Roberto Giugliani

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (404)1009.29 Total impact

  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2015; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2015; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2015; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 02/2015; 114(2). · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Keratan sulfate (KS) is a storage material in mucopolysaccharidosis IV (MPS IV). However, no detailed analysis has been reported on subclasses of KS: mono-sulfated KS and di-sulfated KS. We established a novel method to distinguish and quantify mono- and di-sulfated KS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and measured both KS levels in various specimens.Di-sulfated KS was dominant in shark cartilage and rat serum, while mono-sulfated KS was dominant in bovine cornea and human serum. Levels of both mono- and di-sulfated KS varied with age in the blood and urine from control subjects and patients with MPS II and IVA. The mean levels of both forms of KS in the plasma/serum from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB were elevated compared with that in age-matched controls. Di-sulfated KS provided more significant difference between MPS IVA and the age-matched controls than mono-sulfated KS. The ratio of di-sulfated KS to total KS in plasma/serum increased with age in control subjects and patients with MPS II but was age independent in MPS IVA patients. Consequently, this ratio can discriminate younger MPS IVA patients from controls. Levels of mono- and di-sulfated KS in urine of MPS IVA and IVB patients were all higher than age-matched controls for all ages studied.In conclusion, the level of di-sulfated KS and its ratio to total KS can distinguish control subjects from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB, indicating that di-sulfated KS may be a novel biomarker for these disorders.
    JIMD reports. 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) is an inborn error of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) catabolism due to the deficient activity of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase that leads to accumulation of the keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in body fluids and in lysosomes. The pathophysiology of this lysosomal storage disorder is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokine and GAGs levels in MPS IVA patients. We analyzed urine and blood samples from patients under ERT (n=17) and healthy age-matched controls (n=10-15). Patients presented a reduction of antioxidant defenses levels, assessed by a decrease in glutathione content and by an increase in superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Concerning to lipids and proteins damage, it was verified increased urine isoprostanes and di-tyrosine levels and decreased plasma sulfhydryl groups in MPS IVA patients compared to controls. MPS IVA patients showed higher DNA damage than control group and this damage had an oxidative origin in both pyrimidines and purines bases. Interleukin 6 was increased in patients and presented an inverse correlation with GSH levels, showing a possible link between inflammation and oxidative stress in MPS IVA disease. The data presented suggest that pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant states occur in MPS IVA patients even under ERT. Taking these results into account, supplementation of antioxidants in combination with ERT can be a tentative therapeutic approach with the purpose of improving the patient's quality life. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study relating MPS IVA patients with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta. 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive disorder caused by deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA), which leads to storage of heparan and dermatan sulphate. It is suggested that early enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) leads to better outcomes, although many patients are diagnosed late and don't receive immediate treatment. This study aims to evaluate the effects of late onset ERT in a MPS I murine model. MPS I mice received treatment from 6 to 8 months of age (ERT 6-8mo) with 1.2mg laronidase/kg every 2 weeks and were compared to 8 months-old wild-type (Normal) and untreated animals (MPS I). ERT was effective in reducing urinary and visceral GAG to normal levels. Heart GAG levels and left ventricular (LV) shortening fraction were normalized but cardiac function was not completely improved. While no significant improvements were found on aortic wall width, treatment was able to significantly reduce heart valves thickening. High variability was found in behavior tests, with treated animals presenting intermediate results between normal and affected mice, without correlation with cerebral cortex GAG levels. Cathepsin D activity in cerebral cortex also did not correlate with behavior heterogeneity. All treated animals developed anti-laronidase antibodies but no correlation was found with any parameters analyzed. However, intermediary results from locomotion parameters analyzed are in accordance with intermediary levels of heart function, cathepsin D, activated glia and reduction of TNF-α expression in the cerebral cortex. In conclusion, even if started late, ERT can have beneficial effects on many aspects of the disease and should be considered whenever possible.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117271. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis II, MPS II) is a lysosomal storage disease inherited as an X-linked trait. The disease is progressive, affects multiple systems and is clinically heterogeneous. Patients with the so-called ‘attenuated’ form have somatic manifestations affecting bone, joints, respiratory, cardiac, auditory and other systems. Patients with the ‘severe form’ have, in addition to the somatic manifestations, neurocognitive decline.Areas covered: Diagnosis is reached with biochemical tests (urinary glycosaminoglycans [GAGs] and enzyme assay), usually complemented with genetic analysis. Mutation identification could play a role in phenotype prediction and could help to identify carriers, which is very important in an X-linked disease. Specific treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) became available few years ago and improved significantly the natural course of the disease. However, treatment with intravenous ERT has limitations, and the possibility of alternative therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and substrate reduction therapy with genistein is being considered. Novel therapies mainly designed to address the CNS manifestations (intrathecal ERT, ERT with fusion proteins, gene therapy and others) are also in development.Expert opinion: The combination of effective therapies with early diagnosis (newborn screening is feasible and could be available shortly) could completely change the prospect for MPS II patients in few years.
    Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs. 02/2015; 3(2).
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, the genotype-MR phenotype correlation of the most common or clinically important inherited metabolic diseases (IMD) in the pediatric population is reviewed. A nonsystematic search of the PubMed/Medline database of relevant studies about "genotype-phenotype correlation" in IMD was performed. Some MR phenotypes related to specific gene mutations were found, such as bilateral hypertrophy of inferior olives in patients harboring POLG and SURF1 mutations, and central lesions in the cervical spinal cord in patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia harboring GLRX5 gene mutation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 02/2015; 25(1):31-51. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intellectual disability affects approximately 1-3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle-income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 02/2015; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) have accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in multiple tissues which may cause coarse facial features, mental retardation, recurrent ear and nose infections, inguinal and umbilical hernias, hepatosplenomegaly, and skeletal deformities. Clinical features related to bone lesions may include marked short stature, cervical stenosis, pectus carinatum, small lungs, joint rigidity (but laxity for MPS IV), kyphoscoliosis, lumbar gibbus, and genu valgum. Patients with MPS are often wheelchair-bound and physical handicaps increase with age as a result of progressive skeletal dysplasia, abnormal joint mobility, and osteoarthritis, leading to 1) stenosis of the upper cervical region, 2) restrictive small lung, 3) hip dysplasia, 4) restriction of joint movement, and 5) surgical complications. Patients often need multiple orthopedic procedures including cervical decompression and fusion, carpal tunnel release, hip reconstruction and replacement, and femoral or tibial osteotomy through their lifetime. Current measures to intervene in bone disease progression are not perfect and palliative, and improved therapies are urgently required. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and gene therapy are available or in development for some types of MPS. Delivery of sufficient enzyme to bone, especially avascular cartilage, to prevent or ameliorate the devastating skeletal dysplasias remains an unmet challenge. The use of an anti-inflammatory drug is also under clinical study. Therapies should start at a very early stage prior to irreversible bone lesion, and damage since the severity of skeletal dysplasia is associated with level of activity during daily life. This review illustrates a current overview of therapies and their impact for bone lesions in MPS including ERT, HSCT, gene therapy, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 12/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient activity of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase. We report the prenatal diagnosis of a fetus who was found to exhibit normal levels of lysosomal enzymes in the amniotic fluid but low levels in amniocytes, and who was found to be heterozygous for the most common GNPTAB mutation. As in some carriers of Mucolipidosis II biochemical abnormalities may hinder prenatal diagnosis, we suggest DNA analysis should be performed whenever possible.
    Meta Gene. 12/2014; 2:403–406.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Morquio A (MPS IVA) is a rare disease characterised by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6 sulfatase (GALNS) and presenting with short stature, abnormal gait, cervical spine instability and shortened lifespan.PurposeTo prepare a systematic review of the prevalence of Morquio A in multiple countries and suggest recommendations for reporting rare diseases.Methods Medline, Medline In-Process, Medline Daily Update, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database and PROSPERO were searched from inception to October 2013 to identify relevant information on the epidemiology of Morquio A. Forty Patient Organisation Representatives (POR) and Key Opinion Leaders (KOL) across 24 countries were contacted for data. Observational studies were included and case reports were excluded. Searches were performed without date or language restriction. Two researchers independently screened and extracted data. Quality of study reporting was assessed using a checklist adapted from STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology). Point or birth prevalence was stratified according to diagnostic method and discussed narratively.ResultsIn total 9,074 records were retrieved from searching and 25 studies were included for data extraction. Twenty out of 40 KOL and POR responded (50%) and 9 provided data (23%). Point prevalence of Morquio A was 1 per 926,000 in Australia, 1 per 1,872,000 in Malaysia and 1 per 599,000 in UK and Morquio (unclassified) was 1 per 323, 000 in Denmark. Birth prevalence of Morquio A (using recommended diagnostic methods) ranged from 1 per 71,000 in UAE to 1 per 500,000 in Japan. All results were compromised by poor study reporting and internal validity.Conclusions The review highlighted that there is a misunderstanding of the definitions for prevalence and incidence in the field; that studies were poorly reported (diagnostic methods and patient characteristics) and that no suitable quality assessment tool exists. Overestimation and underestimation of prevalence data can occur. Bespoke reporting guidelines and a quality assessment tool specifically for prevalence of rare diseases are recommended.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 11/2014; 9(1):173. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Morquio A syndrome is characterized by progressive impairment of endurance•Longitudinal trends in FVC and MVV are likely influenced by growth•6MWT is a clinically meaningful measure of disease progression in Morquio A
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 11/2014; 114(2). · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with skeletal and joint abnormalities and significant non-skeletal manifestations including respiratory disease, spinal cord compression, cardiac disease, impaired vision, hearing loss, and dental problems. The clinical presentation, onset, severity and progression rate of clinical manifestations of Morquio A syndrome vary widely between patients. Because of the heterogeneous and progressive nature of the disease, the management of patients with Morquio A syndrome is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving an array of specialists. The current paper presents international guidelines for the evaluation, treatment and symptom- based management of Morquio A syndrome. These guidelines were developed during two expert meetings by an international panel of specialists in pediatrics, genetics, orthopedics, pulmonology, cardiology, and anesthesia with extensive experience in managing Morquio A syndrome.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics 10/2014; Part A(9999A):1-15. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human α-l-iduronidase (IDUA) is a member of glycoside hydrolase family and is involved in the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). Mutations in this enzyme are responsible for mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), an inherited lysosomal storage disorder. Despite great interest in determining and studying this enzyme structure, the lack of a high identity to templates and other technical issues have challenged both bioinformaticians and crystallographers, until the recent publication of an IDUA crystal structure (PDB: 4JXP). In the present work, four alternative IDUA models, generated and evaluated prior to crystallographic determination, were compared to the 4JXP structure. A combined analysis using several viability assessment tools and molecular dynamics simulations highlights the strengths and limitations of different comparative modeling protocols, all of which are based on the same low identity template (only 22%). Incorrect alignment between the target and template was confirmed to be a major bottleneck in homology modeling, regardless of the modeling software used. Moreover, secondary structure analysis during a 50ns simulation seems to be useful for indicating alignment errors and structural instabilities. The best model was achieved through the combined use of Phyre 2 and Modeller, suggesting the use of this protocol for the modeling of other proteins that still lack high identity templates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 10/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis I is a genetic disorder caused by alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency. Its primary treatment is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which has limitations such as a high cost and a need for repeated infusions over the patient's lifetime. Considering that nanotechnological approaches may enhance enzyme delivery to organs and can reduce the dosage thereby enhancing ERT efficiency and/or reducing its cost, we synthesized laronidase surface-functionalized lipid-core nanocapsules (L-MLNC).
    Pharmaceutical Research 09/2014; · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Krabbe disease (KD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by the deficiency of galactocerebrosidase (GALC) and is characterized by a severe and progressive leukodystrophy with death frequently before one year of life in the classical early-onset form. As a consequence of the enzyme defect, globoid cells containing undigested galactosylceramide are observed and are characteristic of the disease. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the current treatment for this disease, with some success in the classical cases if performed very early in life. Definitive diagnosis of KD is generally accessed by determination of GALC in leukocytes or fibroblasts. For the last few years, dried-blood filter paper (DBFP) samples have been increasingly used for lysosomal enzyme assays. Originally, some lysosomal enzymes could not be tested in DBFP samples using fluorometric assays, including GALC, heparan-sulfamidase and a few others. Recently, however, we reported successful results using dried-leukocytes filter paper (DLFP) samples for heparan sulfamidase and β-galactosidase.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 09/2014; 438. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are caused by deficiency of one of a group of specific lysosomal enzymes, resulting in excessive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We previously developed GAG assay methods using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); however, it takes 4-5 min per sample for analysis. For the large numbers of samples in a screening program, a more rapid process is desirable. The automated high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS) system (RapidFire) integrates a solid phase extraction robot to concentrate and desalt samples prior to direction into the MS/MS without chromatographic separation; thereby allowing each sample to be processed within ten seconds (enabling screening of more than one million samples per year). The aim of this study was to develop a higher throughput system to assay heparan sulfate (HS) using HT-MS/MS, and to compare its reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity with conventional LC-MS/MS. HS levels were measured in blood (plasma and serum) from control subjects and patients with MPS II, III, or IV and in dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn controls and patients with MPS I, II, or III. Results obtained from HT-MS/MS showed 1) that there was a strong correlation of levels of disaccharides derived from HS in blood, between those calculated using conventional LC-MS/MS and HT-MS/MS, 2) that levels of HS in blood were significantly elevated in patients with MPS II and III, but not in MPS IVA, 3) that the level of HS in patients with a severe form of MPS II was higher than that in an attenuated form, 4) that reduction of blood HS level was observed in MPS II patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 5) that levels of HS in newborn DBS were elevated in patients with MPS I, II or III, compared to control newborns. In conclusion, HT-MS/MS provides much higher throughput than LC-MS/MS-based methods with similar sensitivity and specificity in an HS assay, indicating that HT-MS/MS may be feasible for diagnosis, monitoring, and newborn screening of MPS.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 09/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzymes essential for catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Accumulation of undegraded GAGs results in dysfunction of multiple organs, resulting in distinct clinical manifestations. A range of methods have been developed to measure specific GAGs in various human samples to investigate diagnosis, prognosis, pathogenesis, GAG interaction with other molecules, and monitoring therapeutic efficacy. We established ELISA, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and an automated high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS) system (RapidFire) to identify epitopes (ELISA) or disaccharides (MS/MS) derived from different GAGs (dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and/or chondroitin sulfate). These methods have a high sensitivity and specificity in GAG analysis, applicable to the analysis of blood, urine, tissues, and cells. ELISA is feasible, sensitive, and reproducible with the standard equipment. HT-MS/MS yields higher throughput than conventional LC-MS/MS-based methods while the HT-MS/MS system does not have a chromatographic step and cannot distinguish GAGs with identical molecular weights, leading to a limitation of measurements for some specific GAGs. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of these methods for measuring GAG levels in biological specimens. We also describe an unexpected secondary elevation of keratan sulfate in patients with MPS that is an indirect consequence of disruption of catabolism of other GAGs.
    Metabolites. 09/2014; 4(3):655-79.

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,009.29 Total Impact Points


  • 1985–2015
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • • Departamento de Genética
      • • Departamento de Bioquímica
      • • Institute of Basic Sciences and Health
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2014
    • Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd
      York, England, United Kingdom
    • Population Genetics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1986–2014
    • Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2013
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Los Andes University (Colombia)
      • Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas
      Bogotá, Bogota D.C., Colombia
  • 2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2011
    • Santa Casa de Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2010
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2009
    • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
      • Departamento de Genética (IOC)
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2008
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR)
      Curityba, Paraná, Brazil
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006
    • Hospital Mãe De Deus
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2005
    • Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 1997–1999
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Nashville, MI, United States