M Wantier

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

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Publications (6)10.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We studied the ventilation-perfusion matching pattern in normal gravity (1 G) and short- and long-duration microgravity (microG) using the cardiogenic oscillations in the sulfur hexaflouride (SF(6)) and CO(2) concentration signals during the phase III portion of vital capacity single-breath washout experiments. The signal power of the cardiogenic concentration variations was assessed by spectral analysis, and the phase angle between the oscillations of the two simultaneously expired gases was obtained through cross-correlation. For CO(2), a significant reduction of cardiogenic power was observed in microG, with respect to 1 G, but the reduction was smaller and more variable in the case of SF(6). A shift from an in-phase condition in 1 G to an out-of-phase condition was found for both short- and long-duration microG. We conclude that, although the distribution of ventilation and perfusion becomes more homogeneous in microG, significant inhomogeneities persist and that areas of high perfusion become associated with areas of relatively lower ventilation. In addition, these modifications seem to remain constant during long-term exposure to microG.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2001; 89(6):2407-12. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    01/1999;
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the effects of sustained weightlessness on chest wall mechanics in five astronauts who were studied before, during, and after the 10-day Spacelab D-2 mission (n = 3) and the 180-day Euromir-95 mission (n = 2). We measured flow and pressure at the mouth and rib cage and abdominal volumes during resting breathing and during a relaxation maneuver from midinspiratory capacity to functional residual capacity. Microgravity produced marked and consistent changes (Delta) in the contribution of the abdomen to tidal volume [DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc), where Vab is abdominal volume and Vrc is rib cage volume], which increased from 30.7 +/- 3. 5 (SE)% at 1 G head-to-foot acceleration to 58.3 +/- 5.7% at 0 G head-to-foot acceleration (P < 0.005). Values of DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc) did not change significantly during the 180 days of the Euromir mission, but in the two subjects DeltaVab/(DeltaVab + DeltaVrc) was greater on postflight day 1 than on subsequent postflight days or preflight. In the two subjects who produced satisfactory relaxation maneuvers, the slope of the Konno-Mead plot decreased in microgravity; this decrease was entirely accounted for by an increase in abdominal compliance because rib cage compliance did not change. These alterations are similar to those previously reported during short periods of weightlessness inside aircrafts flying parabolic trajectories. They are also qualitatively similar to those observed on going from upright to supine posture; however, in contrast to microgravity, such postural change reduces rib cage compliance.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 07/1998; 84(6):2060-5. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used an automatic motion analyzer, the ELITE system, to study changes in chest wall configuration during resting breathing in five normal, seated subjects. Two television cameras were used to record the x-y-z displacements of 36 markers positioned circumferentially at the level of the third (S1) and fifth (S2) costal cartilage, corresponding to the lung-apposed rib cage; midway between the xyphoid process and the costal margin (S3), corresponding to the abdomen-apposed rib cage; and at the level of the umbilicus (S4). Recordings of different subsets of markers were made by submitting the subject to five successive rotations of 45-90 degrees. Each recording lasted 30 s, and three-dimensional displacements of markers were analyzed with the Matlab software. At spontaneous end expiration, sections S1-3 were elliptical but S4 was more circular. Tidal changes in chest wall dimensions were consistent among subjects. For S1-2, changes during inspiration occurred primarily in the cranial and ventral directions and averaged 3-5 mm; displacements in the lateral direction were smaller (1-2 mm). On the other hand, changes at the level of S4 occurred almost exclusively in the ventral direction. In addition, both compartments showed a ventral displacement of their dorsal aspect that was not accounted for by flexion of the spine. We conclude that, in normal subjects breathing at rest in the seated posture, displacements of the rib cage during inspiration are in the cranial, lateral outward, and ventral directions but that expansion of the abdomen is confined to the ventral direction.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 12/1997; 83(5):1531-7. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of gravity on lung ventilation distribution and the mechanisms of the chest wall were investigated. The following tests were performed with the respiratory monitoring system of the Anthorack, flown onboard Spacelab D2 mission: single breath washout (SBW), multiple breath washout (MBW) and argon rebreathing (ARB). In order to study chest wall mechanisms in microgravity, a respiratory inductive plethysmograph was used. The SBW tests did not reach statistical significance, while the ARB tests showed that gravity independent inhomogeneity of specific ventilation is larger than gravity dependent inhomogeneity. In which concerns the chest wall mechanisms, the analysis on the four astronauts during the normal respirations of the relaxation maneuver showed a 40 percent increase on the abdominal contribution to respiration.
    08/1997;
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