[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary cancer of the eye and often results in fatal metastasis. Here, we describe mutations occurring exclusively at codon 625 of the SF3B1 gene, encoding splicing factor 3B subunit 1, in low-grade uveal melanomas with good prognosis. Thus, uveal melanoma is among a small group of cancers associated with SF3B1 mutations, and these mutations denote a distinct molecular subset of uveal melanomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated genetic disorder of the skin and is associated with arthritis in approximately 30% of cases. Previously, we localized PSORS2 (psoriasis susceptibility locus 2) to chromosomal region 17q25.3-qter after a genome-wide linkage scan in a family of European ancestry with multiple cases of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Linkage to PSORS2 was also observed in a Taiwanese family with multiple psoriasis-affected members. In caspase recruitment domain family, member 14 (CARD14), we identified unique gain-of-function mutations that segregated with psoriasis by using genomic capture and DNA sequencing. The mutations c.349G>A (p.Gly117Ser) (in the family of European descent) and c.349+5G>A (in the Taiwanese family) altered splicing between CARD14 exons 3 and 4. A de novo CARD14 mutation, c.413A>C (p.Glu138Ala), was detected in a child with sporadic, early-onset, generalized pustular psoriasis. CARD14 activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), and compared with wild-type CARD14, the p.Gly117Ser and p.Glu138Ala substitutions were shown to lead to enhanced NF-kB activation and upregulation of a subset of psoriasis-associated genes in keratinocytes. These genes included chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and interleukin 8 (IL8). CARD14 is localized mainly in the basal and suprabasal layers of healthy skin epidermis, whereas in lesional psoriatic skin, it is reduced in the basal layer and more diffusely upregulated in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis. We propose that, after a triggering event that can include epidermal injury, rare gain-of-function mutations in CARD14 initiate a process that includes inflammatory cell recruitment by keratinocytes. This perpetuates a vicious cycle of epidermal inflammation and regeneration, a cycle which is the hallmark of psoriasis.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 04/2012; 90(5):784-95. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disorder of the skin and other organs. We have determined that mutations in CARD14, encoding a nuclear factor of kappa light chain enhancer in B cells (NF-kB) activator within skin epidermis, account for PSORS2. Here, we describe fifteen additional rare missense variants in CARD14, their distribution in seven psoriasis cohorts (>6,000 cases and >4,000 controls), and their effects on NF-kB activation and the transcriptome of keratinocytes. There were more CARD14 rare variants in cases than in controls (burden test p value = 0.0015). Some variants were only seen in a single case, and these included putative pathogenic mutations (c.424G>A [p.Glu142Lys] and c.425A>G [p.Glu142Gly]) and the generalized-pustular-psoriasis mutation, c.413A>C (p.Glu138Ala); these three mutations lie within the coiled-coil domain of CARD14. The c.349G>A (p.Gly117Ser) familial-psoriasis mutation was present at a frequency of 0.0005 in cases of European ancestry. CARD14 variants led to a range of NF-kB activities; in particular, putative pathogenic variants led to levels >2.5× higher than did wild-type CARD14. Two variants (c.511C>A [p.His171Asn] and c.536G>A [p.Arg179His]) required stimulation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) to achieve significant increases in NF-kB levels. Transcriptome profiling of wild-type and variant CARD14 transfectants in keratinocytes differentiated probably pathogenic mutations from neutral variants such as polymorphisms. Over 20 CARD14 polymorphisms were also genotyped, and meta-analysis revealed an association between psoriasis and rs11652075 (c.2458C>T [p.Arg820Trp]; p value = 2.1 × 10(-6)). In the two largest psoriasis cohorts, evidence for association increased when rs11652075 was conditioned on HLA-Cw*0602 (PSORS1). These studies contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of psoriasis and illustrate the challenges faced in identifying pathogenic variants in common disease.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 04/2012; 90(5):796-808. · 11.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal-dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative genetic mutation is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the gene PRRT2 in the vast majority (24/25) of well-characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. PRRT2 encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture, and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 levels, leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A set of Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) cell lines serves as a large reference collection that has been widely used as a benchmark for allele frequencies in the analysis of genetic variants, to create linkage maps of the human genome, to study the genetics of gene expression, to provide samples to the HapMap and 1000 Genomes projects, and for a variety of other applications. An explicit feature of the CEPH collection is that these multigenerational families represent reference panels of known relatedness, consisting mostly of three-generation pedigrees with large sibships, two parents, and grandparents. We applied identity-by-state (IBS) and identity-by-descent (IBD) methods to high-density genotype data from 186 CEPH individuals in 13 families. We identified unexpected relatedness between nominally unrelated grandparents both within and between pedigrees. For one pair, the estimated Cotterman coefficient of relatedness k1 exceeded 0.2, consistent with one-eighth sharing (eg, first-cousins). Unexpectedly, significant IBD2 values were discovered in both second-degree and parent-child relationships. These were accompanied by regions of homozygosity in the offspring, which corresponded to blocks lacking IBS0 in purportedly unrelated parents, consistent with inbreeding. Our findings support and extend a 1999 report, based on the use of short tandem-repeat polymorphisms, that several CEPH families had regions of homozygosity consistent with autozygosity. We benchmarked our IBD approach (called kcoeff) against both RELPAIR and PREST software packages. Our findings may affect the interpretation of previous studies and the design of future studies that rely on the CEPH resource.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2012; 20(6):657-67. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions (PKD/IC) is an episodic movement disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance and high penetrance, but the causative gene is unknown. We have now identified four truncating mutations involving the PRRT2 gene in the vast majority (24/25) of well characterized families with PKD/IC. PRRT2 truncating mutations were also detected in 28 of 78 additional families. The PRRT2 gene encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of unknown function that has been reported to interact with the t-SNARE, SNAP25. PRRT2 localizes to axons but not to dendritic processes in primary neuronal culture and mutants associated with PKD/IC lead to dramatically reduced PRRT2 protein levels leading ultimately to neuronal hyperexcitability that manifests in vivo as PKD/IC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disorder affecting the skin and other organs including joints. Over 1,300 transcripts are altered in psoriatic involved skin compared with normal skin. However, to our knowledge, global epigenetic profiling of psoriatic skin is previously unreported. Here, we describe a genome-wide study of altered CpG methylation in psoriatic skin. We determined the methylation levels at 27,578 CpG sites in skin samples from individuals with psoriasis (12 involved, 8 uninvolved) and 10 unaffected individuals. CpG methylation of involved skin differed from normal skin at 1,108 sites. Twelve mapped to the epidermal differentiation complex, upstream or within genes that are highly upregulated in psoriasis. Hierarchical clustering of 50 of the top differentially methylated (DM) sites separated psoriatic from normal skin samples with uninvolved skin exhibiting intermediate methylation. CpG sites where methylation was correlated with gene expression are reported. Sites with inverse correlations between methylation and nearby gene expression include those of KYNU, OAS2, S100A12, and SERPINB3, whose strong transcriptional upregulation is an important discriminator of psoriasis. Pyrosequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA from skin biopsies at three DM loci confirmed earlier findings and revealed reversion of methylation levels toward the non-psoriatic state after 1 month of anti-TNF-α therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is an assumption of large, population-based datasets that samples are annotated accurately whether they correspond to known relationships or unrelated individuals. These annotations are key for a broad range of genetics applications. While many methods are available to assess relatedness that involve estimates of identity-by-descent (IBD) and/or identity-by-state (IBS) allele-sharing proportions, we developed a novel approach that estimates IBD0, 1, and 2 based on observed IBS within windows. When combined with genome-wide IBS information, it provides an intuitive and practical graphical approach with the capacity to analyze datasets with thousands of samples without prior information about relatedness between individuals or haplotypes. We applied the method to a commonly used Human Variation Panel consisting of 400 nominally unrelated individuals. Surprisingly, we identified identical, parent-child, and full-sibling relationships and reconstructed pedigrees. In two instances non-sibling pairs of individuals in these pedigrees had unexpected IBD2 levels, as well as multiple regions of homozygosity, implying inbreeding. This combined method allowed us to distinguish related individuals from those having atypical heterozygosity rates and determine which individuals were outliers with respect to their designated population. Additionally, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify distant relatedness using genome-wide IBS methods alone. However, our IBD method further identified distant relatedness between individuals within populations, supported by the presence of megabase-scale regions lacking IBS0 across individual chromosomes. We benchmarked our approach against the hidden Markov model of a leading software package (PLINK), showing improved calling of distantly related individuals, and we validated it using a known pedigree from a clinical study. The application of this approach could improve genome-wide association, linkage, heterozygosity, and other population genomics studies that rely on SNP genotype data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial monosomy 21 was recently segregated into three regions associated with variable clinical severity. We describe 10 new patients, all examined by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and G-banded karyotyping. Cohort A consisted of three patients seen in our medical genetics clinics with partial chromosome 21 monosomies. In two of these patients having terminal deletions (21q22.2-ter and 21q22.3-ter), the breakpoints differed by at least 812 Kb of sequence, containing seven RefSeq genes. A third patient had an interstitial hemizygous loss of 16.4 Mb (21q21.1-q22.11). All three patients had relatively mild phenotypes. Cohort B consisted of seven patients with partial chromosome 21 monosomies who had a greater number of dysmorphic features and some major malformations; SNP genotypes were obtained from the Coriell Genetic Cell Repository. We also collected data on partial monsomy 21 cases from the DECIPHER database. This report of 10 new cases of 21q deletion and review of a total of 36 confirms that deletion of the terminal region is associated with a mild phenotype, but suggests that deletion of regions 1 and 2 is compatible with life and have a variable phenotype perhaps relating more to other genetic and environmental variables than to genes in the interval.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 02/2011; 19(2):235-8. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis is a defining feature of malignant tumors and is the most common cause of cancer-related death, yet the genetics of metastasis are poorly understood. We used exome capture coupled with massively parallel sequencing to search for metastasis-related mutations in highly metastatic uveal melanomas of the eye. Inactivating somatic mutations were identified in the gene encoding BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) on chromosome 3p21.1 in 26 of 31 (84%) metastasizing tumors, including 15 mutations causing premature protein termination and 5 affecting its ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase domain. One tumor harbored a frameshift mutation that was germline in origin, thus representing a susceptibility allele. These findings implicate loss of BAP1 in uveal melanoma metastasis and suggest that the BAP1 pathway may be a valuable therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psoriasis is a common incurable inflammatory skin disease affecting 2-3% of the European population. Psoriatic skin contains large numbers of immune cells which produce many cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory molecules. The epidermis divides much faster than normal and has a defective outer layer or barrier which under normal circumstances protects from infection and dehydration. Psoriatic skin is characterized by a distinct set of inflammation and epidermal proliferation and differentiation markers, and it has been unclear whether the genetic basis of psoriasis reflects defects of the immune system or of the skin. One genetic determinant lies within the major histocompatibility complex class 1 region. Genome-wide association studies have revealed genetic susceptibility factors that play a role in the formation of immune cells found in psoriasis lesions. Others affect epidermal proliferation and skin barrier formation. Hence, genetic components of both the immune system and the epidermis can predispose to disease.
Trends in Genetics 09/2010; 26(9):415-23. · 9.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meiotic crossovers are the major mechanism by which haplotypes are shuffled to generate genetic diversity. Previously available methods for the genome-wide, high-resolution identification of meiotic crossover sites are limited by the laborious nature of the assay (as in sperm typing).
Several methods have been introduced to identify crossovers using high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array technologies, although programs are not widely available to implement such analyses.
Here we present a two-generation "reverse pedigree analysis" method (analyzing the genotypes of two children relative to each parent) and a web-accessible tool to determine and visualize inheritance differences among siblings and crossover locations on each parental gamete. This approach is complementary to existing methods and uses informative markers which provide high resolution for locating meiotic crossover sites. We introduce a segmentation algorithm to identify crossover sites, and used a synthetic data set to determine that the segmentation algorithm specificity was 92% and sensitivity was 89%. The use of reverse pedigrees allows the inference of crossover locations on the X chromosome in a maternal gamete through analysis of two sons and their father. We further analyzed genotypes from eight multiplex autism families, observing a 1.462 maternal to paternal recombination ratio and no significant differences between affected and unaffected children. Meiotic recombination results from pediSNP can also be used to identify haplotypes that are shared by probands within a pedigree, as we demonstrated with a multiplex autism family.
Using "reverse pedigrees" and defining unique sets of genotype markers within pedigree data, we introduce a method that identifies inherited allelic differences and meiotic crossovers. We implemented the method in the pediSNP software program, and we applied it to several data sets. This approach uses data from two generations to identify crossover sites, facilitating studies of recombination in disease. pediSNP is available online at http://pevsnerlab.kennedykrieger.org/pediSNP.
BMC Medical Genetics 09/2009; 10:93. · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fundamental goal of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is to determine the sharing of alleles between individuals across genomic loci. Such analyses have diverse applications in defining the relatedness of individuals (including unexpected relationships in nominally unrelated individuals, or consanguinity within pedigrees), analyzing meiotic crossovers, and identifying a broad range of chromosomal anomalies such as hemizygous deletions and uniparental disomy, and analyzing population structure.
We present SNPduo, a command-line and web accessible tool for analyzing and visualizing the relatedness of any two individuals using identity by state. Using identity by state does not require prior knowledge of allele frequencies or pedigree information, and is more computationally tractable and is less affected by population stratification than calculating identity by descent probabilities. The web implementation visualizes shared genomic regions, and generates UCSC viewable tracks. The command-line version requires pedigree information for compatibility with existing software and determining specified relationships even though pedigrees are not required for IBS calculation, generates no visual output, is written in portable C++, and is well-suited to analyzing large datasets. We demonstrate how the SNPduo web tool identifies meiotic crossover positions in siblings, and confirm our findings by visualizing meiotic recombination in synthetic three-generation pedigrees. We applied SNPduo to 210 nominally unrelated Phase I / II HapMap samples and, consistent with previous findings, identified six undeclared pairs of related individuals. We further analyzed identity by state in 2,883 individuals from multiplex families with autism and identified a series of anomalies including related parents, an individual with mosaic loss of chromosome 18, an individual with maternal heterodisomy of chromosome 16, and unexplained replicate samples.
SNPduo provides the ability to explore and visualize SNP data to characterize the relatedness between individuals. It is compatible with, but distinct from, other established analysis software such as PLINK, and performs favorably in benchmarking studies for the analyses of genetic relatedness.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(8):e6711. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about molecular changes occurring within retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) before their death in glaucoma. Taking advantage of the fact that gamma-synuclein (Sncg) mRNA is expressed specifically and highly in adult mouse RGCs, we show in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma that there is not only a loss of cells expressing this gene, but also a downregulation of gene expression of Sncg and many other genes within large numbers of RGCs. This downregulation of gene expression within RGCs occurs together with reductions in FluoroGold (FG) retrograde transport. Surprisingly, there are also large numbers of Sncg-expressing cells without any FG labeling, and among these many that have a marker previously associated with disconnected RGCs, accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilaments in their somas. These same diseased retinas also have large numbers of RGCs that maintain the intraocular portion while losing the optic nerve portion of their axons, and these disconnected axons terminate within the optic nerve head. Our data support the view that RGC degeneration in glaucoma has two separable stages: the first involves atrophy of RGCs, whereas the second involves an insult to axons, which causes the degeneration of axon portions distal to the optic nerve head but does not cause the immediate degeneration of intraretinal portions of axons or the immediate death of RGCs.
Journal of Neuroscience 02/2008; 28(2):548-61. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of alterations occur in chromosomal DNA, many of which can be detected using high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. These include deletions and duplications (assessed by observing changes in copy number) and regions of homozygosity. The analysis of SNP data from trios can provide an additional category of information about the nature and origin of inheritance patterns, including uniparental disomy (UPD), loss of transmitted allele (LTA), and nonparental relationship. The main purpose of SNPtrio is to locate regions of uniparental inheritance (UPI) and Mendelian inconsistency (MI), identify the type (paternal vs. maternal, iso- vs. hetero-), and assess the associated statistical probability of occurrence by chance. SNPtrio's schema permits the identification of hemizygous or homozygous deletions as well as UPD. We validated the performance of SNPtrio on three platforms (Affymetrix 10 K and 100 K arrays and Illumina 550 K arrays) using SNP data obtained from DNA samples of patients known to have UPD and diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, and a complex chromosome 2 abnormality. We further validated SNPtrio using DNA from patients previously shown to have microdeletions that were verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SNPtrio successfully identified previously known UPD and deletion regions, and generated associated probability values. SNPtrio analysis of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases and their parents permitted identification of the parent of origin of the extra chromosomal copy. SNPtrio is freely accessible at http://pevsnerlab.kennedykrieger.org/SNPtrio.htm (Last accessed: 20 June 2007).
Human Mutation 01/2008; 28(12):1225-35. · 5.21 Impact Factor