceae crops such as tomato, potato, chili pepper, and tobacco, all of which originated in South America and are cultivated worldwide, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is indigenous to the Old World and in this respect it is phylogenetically unique. To broaden our knowledge of the genomic nature of solanaceous plants further, we dissected the eggplant genome and built a draft genome dataset with 33,873 scaffolds termed SME_r2.5.1 that covers 833.1 Mb, ca. 74% of the eggplant genome. Approximately 90% of the gene space was estimated to be covered by SME_r2.5.1 and 85,446 genes were predicted in the genome. Clustering analysis of the predicted genes of eggplant along with the genes of three other solanaceous plants as well as Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that, of the 35,000 clusters generated, 4,018 were exclusively composed of eggplant genes that would perhaps confer eggplant-specific traits. Between eggplant and tomato, 16,573 pairs of genes were deduced to be orthologous, and 9,489 eggplant scaffolds could be mapped onto the tomato genome. Furthermore, 56 conserved synteny blocks were identified between the two species. The detailed comparative analysis of the eggplant and tomato genomes will facilitate our understanding of the genomic architecture of solanaceous plants, which will contribute to cultivation and further utilization of these crops.
DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 09/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear export of proteins is regulated largely through the exportin/CRM1 pathway, which involves the specific recognition of leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs) in the cargo proteins, and modulates nuclear-cytoplasmic protein shuttling by antagonizing the nuclear import activity mediated by importins and the nuclear import signal (NLS). Although the prediction of NESs can help to define proteins that undergo regulated nuclear export, current methods of predicting NESs, including computational tools and consensus-sequence-based searches, have limited accuracy, especially in terms of their specificity. We found that each residue within an NES largely contributes independently and additively to the entire nuclear export activity. We created activity-based profiles of all classes of NESs with a comprehensive mutational analysis in mammalian cells. The profiles highlight a number of specific activity-affecting residues not only at the conserved hydrophobic positions but also in the linker and flanking regions. We then developed a computational tool, NESmapper, to predict NESs by using profiles that had been further optimized by training and combining the amino acid properties of the NES-flanking regions. This tool successfully reduced the considerable number of false positives, and the overall prediction accuracy was higher than that of other methods, including NESsential and Wregex. This profile-based prediction strategy is a reliable way to identify functional protein motifs. NESmapper is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/nesmapper.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a high density linkage map in faba bean, a total of 1,363 FBES ( Faba bean
expressed sequence tag [EST] derived s
imple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers were designed based on 5,090 non-redundant ESTs
developed in this study. A total of 109 plants of a ‘Nubaria 2’
‘Misr 3’ F
mapping population were used for
map construction. Because the parents were not pure homozygous lines, the 109 F
plants were divided into
three subpopulations according to the original F
plants. Linkage groups (LGs) generated in each subpopula
tion were integrated by commonly mapped markers. The integrated ‘Nubaria 2’
‘Misr 3’ map consisted of
six LGs, representing a total length of 684.7
cM, with 552 loci. Of the mapped loci, 47% were generated from
multi-loci diagnostic (MLD) markers. Alignment of homologous sequence pairs along each linkage group re
vealed obvious syntenic relationships between LGs in faba bean and the genomes of two model legumes,
. In a polymorphic analysis with ten Egyptian faba bean varieties,
78.9% (384/487) of the FBES markers showed polymorphisms. Along with the EST-SSR markers, the dense
map developed in this study is expected to accelerate marker assisted breeding in faba bean
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single or double flower type is one of the most important breeding targets in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). We mapped the D
85 locus, which controls flower type, to LG 85P_15–2 using a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic linkage map constructed using 91 F2 progeny derived from a cross between line 85–11 (double flower) and ‘Pretty Favvare’ (single flower). A positional comparison using SSR markers as anchor loci revealed that the map positions of the D
85 locus corresponded to the single locus controlling the single flower type derived from wild D. capitatus ssp. andrzejowskianus. We identified four co-segregating SSR markers on the D
85 locus. Verification of the SSR markers in commercial cultivars revealed that two of the four SSR markers (CES0212 and CES1982) were tightly linked to the D
85 locus, and amplified a 176-bp and 269-bp allele, respectively, which were common and unique to double flower cultivars. The map positions of the D
85 locus and the tightly linked SSR markers will be useful for determining the genetic basis of flower type and for marker-assisted breeding of carnations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radish (Raphanus sativus L. n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of >300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1166cM with 2553 DNA markers. A total of 1345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) offers the opportunity to use DNA markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs because of their high abundance, codominant inheritance, and potential for automated high-throughput analysis. We developed a 1,536-SNP bead array without a reference genome sequence from more than 44,000 base changes on the basis of a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis combined with 454 genome sequencing data of Japanese pear ‘Housui’. Among the 1,536 SNPs on the array, 756 SNPs were genotyped, and 609 SNP loci were mapped to linkage groups on a genetic linkage map of ‘Housui’, based on progeny of an interspecific cross between European pear (Pyrus communis L.) ‘Bartlett’ and ‘Housui’. The newly constructed genetic linkage map consists of 951 loci, comprising 609 new SNPs, 110 pear genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 25 pear EST–SSRs, 127 apple SSRs, 61 pear SNPs identified by the “potential intron polymorphism” method, and 19 other loci. The map covers 22 linkage groups spanning 1341.9 cM with an average distance of 1.41 cM between markers and is anchored to reference genetic linkage maps of European pears and apples. A total of 514 contigs containing mapped SNP loci showed significant similarity to known proteins by functional annotation analysis.
Tree Genetics & Genomes 04/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A symbiotic mutant of Lotus japonicus, called sunergos1-1 (suner1-1), originated from a har1-1 suppressor screen. suner1-1 supports epidermal infection by Mesorhizobium loti and initiates cell divisions for nodule primordia organogenesis. However, these processes appear to be temporarily stalled early during symbiotic interaction leading to a low nodule number phenotype. This defect is ephemeral and near wild-type nodule numbers are reached by suner1-1 at a later point after infection. Using an approach that combined map-based cloning and next-generation sequencing, we have identified the causative mutation and show that the suner1-1 phenotype is determined by a weak recessive allele, with the corresponding wild-type SUNER1 locus encoding a predicted subunit A of a DNA topoisomerase VI. Our data suggest that at least one function of SUNER1 during symbiosis is to participate in endoreduplication, which is an essential step during normal differentiation of functional, nitrogen-fixing nodules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the plastid genome of the unicellular marine red alga Porphyridium purpureum strain NIES 2140, belonging to the unsequenced class Porphyridiophyceae. The genome is a circular DNA composed of 217,694 bp with the GC content of 30.3 %. Twenty-nine of the 224 protein-coding genes contain one or multiple intron(s). A group I intron was found in the rpl28 gene, whereas the other introns were group II introns. The P. purpureum plastid genome has one non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene, 29 tRNA genes and two nonidentical ribosomal RNA operons. One rRNA operon has a tRNA(Ala)(UGC) gene between the rrs and the rrl genes, whereas another has a tRNA(Ile)(GAU) gene. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the plastids of Heterokontophyta, Cryptophyta and Haptophyta originated from the subphylum Rhodophytina. The order of the genes in the ribosomal protein cluster of the P. purpureum plastid genome differs from that of other Rhodophyta and Chromalveolata. These results suggest that a large-scale rearrangement occurred in the plastid genome of P. purpureum after its separation from other Rhodophyta.
Journal of Plant Research 03/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous analysis of the Lotus histidine kinase1 (Lhk1) cytokinin receptor gene has shown that it is required and also sufficient for nodule formation in Lotus japonicus. The L. japonicus mutant carrying the loss-of-function lhk1-1 allele is hyperinfected by its symbiotic partner, Mesorhizobium loti, in the initial absence of nodule organogenesis. At a later time point following bacterial infection, lhk1-1 develops a limited number of nodules, suggesting the presence of an Lhk1-independent mechanism. We have tested a hypothesis that other cytokinin receptors function in at least a partially redundant manner with LHK1 to mediate nodule organogenesis in L. japonicus. We show here that L. japonicus contains a small family of four cytokinin receptor genes, which all respond to M. loti infection. We show that within the root cortex, LHK1 performs an essential role but also works partially redundantly with LHK1A and LHK3 to mediate cell divisions for nodule primordium formation. The LHK1 receptor is also presumed to partake in mediating a feedback mechanism that negatively regulates bacterial infections at the root epidermis. Interestingly, the Arabidopsis thaliana AHK4 receptor gene can functionally replace Lhk1 in mediating nodule organogenesis, indicating that the ability to perform this developmental process is not determined by unique, legume-specific properties of LHK1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the genes expressed in response to low pH stress were identified in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using DNA microarrays. The expression of slr0967 and sll0939 constantly increased throughout 4-h acid stress conditions. Overexpression of these two genes under the control of the trc promoter induced the cells to become tolerant to acid stress. The Δslr0967 and Δsll0939 mutant cells exhibited sensitivity to osmotic and salt stress, whereas the trc mutants of these genes exhibited tolerance to these types of stress. Microarray analysis of the Δslr0967 mutant under acid stress conditions showed that expression of the high light-inducible protein ssr2595 (HliB) and the two-component response regulator slr1214 (rre15) were out of regulation due to gene inactivation, whereas they were upregulated by acid stress in the wild-type cells. Microarray analysis and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression of sll0939 was significantly repressed in the slr0967 deletion mutant. These results suggest that sll0939 is directly involved in the low pH tolerance of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and that slr0967 may be essential for the induction of acid stress-responsive genes.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2014; · 2.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a whole-genome-sequencing approach to explore germplasm resources can serve as an important strategy for crop improvement, especially in investigating wild accessions that may contain useful genetic resources that have been lost during the domestication process. Here we sequence and assemble a draft genome of wild soybean and construct a recombinant inbred population for genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotypic analyses to identify multiple QTLs relevant to traits of interest in agriculture. We use a combination of de novo sequencing data from this work and our previous germplasm re-sequencing data to identify a novel ion transporter gene, GmCHX1, and relate its sequence alterations to salt tolerance. Rapid gain-of-function tests show the protective effects of GmCHX1 towards salt stress. This combination of whole-genome de novo sequencing, high-density-marker QTL mapping by re-sequencing and functional analyses can serve as an effective strategy to unveil novel genomic information in wild soybean to facilitate crop improvement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj, http://pgdbj.jp/?ln=en) is a portal website that aims to integrate plant genome-related information from databases (DBs) and the literature. PGDBj is comprised of three component DBs and a cross-search engine, which provides a seamless search over the DBs' contents. The three DBs are as follows. (1) Ortholog DB, providing gene cluster information based on the amino acid sequence similarity. Over 500,000 amino acid sequences of 20 Viridiplantae species were subjected to reciprocal BLAST searches and clustered. Sequences from plant genome DBs (e.g., TAIR10 and RAP-DB) were also included in the cluster with a direct link to the original DB. (2) Plant Resource DB, integrating the SABRE DB, which provides cDNA and genome sequence resources accumulated and maintained in RIKEN BioResource Center and National BioResource Projects. (3) DNA Marker DB, providing manually or automatically curated information of DNA markers, QTL and related linkage maps, from the literature and external DBs. As PGDBj targets various plant species, including model plants, algae, and crops important as food, fodder and biofuel, researchers in the field of basic biology as well as a wide range of agronomic fields are encouraged to perform searches using DNA sequences, gene names, traits and phenotypes of their interest. PGDBj will return the search results from the component DBs and various types of linked external DBs.
Plant and Cell Physiology 12/2013; · 4.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The whole-genome sequence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. 'Francesco' was determined using a combination of different new-generation multiplex sequencing platforms. The total length of the non-redundant sequences was 568 887 315 bp, consisting of 45 088 scaffolds, which covered 91% of the 622 Mb carnation genome estimated by k-mer analysis. The N50 values of contigs and scaffolds were 16 644 bp and 60 737 bp, respectively, and the longest scaffold was 1 287 144 bp. The average GC content of the contig sequences was 36%. A total of 1050, 13, 92 and 143 genes for tRNAs, rRNAs, snoRNA and miRNA, respectively, were identified in the assembled genomic sequences. For protein-encoding genes, 43 266 complete and partial gene structures excluding those in transposable elements were deduced. Gene coverage was ∼98%, as deduced from the coverage of the core eukaryotic genes. Intensive characterization of the assigned carnation genes and comparison with those of other plant species revealed characteristic features of the carnation genome. The results of this study will serve as a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research of carnation, especially for breeding new carnation varieties. Further information on the genomic sequences is available at http://carnation.kazusa.or.jp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ∼200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand newly sequenced genomes of closely related species, comprehensively curated reference genome databases are becoming increasingly important. We have extended CyanoBase (http://genome.microbedb.jp/cyanobase), a genome database for cyanobacteria, and newly developed RhizoBase (http://genome.microbedb.jp/rhizobase), a genome database for rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with leguminous plants. Both databases focus on the representation and reusability of reference genome annotations, which are continuously updated by manual curation. Domain experts have extracted names, products and functions of each gene reported in the literature. To ensure effectiveness of this procedure, we developed the TogoAnnotation system offering a web-based user interface and a uniform storage of annotations for the curators of the CyanoBase and RhizoBase databases. The number of references investigated for CyanoBase increased from 2260 in our previous report to 5285, and for RhizoBase, we perused 1216 references. The results of these intensive annotations are displayed on the GeneView pages of each database. Advanced users can also retrieve this information through the representational state transfer-based web application programming interface in an automated manner.
Nucleic Acids Research 11/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The early molecular dialogue between soybean and the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum is crucial for triggering their symbiotic interaction. Here we found a single large genomic locus that is widely separated from the symbiosis island and was conspicuously induced within minutes after the addition of genistein. This locus (named BjG30) contains genes for the multidrug efflux pump, TetR family transcriptional regulator, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) metabolism. The induction of BjG30 by genistein was competitively inhibited by daidzein, although both genistein and daidzein are soybean-derived inducers of nodulation (nod) genes. Such a differential expression pattern is also observed in some legume-derived flavonoids, which structurally differ in the hydroxy/deoxy group at the 5-position. In addition, not only did the induction start far in advance of nodW and nodD1 after the addition of genistein, but the levels showed distinct concentration dependence, indicating that the induction pattern of BjG30 is completely different from that of nod genes. The deletion of genes encoding either the multidrug efflux pump or PHB metabolism, especially the former, resulted in defective nodulation performance and nitrogen-fixing capability. Taken together, these results indicate that BjG30, and especially its multidrug efflux pump, may play a key role in the early stage of symbiosis by balancing the dual functions of genistein as both a nod gene inducer and toxicant.
Microbes and Environments 11/2013; · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the establishment of an effective root nodule symbiosis, a coordinated regulation of the infection processes between the epidermis and cortex is required. However, it remains unclear whether the symbiotic genes identified so far are involved in epidermal and/or cortical infection, e.g. epidermal and cortical infection thread formation or cortical cell division. To analyze the symbiotic gene requirements of the infection process, we have developed an epidermis-specific expression system (pEpi expression system) and examined the symbiotic genes NFR1, NFR5, NUP85, NUP133, CASTOR, POLLUX, CCaMK, CYCLOPS, NSP1 and NSP2 for involvement in the infection process in the epidermis and cortex. Our study shows that expression of the upstream common symbiosis genes CASTOR, POLLUX, NUP85 and NUP133 in the epidermis is sufficient to induce formation of infection threads and cortical cell division, leading to the development of fully effective nodules. Our system also shows a requirement of CCaMK, CYCLOPS, NSP1 and NSP2 for the entire nodulation process, and the different contributions of NFR1 and NFR5 to cortical infection thread formation. Based on these analyses using the pEpi expression system, we propose a functional model of symbiotic genes for epidermal and cortical infection.