ABSTRACT: This study aimed to analyze characteristics and outcomes of gunshot wounds to the lower urinary tract at our Level I trauma center. Our hypothesis is that gunshot wounds to the lower urinary tract have characteristic bullet trajectories, injury patterns, and associated injuries.
Our prospective trauma database was composed of reviewed gunshot wounds to the lower urinary tract including the pelvic ureter, bladder, or urethra from 1989 through 2011.
We identified 50 patients (median age, 25 years; range, 3-53 years) with lower urinary tract injury. There was a mean of 2.3 bullets per patient (range, 1-8), with 26 patients injured from a single bullet. Urologic injury involving only the bladder occurred in 72% (36 of 50) of the patients. Ureteral injury was diagnosed in 20% (10 of 50) of the patients. Bullet trajectory was known in the majority of multiple bullet injuries and all cases involving a single bullet.All patients but one were managed operatively. During exploration, 90% (34 of 38) with transmural bladder injury had recognized bladder entry and exit wounds. Overall, 80% (40 of 50) had concurrent gastrointestinal injury. In patients with a single gunshot wound to the lower urinary tract, 58% (15 of 26) sustained concomitant intestinal injury, and 23% (6 of 26) sustained rectal injury.Of 20 posteroanterior gunshot wounds, 80% had buttock entry. All 10 single-bullet buttock-entry gunshot wounds injured the bladder. Isolated ureteral injury was associated with lower abdominal entry and anteroposterior trajectory. Urethral injury occurred in 4, with 75% upper-thigh entry.
Penetrating injuries to the lower urinary tract most commonly involve the bladder. During exploration for gunshot wounds to the bladder, two injury sites should be expected because failure to close may lead to complications. Gunshot wounds to the lower urinary tract often occur with concomitant bowel injury, with buttock entry. A multidisciplinary approach involving general surgery is imperative.
Epidemiologic study, level IV.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 03/2013; 74(3):725-31.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We describe the epidemiological features of pediatric genitourinary injuries, and determine the products and events that may predict an increased risk of genitourinary injury during childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was queried to identify children 18 years or younger who sustained genitourinary injuries and presented to emergency departments in the United States between 2002 and 2010. Demographics and injury characteristics of these children were analyzed. Analyses were performed with adjustments for sample weighting and the stratified survey design. All data are reported as national estimates along with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Based on 10,286 actual cases, an estimated 252,392 children (95% CI 205,579-299,194) sustained genitourinary injuries during the 9-year study period. Children 4 to 7 years old were most frequently injured (36.8% of all injuries), followed by those 8 to 11 years old (20.6%). Girls comprised 55% of the injured children. The yearly incidence of genitourinary injuries was stable across the period studied. The most commonly injured organs were female external genitalia (37.7%), penises (21.6%) and testicles (12%). Genitourinary injuries were most commonly associated with sporting and exercise equipment (35.7%), furniture (15.5%) and clothing items (11.9%). Of the patients 91% were treated at the emergency department and discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: Genitourinary injuries in children result in approximately 28,000 emergency department visits yearly. Efforts should be made to decrease the risk of genitourinary injuries in children by promoting the use of protective gear and safer product selection for those at greatest risk for injury.
The Journal of urology 11/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We describe the etiology, presentation, treatment and outcomes of men diagnosed with an acquired urethral diverticulum.
We retrospectively analyzed the records of men with an acquired urethral diverticulum in an 11-year period (2000 to 2011) at a tertiary care reconstructive practice. Patient demographics, history, presentation, anatomical details such as diverticulum size and location, management and outcomes were recorded. Technical success was defined as unobstructed urination without urinary tract infection.
A total of 22 men with an acquired urethral diverticulum were included in analysis. Median age at presentation was 48.5 years (range 18 to 86). Most commonly, patients presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, urinary dribbling, incontinence or a weak urinary stream. Of the 22 men 12 (54.5%) underwent urethral diverticulectomy and urethroplasty, 3 (13.5%) underwent ileal conduit urinary diversion and 7 (32%) were treated nonoperatively. Select cases were managed conservatively when the urethral diverticulum was confirmed in a nonobstructed urethra, it was small or asymptomatic and it could be manually emptied after voiding. At a mean followup of 2.3 years there was a 91% urethral diverticulum recurrence-free rate.
Acquired male urethral diverticula are rare but should be considered when there is recurrent urinary tract infection, obstructive voiding symptoms, a history of hypospadias, urethral stricture or trauma, or prolonged urethral catheterization. Treatment options may include surgical excision of the urethral diverticulum or urinary diversion. Some patients may be adequately treated nonoperatively with post-void manual decompression.
The Journal of urology 08/2012; 188(4):1204-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To report urethroplasty outcomes in men who developed urethral stricture after undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
Our urethroplasty database was reviewed for cases of urethral stricture after radiation therapy for prostate cancer between June 2004 and May 2010. Patient demographics, prostate cancer therapy type, stricture length and location, and type of urethroplasty were obtained. All patients received clinical evaluation, including imaging studies post procedure. Treatment success was defined as no need for repeat surgical intervention.
Twenty-nine patients underwent urethroplasty for radiation-induced stricture. Previous radiation therapy included external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), radical prostatectomy (RP)/EBRT, EBRT/brachytherapy (BT) and BT alone in 11 (38%), 7 (24%), 7 (24%), and 4 (14%) patients, respectively. Mean age was 69 (±6.9) years. Mean stricture length was 2.6 (±1.6) cm. Anastomotic urethroplasty was performed in 76% patients, buccal mucosal graft in 17%, and perineal flap repair in 7%. Stricture was localized to bulbar urethra in 12 (41%), membranous in 12 (41%), vesicourethra in 3 (10%), and pan-urethral in 2 (7%) patients. Overall success rate was 90%. Median follow-up was 40 months (range 12-83). Time to recurrence ranged from 6-16 months.
Multiple forms of urethroplasty appear to be viable options in treating radiation-induced urethral stricture. Future studies are needed to examine the durability of repairs.
Urology 04/2012; 79(6):1402-5. · 2.43 Impact Factor