Karen Buysse

Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc), Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (27)166.9 Total impact

  • Prenatal Diagnosis 04/2014; 34(4). DOI:10.1002/pd.4312 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating cell-free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) in maternal plasma is an attractive source for noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). The amount of total cell-free DNA significantly increases 24hours after venipuncture, leading to a relative decrease of the ccffDNA fraction in the blood sample. In this study, we evaluated the downstream effects of extended processing times on the reliability of aneuploidy detection by massively parallel sequencing (MPS). Whole blood from pregnant women carrying normal and trisomy 21 (T21) fetuses was collected in regular EDTA anti-coagulated tubes and processed within 6hours, 24 and 48hours after venipuncture. Samples of all three different time points were further analyzed by MPS using Z-score calculation and the percentage of ccffDNA based on X-chromosome reads. Both T21 samples were correctly identified as such at all time-points. However, after 48hours, a higher deviation in Z-scores was noticed. Even though the percentage of ccffDNA in a plasma sample has been shown previously to significantly decrease 24hours after venipuncture, the percentages based on MPS results did not show a significant decrease after 6, 24 nor 48hours. The quality and quantity of ccffDNA extracted from plasma samples processed up to 24hours after venipuncture are sufficiently high for reliable downstream NIPT analysis by MPS. Furthermore, we show that it is important to determine the percentage of ccffDNA in the fraction of the sample that is actually used for NIPT, as downstream procedures might influence the fetal or maternal fraction.
    Clinical biochemistry 08/2013; 46(18). DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2013.07.020 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several known or putative glycosyltransferases are required for the synthesis of laminin-binding glycans on alpha-dystroglycan (αDG), including POMT1, POMT2, POMGNT1, LARGE, Fukutin, FKRP, ISPD and GTDC2. Mutations in these glycosyltransferase genes result in defective αDG glycosylation and reduced ligand binding by αDG causing a clinically heterogeneous group of congenital muscular dystrophies, commonly referred to as dystroglycanopathies. The most severe clinical form, Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), is characterised by congenital muscular dystrophy and severe neurological and ophthalmological defects. Here, we report two homozygous missense mutations in the β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (B3GNT1) gene in a family affected with WWS. Functional studies confirmed the pathogenicity of the mutations. First, expression of wildtype but not mutant B3GNT1 in human prostate cancer (PC3) cells led to increased levels of αDG glycosylation. Second, morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish b3gnt1 orthologue caused characteristic muscular defects and reduced αDG glycosylation. These functional studies identify an important role for B3GNT1 in the synthesis of the uncharacterised laminin-binding glycan of αDG and implicate B3GNT1 as a novel causative gene for WWS.
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2013; 22(9). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddt021 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by complex eye and brain abnormalities with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) and aberrant a-dystroglycan glycosylation. Here we report mutations in the ISPD gene (encoding isoprenoid synthase domain containing) as the second most common cause of WWS. Bacterial IspD is a nucleotidyl transferase belonging to a large glycosyltransferase family, but the role of the orthologous protein in chordates is obscure to date, as this phylum does not have the corresponding non-mevalonate isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. Knockdown of ispd in zebrafish recapitulates the human WWS phenotype with hydrocephalus, reduced eye size, muscle degeneration and hypoglycosylated a-dystroglycan. These results implicate ISPD in a-dystroglycan glycosylation in maintaining sarcolemma integrity in vertebrates.
    Nature Genetics 04/2012; 44(5):581-5. DOI:10.1038/ng.2253 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-resolution microarray technology has facilitated the detection of submicroscopic chromosome aberrations and characterization of new microdeletion syndromes. We present clinical and molecular data of five patients with previously undescribed overlapping interstitial deletions involving 8q22.2q22.3. All deletions differ in size and breakpoints. Patients 1-4 carry deletions between 5.25 and 6.44 Mb in size, resulting in a minimal deletion overlap of 3.87 Mb (from 100.69 to 104.56 Mb; hg18) comprising at least 25 genes. These patients share similar facial dysmorphisms with blepharophimosis, telecanthus, epicanthus, flat malar region, thin upper lip vermillion, down-turned corners of the mouth, and a poor facial movement/little facial expression. They have a moderate to severe developmental delay (4/4), absent speech (3/4), microcephaly (3/4), a history of seizures (3/4), postnatal short stature (2/4), and a diaphragmatic or hiatal hernia (2/4). Patient 5 was diagnosed with a smaller deletion of about 1.92 Mb (containing nine genes) localized within the deletion overlap of the other four patients. Patient 5 shows a different facial phenotype and a less severe mental retardation. In Patients 1-4, COH1 is involved in the deletion (in total or in part), but none of them showed clinical features of Cohen syndrome. In two patients (Patients 2 and 4), ZFPM2 (also called FOG2, a candidate gene for congenital diaphragmatic hernias) was partly deleted. We suggest that patients with a microdeletion of 8q22.2q22.3 may represent a clinically recognizable condition characterized particularly by the facial phenotype and developmental delay. More patients have to be evaluated to establish a phenotype-genotype correlation. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2011; 155A(8):1857-64. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.34072 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different missense, nonsense and frameshift mutations in the GAN gene encoding gigaxonin have been described to cause giant axonal neuropathy, a severe early-onset progressive neurological disease with autosomal recessive inheritance. By oligonucleotide array CGH analysis, we identified a 57-131 kb microdeletion affecting this gene in a patient with developmental delay, ataxia, areflexia, macrocephaly, and strikingly frizzy hair. The microdeletion was inherited from the mother and mutation analysis revealed a paternally inherited missense mutation c.1456G>A in exon 9 on the other allele. Our findings illustrate the power of higher resolution array CGH studies and highlight the importance of considering copy number variations in autosomal recessive diseases.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2010; 152A(11):2802-4. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33508 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in humans with a prevalence of 1% and a lifetime incidence of 3%. Several genes have been identified in rare autosomal dominant and severe sporadic forms of epilepsy, but the genetic cause is unknown in the vast majority of cases. Copy number variants (CNVs) are known to play an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID), autism, and schizophrenia. Genome-wide studies of copy number variation in epilepsy have not been performed. We have applied whole-genome oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization to a cohort of 517 individuals with various idiopathic, non-lesional epilepsies. We detected one or more rare genic CNVs in 8.9% of affected individuals that are not present in 2,493 controls; five individuals had two rare CNVs. We identified CNVs in genes previously implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders, including two deletions in AUTS2 and one deletion in CNTNAP2. Therefore, our findings indicate that rare CNVs are likely to contribute to a broad range of generalized and focal epilepsies. In addition, we find that 2.9% of patients carry deletions at 15q11.2, 15q13.3, or 16p13.11, genomic hotspots previously associated with ID, autism, or schizophrenia. In summary, our findings suggest common etiological factors for seemingly diverse diseases such as ID, autism, schizophrenia, and epilepsy.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2010; 6(5):e1000962. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000962 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic copy number variants have been shown to be responsible for multiple genetic diseases. Recently, a duplication in septin 9 (SEPT9) was shown to be causal for hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA), an episodic peripheral neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance. This duplication was identified in 12 pedigrees that all shared a common founder haplotype. Based on array comparative genomic hybridisation, we identified six additional heterogeneous tandem SEPT9 duplications in patients with HNA that did not possess the founder haplotype. Five of these novel duplications are intragenic and result in larger transcript and protein products, as demonstrated through reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting. One duplication spans the entire SEPT9 gene and does not generate aberrant transcripts and proteins. The breakpoints of all the duplications are unique and contain regions of microhomology ranging from 2 to 9 bp in size. The duplicated regions contain a conserved 645 bp exon within SEPT9 in which HNA-linked missense mutations have been previously identified, suggesting that the region encoded by this exon is important to the pathogenesis of HNA. Together with the previously identified founder duplication, a total of seven heterogeneous SEPT9 duplications have been identified in this study as a causative factor of HNA. These duplications account for one third of the patients in our cohort, suggesting that duplications of various sizes within the SEPT9 gene are a common cause of HNA.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2009; 47(9):601-7. DOI:10.1136/jmg.2009.072348 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular karyotyping has moved from bench to bedside for the genetic screening of patients with mental retardation and/or congenital anomalies. The commercial availability of high-resolution microarray platforms has significantly facilitated this process. However, the notion that copy number variants are also abundantly present in the general population challenges the interpretation of the clinical significance of detected copy number variants (CNVs) in these patients. Moreover, the awareness of incomplete penetrance and variable expression, exemplified by the inheritance of causal CNVs from apparently unaffected parents, has further blurred the boundary between benign and pathogenic variation. We analyzed 1001 patients using a large insert clone array (298 patients) and an oligonucleotide-based (703 patients) platform. In this cohort we encountered several examples of causal imbalances that could have been easily interpreted as benign variants when relying on established paradigms. Based on our experience and the pitfalls we encountered, we suggest a decision tree that can be used as a guideline in clinical diagnostics. Using this workflow, we detected 106 clinically significant CNVs in 100 patients, giving a diagnostic yield of at least 10%. Of these imbalances, 58 occurred de novo, 22 were inherited and 26 of unknown inheritance. This underscores that inherited CNVs should not be automatically disregarded as benign variants. Among the clinically relevant CNVs were 11 single-gene aberrations, highlighting the power of high-resolution molecular karyotyping to identify causal genes.
    European journal of medical genetics 09/2009; 52(6):398-403. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2009.09.002 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background It is estimated that 10-15% of all clinically recognised pregnancies result in a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. Previous studies have indicated that in up to 50% of first trimester miscarriages, chromosomal abnormalities can be identified. For several decades chromosome analysis has been the golden standard to detect these genomic imbalances. A major drawback of this method is the requirement of short term cultures of fetal cells. In this study we evaluated the combined use of array CGH and flow cytometry (FCM), for detection of chromosomal abnormalities, as an alternative for karyotyping. Methods In total 100 spontaneous abortions and mors in utero samples were investigated by karyotyping and array CGH in combination with FCM in order to compare the results for both methods. Results Chromosome analysis revealed 17 abnormal karyotypes whereas array CGH in combination with FCM identified 26 aberrations due to the increased test success rate. Karyotyping was unsuccessful in 28% of cases as compared to only two out of hundred samples with inconclusive results for combined array CGH and FCM analysis. Conclusion This study convincingly shows that array CGH analysis for detection of numerical and segmental imbalances in combination with flow cytometry for detection of ploidy status has a significant higher detection rate for chromosomal abnormalities as compared to karyotyping of miscarriages samples.
    BMC Medical Genetics 09/2009; 10. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-10-89 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Author Summary Long-range genetic control is an inherent feature of genes harbouring a highly complex spatiotemporal expression pattern, requiring a combined action of multiple cis-regulatory elements such as promoters, enhancers, and silencers. Consequently, disruption of the long-range genetic control of a target gene by genomic rearrangements of regulatory elements may lead to aberrant gene transcription and disease. To date, the contribution of mutated regulatory elements to human disease has not been studied frequently. Here, we explored the contribution of genetic changes in potentially cis-regulatory elements of the FOXL2 gene in blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES), a developmental monogenic condition of the eyelids and ovaries. We identified a de novo very subtle deletion of 7.4 kb causing BPES. Moreover, we studied the functional capacities and chromosome conformation of the deleted region in FOXL2 expressing cellular systems. Interestingly, the chromosome conformation analysis demonstrated the close proximity of the 7.4 kb deleted fragment and two other conserved regions with the FOXL2 core promoter, and the necessity of their integrity for correct FOXL2 expression. Finally, our study revealed the smallest distant deletion causing monogenic disease and emphasized the importance of mutation screening of cis-regulatory elements in human genetic disease.
    PLoS Genetics 07/2009; 5(6):e1000522. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000522 · 8.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Characteristic features of the 12q14 microdeletion syndrome include low birth weight, failure to thrive, short stature, learning disabilities and Buschke-Ollendorff lesions in bone and skin. This report on two additional patients with this microdeletion syndrome emphasizes the rather constant and uniform phenotype encountered in this disorder and refines the critical region to a 2.61 Mb interval on 12q14.3, encompassing 10 RefSeq genes. We have previously shown that LEMD3 haploinsufficiency is responsible for the Buschke-Ollendorff lesions and now provide strong evidence that a heterozygous deletion of HMGA2 is causing the growth failure observed in this disorder. The identification of an intragenic HMGA2 deletion in a boy with proportionate short stature and the cosegregation of this deletion with reduced adult height in the extended family of the boy further underscore the role of HMGA2 in regulating human linear growth.
    European journal of medical genetics 04/2009; 52(2-3):101-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2009.03.001 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with recurrent episodes of focal neuropathy primarily affecting the brachial plexus. Point mutations in the SEPT9 gene have been previously identified as the molecular basis of HNA in some pedigrees. However in many families, including those from North America demonstrating a genetic founder haplotype, no sequence mutations have been detected. We report an intragenic 38 Kb SEPT9 duplication that is linked to HNA in 12 North American families that share the common founder haplotype. Analysis of the breakpoints showed that the duplication is identical in all pedigrees, and molecular analysis revealed that the duplication includes the 645 bp exon in which previous HNA mutations were found. The SEPT9 transcript variants that span this duplication contain two in-frame repeats of this exon, and immunoblotting demonstrates larger molecular weight SEPT9 protein isoforms. This exon also encodes for a majority of the SEPT9 N-terminal proline rich region suggesting that this region plays a role in the pathogenesis of HNA.
    Human Molecular Genetics 02/2009; 18(7):1200-8. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddp014 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inverted 8p duplication deletions are recurrent chromosomal rearrangements that are mediated through non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between olfactory receptor (OR) gene clusters at 8p23.1. These rearrangements result in a proximal inverted duplication of various extent, a single copy region between the OR gene clusters and a terminal 8p deletion. The terminal deletions are stabilized by direct addition of telomeric repeats, so called telomere healing. Here, we report a patient with an unusual inverted duplication deletion of 8p. Stabilization of the broken chromosome end was achieved by telomere capture instead of telomere healing, resulting in an additional duplication of 8q24.13-->qter on the short arm of chromosome 8. Moreover, the inverted duplication was only 3.4 Mb in size (restricted to band 8p22) and thus cytogenetically undetectable. To the best of our knowledge this is the smallest inverted duplication reported hitherto. We describe the molecular characterization by FISH and array CGH of this unusual inv dup del (8p) and a previously reported patient with a similar 8q duplication and review the literature on cases associated with telomere capture.
    European journal of medical genetics 12/2008; 52(1):31-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2008.10.007 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent molecular studies of breakpoints of recurrent chromosome rearrangements revealed the role of genomic architecture in their formation. In particular, segmental duplications representing blocks of >1 kb with >90% sequence homology were shown to mediate non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). However, the occurrence of the majority of newly detected submicroscopic imbalances cannot be explained by the presence of segmental duplications. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate whether architectural features other than segmental duplications mediate these rearrangements. We analysed a series of patients with breakpoints clustering within chromosome band 5q35. Using high density arrays and subsequent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we characterised the breakpoints of four interstitial deletions (including one associated with an unbalanced paracentric inversion), a duplication and a familial reciprocal t(5;18)(q35;q22) translocation. Results and Five of the breakpoints were located within an interval of approximately 265 kb encompassing the RANBP17 and TLX3 genes. This region is also targeted by the recurrent cryptic t(5;14)(q35;q32) translocation, which occurs in approximately 20% of childhood T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). In silico analysis indicated the architectural features most likely to contribute to the genomic instability of this region, which was supported by our molecular data. Of further interest, in two patients and the familial translocation, the delineated breakpoint regions encompassed highly homologous LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements), suggesting that NAHR between these LINEs may have mediated these rearrangements.
    Journal of Medical Genetics 10/2008; 45(10):672-8. DOI:10.1136/jmg.2008.058883 · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Duplications and deletions in the human genome can cause disease or predispose persons to disease. Advances in technologies to detect these changes allow for the routine identification of submicroscopic imbalances in large numbers of patients. We tested for the presence of microdeletions and microduplications at a specific region of chromosome 1q21.1 in two groups of patients with unexplained mental retardation, autism, or congenital anomalies and in unaffected persons. We identified 25 persons with a recurrent 1.35-Mb deletion within 1q21.1 from screening 5218 patients. The microdeletions had arisen de novo in eight patients, were inherited from a mildly affected parent in three patients, were inherited from an apparently unaffected parent in six patients, and were of unknown inheritance in eight patients. The deletion was absent in a series of 4737 control persons (P=1.1x10(-7)). We found considerable variability in the level of phenotypic expression of the microdeletion; phenotypes included mild-to-moderate mental retardation, microcephaly, cardiac abnormalities, and cataracts. The reciprocal duplication was enriched in nine children with mental retardation or autism spectrum disorder and other variable features (P=0.02). We identified three deletions and three duplications of the 1q21.1 region in an independent sample of 788 patients with mental retardation and congenital anomalies. We have identified recurrent molecular lesions that elude syndromic classification and whose disease manifestations must be considered in a broader context of development as opposed to being assigned to a specific disease. Clinical diagnosis in patients with these lesions may be most readily achieved on the basis of genotype rather than phenotype.
    New England Journal of Medicine 10/2008; 359(16):1685-99. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0805384 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 18 have been reported in many patients. Most of these deletions are localized in the distal half of the long arm (18q21.1 --> qter) and are detectable by standard cytogenetic analysis. However, smaller interstitial deletions leading to a recognizable phenotype and residing in the region around chromosome band 18q12.3 (bands q12-q21) are less common. Here we report on an interstitial deletion of less than 1.8 Mb within chromosomal band 18q12.3. The phenotypic features of the propositus correspond well with those observed in patients with larger cytogenetically detectable deletions encompassing chromosome band 18q12.3. The deletion enabled us to define a critical region for the following features of the del(18)(q12.2q21.1) syndrome: hypotonia, expressive language delay, short stature, and behavioral problems.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2008; 146A(10):1330-4. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.32267 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • F Speleman · C Kumps · K Buysse · B Poppe · B Menten · K De Preter
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have unveiled copy number variants (CNVs) as an important source of genetic variation. Many of these CNVs contain coding sequences, which have been shown to be dosage sensitive. Evidence is accumulating that certain CNVs have impact on susceptibility to human diseases such as HIV infection and autoimmune diseases, as well as on adaptability to environmental conditions or nutrition. The possible role and impact of CNVs on cancer development and progression is only now emerging. In this review we look into the role of CNVs and their associated genomic structural features in relation to the formation of chromosome alterations in cancer cells and evolutionary genomic plasticity, as well as the de novo occurrence of known or putative CNVs as somatic events during oncogenesis. The role of germline CNVs in cancer predisposition is still largely unexplored. A number of observations seem to warrant the importance of further studies to elucidate the impact of these variants in the early steps of carcinogenesis.
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2008; 123(1-4):176-82. DOI:10.1159/000184706 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a patient with mental retardation, seizures and tall stature with advanced bone age in whom a de novo apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangement 46,XX,t(X;9)(q12;p13.3) was identified. Using array CGH on flow-sorted derivative chromosomes (array painting) and subsequent FISH and qPCR analysis, we mapped and sequenced both breakpoints. The Xq12 breakpoint was located within the gene coding for oligophrenin 1 (OPHN1) whereas the 9p13.3 breakpoint was assigned to a non-coding segment within a gene dense region. Disruption of OPHN1 by the Xq12 breakpoint was considered the major cause of the abnormal phenotype observed in the proband.
    European Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2007; 50(6):446-54. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2007.07.003 · 1.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
166.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2005–2011
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Ghent
      • Centre for Medical Genetics
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 2005–2006
    • Ghent University
      • Center for Medical Genetics
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium