Guillermo Torres

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (427)1821.67 Total impact

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    DESCRIPTION: We present spatially and spectrally resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of gas and dust in the disk orbiting the pre-main sequence (pre-MS) binary AK Sco. By forward-modeling the disk velocity field traced by CO J = 2–1 line emission, we infer the mass of the central binary, M_star =2.49+/- 0.10 M_sun, a new dynamical measurement that is independent of stellar evolutionary models. Assuming the disk and binary are co-planar within ∼2°, this disk-based binary mass measurement is in excellent agreement with constraints from radial velocity monitoring of the combined stellar spectra. These ALMA results are also compared with the standard approach of estimating masses from the location of the binary in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, using several common pre-MS model grids. These models predict stellar masses that are marginally consistent with our dynamical measurement (at ∼2σ), but are systematically high (by ∼10%). These same models consistently predict an age of 18 ± 1 Myr for AK Sco, in line with its membership in the Upper Centaurus–Lupus association but surprisingly old for it to still host a gas-rich disk. As ALMA accumulates comparable data for large samples of pre-MS stars, the methodology employed here to extract a dynamical mass from the disk rotation curve should prove extraordinarily useful for efforts to characterize the fundamental parameters of early stellar evolution.
  • The Astrophysical Journal 08/2015; 809(1):26. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/809/1/26 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery and validation of Kepler-452b, a transiting planet identified by a search through the 4 years of data collected by NASA's Kepler Mission. This possibly rocky 1.63$^{+0.23}_{-0.20}$ R$_\oplus$ planet orbits its G2 host star every 384.843$^{+0.007}_{0.012}$ days, the longest orbital period for a small (R$_p$ < 2 R$_\oplus$) transiting exoplanet to date. The likelihood that this planet has a rocky composition lies between 49% and 62%. The star has an effective temperature of 5757$\pm$85 K and a log g of 4.32$\pm$0.09. At a mean orbital separation of 1.046$^{+0.019}_{-0.015}$ AU, this small planet is well within the optimistic habitable zone of its star (recent Venus/early Mars), experiencing only 10% more flux than Earth receives from the Sun today, and slightly outside the conservative habitable zone (runaway greenhouse/maximum greenhouse). The star is slightly larger and older than the Sun, with a present radius of 1.11$^{+0.15}_{-0.09}$ R$_\odot$ and an estimated age of 6 Gyr. Thus, Kepler-452b has likely always been in the habitable zone and should remain there for another 3 Gyr.
    The Astronomical Journal 07/2015; 150(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/150/2/56 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new transiting extrasolar planet, HAT-P-55b. The planet orbits a V = 13.207 +/- 0.039 sun-like star with a mass of 1.013 +/- 0.037 solar masses, a radius of 1.011 +/- 0.036 solar radii and a metallicity of -0.03 +/- 0.08. The planet itself is a typical hot Jupiter with a period of 3.5852467 +/- 0.0000064 days, a mass of 0.582 +/- 0.056 Jupiter masses and a radius of 1.182 +/- 0.055 Jupiter radii. This discovery adds to the increasing sample of transiting planets with measured bulk densities, which is needed to put constraints on models of planetary structure and formation theories.
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    Guillermo Torres · Antonio Claret · Kresimir Pavlovski · Aaron Dotter
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the chemical composition and absolute masses of Capella are key to understanding the evolutionary state of this benchmark binary system comprising two giant stars. Previous efforts, including our own 2009 study, have largely failed to reach an acceptable agreement between the observations and current stellar evolution models, preventing us from assessing the status of the primary. Here we report a revision of the physical properties of the components incorporating recently published high-precision radial velocity measurements, and a new detailed chemical analysis providing abundances for more than 20 elements in both stars. We obtain highly precise (to about 0.3%) masses of 2.5687 +/- 0.0074 and 2.4828 +/- 0.0067 solar masses, radii of 11.98 +/- 0.57 and 8.83 +/- 0.33 solar radii, effective temperatures of 4970 +/- 50 K and 5730 +/- 60 K, and independently measured luminosities based on the orbital parallax (78.7 +/- 4.2 and 72.7 +/- 3.6 solar luminosities). We find an excellent match to stellar evolution models at the measured composition of [Fe/H] = -0.04 +/- 0.06. Three different sets of models place the primary star firmly at the end of the core helium-burning phase (clump), while the secondary is known to be evolving rapidly across the Hertzprung gap. The measured lithium abundance, the C/N ratio, and the 12C/13C isotopic carbon abundance ratio, which change rapidly in the giant phase, are broadly in agreement with expectations from models. Predictions from tidal theory for the spin rates, spin-orbit alignment, and other properties do not fare as well, requiring a 40-fold increase in the efficiency of the dissipation mechanisms in order to match the observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2015; 807(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/26 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present spatially and spectrally resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of gas and dust in the disk orbiting the pre-main sequence binary AK Sco. By forward-modeling the disk velocity field traced by CO J=2-1 line emission, we infer the mass of the central binary, $M_\ast = 2.49 \pm 0.10~M_\odot$, a new dynamical measurement that is independent of stellar evolutionary models. Assuming the disk and binary are co-planar within $\sim$2{\deg}, this disk-based binary mass measurement is in excellent agreement with constraints from radial velocity monitoring of the combined stellar spectra. These ALMA results are also compared with the standard approach of estimating masses from the location of the binary in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, using several common pre-main sequence model grids. These models predict stellar masses that are marginally consistent with our dynamical measurement (at $\sim 2\,\sigma$), but are systematically high (by $\sim$10%). These same models consistently predict an age of $18\pm1$ Myr for AK Sco, in line with its membership in the Upper Centaurus-Lupus association but surprisingly old for it to still host a gas-rich disk. As ALMA accumulates comparable data for large samples of pre-main sequence stars, the methodology employed here to extract a dynamical mass from the disk rotation curve should prove extraordinarily useful for efforts to characterize the fundamental parameters of early stellar evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2015; 806(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/154 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the properties of both components of the RS CVn binary sigma Geminorum (sigma Gem), we directly detect the faint companion, measure the orbit, obtain model-independent masses and evolutionary histories, detect ellipsoidal variations of the primary caused by the gravity of the companion, and measure gravity darkening. We detect the companion with interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC) at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array with a primary-to-secondary H-band flux ratio of 270+/-70. A radial velocity curve of the companion was obtained with spectra from the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5-m Tillinghast Reflector at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO). We additionally use new observations from the Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic and Photometric Telescopes (AST and APT, respectively). From our orbit, we determine model-independent masses of the components (M_1 = 1.28 +/- 0.07 M_Sun, M_2 = 0.73 +/- 0.03 M_Sun), and estimate a system age of 5 -/+ 1 Gyr. An average of the 27-year APT light curve of sigma Gem folded over the orbital period (P = 19.6027 +/- 0.0005 days) reveals a quasi-sinusoidal signature, which has previously been attributed to active longitudes 180 deg apart on the surface of sigma Gem. With the component masses, diameters, and orbit, we find that the predicted light curve for ellipsoidal variations due to the primary star partially filling its Roche lobe potential matches well with the observed average light curve, offering a compelling alternative explanation to the active longitudes hypothesis. Measuring gravity darkening from the light curve gives beta < 0.1, a value slightly lower than that expected from recent theory.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2015; 807(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/23 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 Ori. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low-mass stars and ascribed to the effects of magnetic activity and/or spots. We show that models from the Dartmouth series that incorporate magnetic fields are able to match the observations with plausible field strengths of 1-2 kG, consistent with a rough estimate we derive for that star.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a survey of 41 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) for exomoons using Bayesian photodynamics, more than tripling the number of KOIs surveyed with this technique. We find no compelling evidence for exomoons although thirteen KOIs yield spurious detections driven by instrumental artifacts, stellar activity and/or perturbations from unseen bodies. Regarding the latter, we find seven KOIs exhibiting >5 sigma evidence of transit timing variations, including the 'mega-Earth' Kepler-10c, likely indicating an additional planet in that system. We exploit the moderately large sample of 57 unique KOIs surveyed to date to infer several useful statistics. For example, although there is a diverse range in sensitivities, we find that we are sensitive to Pluto-Charon mass-ratio systems for ~40% of KOIs studied and Earth-Moon mass-ratios for 1 in 8 cases. In terms of absolute mass, our limits probe down to 1.7 Ganymede masses, with a sensitivity to Earth-mass moons for 1 in 3 cases studied and to the smallest moons capable of sustaining an Earth-like atmosphere (0.3 Earth masses) for 1 in 4. Despite the lack of positive detections to date, we caution against drawing conclusions yet, since our most interesting objects remain under analysis. Finally, we point out that had we searched for the photometric transit signals of exomoons alone, rather than using photodynamics, we estimate that 1 in 4 KOIs would have erroneously been concluded to harbor exomoons due to residual time correlated noise in the Kepler data, posing a serious problem for alternative methods.
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    ABSTRACT: V1094 Tau is bright eclipsing binary star with an orbital period close to 9 days containing two stars similar to the Sun. Our aim is to test models of Sun-like stars using precise and accurate mass and radius measurements for both stars in V1094 Tau. We present new spectroscopy of V1094 Tau which we use to estimate the effective temperatures of both stars and to refine their spectroscopic orbits. We also present new, high-quality photometry covering both eclipses of V1094 Tau in the Stroemgren uvby system and in the Johnson V-band. The masses, radii and effective temperatures of the stars in V1094 Tau are found to be M$_A$ = 1.0964 $\pm$ 0.0040 M$_{\odot}$, R$_A$ = 1.4129 $\pm$ 0.0058 R$_{\odot}$, T$_{\rm eff,A}$ = 5850 $\pm$ 100 K, and M$_B$ = 1.0120 $\pm$ 0.0028 M$_{\odot}$, R$_B$ = 1.0913 $\pm$ 0.0066 R$_{\odot}$, T$_{\rm eff,B}$ = 5700 $\pm$ 100 K. An analysis of the times of mid-eclipse and the radial velocity data reveals apsidal motion with a period of 14500 $\pm$ 3700 years. The observed masses, radii and effective temperatures are consistent with stellar models for an age $\approx$ 6 Gyr if the stars are assumed to have a metallicity similar to the Sun. This estimate is in reasonable agreement with our estimate of the metallicity derived using Stroemgren photometry and treating the binary as a single star ([Fe/H] $= -0.09 \pm 0.11$). The rotation velocities of the stars suggest that V1094 Tau is close to the limit at which tidal interactions between the stars force them to rotate pseudo-synchronously with the orbital motion.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2015; 578. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201525873 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery and characterization of four transiting exoplanets by the HATNet survey. The planet HAT-P-50b has a mass of 1.35 M_J and a radius of 1.29 R_J, and orbits a bright (V = 11.8 mag) M = 1.27 M_sun, R = 1.70 R_sun star every P = 3.1220 days. The planet HAT-P-51b has a mass of 0.31 M_J and a radius of 1.29 R_J, and orbits a V = 13.4 mag, M = 0.98 M_sun, R = 1.04 R_sun star with a period of P = 4.2180 days. The planet HAT-P-52b has a mass of 0.82 M_J and a radius of 1.01 R_J, and orbits a V = 14.1 mag, M = 0.89 M_sun, R = 0.89 R_sun star with a period of P = 2.7536 days. The planet HAT-P-53b has a mass of 1.48 M_J and a radius of 1.32 R_J, and orbits a V = 13.7 mag, M = 1.09 M_sun, R = 1.21 R_sun star with a period of P = 1.9616 days. All four planets are consistent with having circular orbits and have masses and radii measured to better than 10% precision. The low stellar jitter and favorable R_P/R_star ratio for HAT-P-51 make it a promising target for measuring the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for a Saturn-mass planet.
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) NASA's Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates, yet only a small subset have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) amongst the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 microns. We use these observations to measures the candidate's transit depths and infrared magnitudes. A bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a false-positive scenario. For most of the candidates (85%), the transit depths measured with Kepler are consistent with the depths measured with Spitzer as expected for planetary objects, while we find that the most discrepant measurements are due to the presence of unresolved stars that dilute the photometry. The Spitzer constraints on their own yield FPRs between 5-40%, depending on the KOIs. By considering the population of the Kepler field stars, and by combining follow-up observations (imaging) when available, we find that the overall FPR of our sample is low. The measured upper limit on the FPR of our sample is 8.8% at a confidence level of 3 sigma. This observational result, which uses the achromatic property of planetary transit signals that is not investigated by the Kepler observations, provides an independent indication that Kepler's false positive rate is low.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 804(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/59 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present first results of a long-term study: Searching for OB-type runaway stars inside supernova remnants (SNRs). We identified spectral types and measured radial velocities by optical spectroscopic observations and we found an early type runaway star inside SNR S147. HD 37424 is a B0.5V-type star with a peculiar velocity of 74 ± 8 km s−1. Tracing back the past trajectories via Monte Carlo simulations, we found that HD 37424 was located at the same position as the central compact object, PSR J0538+2817, 30 ± 4 kyr ago. This position is only ∼4 arcmin away from the geometrical centre of the SNR. So, we suggest that HD 37424 was the pre-supernova binary companion to the progenitor of the pulsar and the SNR. We found a distance of 1333${^{+103}_{-112}}$ pc to the SNR. The zero-age main sequence progenitor mass should be greater than 13 M⊙. The age is 30 ± 4 kyr and the total visual absorption towards the centre is 1.28 ± 0.06 mag. For different progenitor masses, we calculated the pre-supernova binary parameters. The Roche lobe radii suggest that it was an interacting binary in the late stages of the progenitor.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2015; 448(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv124 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an investigation of twelve candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Few of these objects are known. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For eleven of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false positive, to a confidence level of 99.73% (3 sigma) or higher. For KOI-4427.01 the confidence level is about 99.2% (2.6 sigma). With our accurate characterization of the GKM host stars, the derived planetary radii range from 1.1 to 2.7 R_Earth. All twelve objects are confirmed to be in the HZ, and nine are small enough to be rocky. Excluding three of them that have been previously validated by others, our study doubles the number of known rocky planets in the HZ. KOI-3284.01 (Kepler-438b) and KOI-4742.01 (Kepler-442b) are the planets most similar to the Earth discovered to date when considering their size and incident flux jointly.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 800(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/99 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 ± 0.0094 and 1.7741 ± 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 ± 0.018 and 2.366 ± 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 ± 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 ± 46 pc.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2015; 149(1):34. DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/149/1/34 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of an exomoon would provide deep insights into planet formation and the habitability of planetary systems, with transiting examples being particularly sought after. Of the hundreds of Kepler planets now discovered, the seven-planet system Kepler-90 is unusual for exhibiting an unidentified transit-like signal in close proximity to one of the transits of the long-period gas-giant Kepler-90g, as noted by Cabrera et. al. (2014). As part of the 'Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler' (HEK) project, we investigate this possible exomoon signal and find it passes all conventional photometric, dynamical and centroid diagnostic tests. However, pixel-level light curves indicate that the moon-like signal occurs on nearly all of the target's pixels, which we confirm using a novel way of examining pixel-level data which we dub the 'transit centroid'. This test reveals that the possible exomoon to Kepler-90g is likely a false positive, perhaps due to a cosmic ray induced Sudden Pixel Sensitivity Dropout (SPSD). This work highlights the extreme care required for seeking non-periodic low-amplitude transit signals, such as exomoons.
    11/2014; 799(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/799/1/L14
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    N. Tetzlaff · G. Torres · A. Bieryla · R. Neuhäuser
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    ABSTRACT: We report new radial velocity measurements for 30 candidate runaway stars. We revise their age estimates and compute their past trajectories in the Galaxy in order to determine their birthplaces. We find that seven of the stars could be younger than ~100 Myr, and for five of them we identify multiple young clusters and associations in which they may have formed. For the youngest star in the sample, HIP 9470, we suggest a possible ejection scenario in a supernova event, and also that it may be associated with the young pulsar PSR J0152-1637. Our spectroscopic observations reveal seven of the stars in the sample of 30 to be previously unknown spectroscopic binaries. Orbital solutions for four of them are reported here as well.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 11/2014; 335(9). DOI:10.1002/asna.201412125 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1-day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components with errors of 0.7% and 1.3%, as follows: M(A) = 1.0038 +/- 0.0066 M(sun), M(B) = 0.5955 +/- 0.0022 M(sun), R(A) = 0.980 +/- 0.013 R(sun), and R(B) = 0.5873 +/- 0.0067 R(sun). The effective temperatures are 5890 +/- 100 K (G1V) and 3880 +/- 120 K (M1V), respectively. A detailed chemical analysis probing more than 20 elements in the primary spectrum shows the system to have a slightly subsolar abundance, with [Fe/H] = -0.12 +/- 0.08. A comparison with theory reveals that standard models underpredict the radius and overpredict the temperature of the secondary, as has been found previously for other M dwarfs. On the other hand, models from the Dartmouth series incorporating magnetic fields are able to match the observations of the secondary star at the same age as the primary (3 Gyr) with a surface field strength of 2.1 +/- 0.4 kG when using a rotational dynamo prescription, or 1.3 +/- 0.4 kG with a turbulent dynamo approach, not far from our empirical estimate for this star of 0.83 +/- 0.65 kG. The observations are most consistent with magnetic fields playing only a small role in changing the global properties of the primary. The V530 Ori system thus provides an important demonstration that recent advances in modeling appear to be on the right track to explain the long-standing problem of radius inflation and temperature suppression in low-mass stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 797(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/797/1/31 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of KIC 9632895b, a 6.2 Earth-radius planet in a low-eccentricity, 240.5-day orbit about an eclipsing binary. The binary itself consists of a 0.93 and 0.194 solar mass pair of stars with an orbital period of 27.3 days. The plane of the planet's orbit is rapidly precessing, and its inclination only becomes sufficiently aligned with the primary star in the latter portion of the Kepler data. Thus three transits are present in the latter half of the light curve, but none of the three conjunctions that occurred during the first half of the light curve produced transits. The precession period is ~103 years, and during that cycle, transits are visible only ~8% of the time. This has the important implication that for every system like KIC 9632895 that we detect, there are ~12 circumbinary systems that exist but are not currently exhibiting transits. The planet's mass is too small to noticeably perturb the binary, consequently its mass is not measurable with these data; but our photodynamical model places a 1-sigma upper limit of 16 Earth masses. With a period 8.8 times that of the binary, the planet is well outside the dynamical instability zone. It does, however, lie within the habitable zone of the binary, and making it the third of ten Kepler circumbinary planets to do so.
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    ABSTRACT: In most theories of planet formation, the snow-line represents a boundary between the emergence of the interior rocky planets and the exterior ice giants. The wide separation of the snow-line makes the discovery of transiting worlds challenging, yet transits would allow for detailed subsequent characterization. We present the discovery of Kepler-421b, a Uranus-sized exoplanet transiting a G9/K0 dwarf once every 704.2 days in a near-circular orbit. Using public Kepler photometry, we demonstrate that the two observed transits can be uniquely attributed to the 704.2 day period. Detailed light curve analysis with BLENDER validates the planetary nature of Kepler-421b to >4 sigmas confidence. Kepler-421b receives the same insolation as a body at ~2AU in the Solar System and for a Uranian albedo would have an effective temperature of ~180K. Using a time-dependent model for the protoplanetary disk, we estimate that Kepler-421b's present semi-major axis was beyond the snow-line after ~3Myr, indicating that Kepler-421b may have formed at its observed location.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 795(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/795/1/25 · 6.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,821.67 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2015
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2014
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Georgia State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2011
    • SETI Institute
      Mountain View, California, United States
    • NSF
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2002
    • San Diego State University
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1998
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1989–1994
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel