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Publications (12)74.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Heart disease contributes to the progression of CKD. Heart tissue produces a number of secreted proteins, also known as cardiokines, which participate in intercellular and intertissue communication. We recently reported that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) functions as a cardiokine with cardioprotective properties. Here, we investigated the role of cardiac Fstl1 in renal injury after subtotal nephrectomy. Cardiac-specific Fstl1-deficient (cFstl1-KO) mice and wild-type mice were subjected to subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy. cFstl1-KO mice showed exacerbation of urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hypertrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis after subtotal renal ablation compared with wild-type mice. cFstl1-KO mice also exhibited increased mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, NADPH oxidase components, and fibrotic mediators, in the remnant kidney. Conversely, systemic administration of adenoviral vectors expressing Fstl1 (Ad-Fstl1) to wild-type mice with subtotal nephrectomy led to amelioration of albuminuria, glomerular hypertrophy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, accompanied by reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, NADPH oxidase components, and fibrotic markers in the remnant kidney. In cultured human mesangial cells, treatment with recombinant FSTL1 attenuated TNF-α-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Treatment of mesangial cells with FSTL1 augmented the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibition of AMPK activation abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of FSTL1. These data suggest that Fstl1 functions in cardiorenal communication and that the lack of Fstl1 production by myocytes promotes glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in the kidney.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: It is well-established that exercise diminishes cardiovascular risk, but whether humoral factors secreted by muscle confer these benefits has not been conclusively shown. We have shown that the secreted protein follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) has beneficial actions on cardiac and endothelial function. However, the role of muscle-derived Fstl1 in proliferative vascular disease remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether muscle-derived Fstl1 modulates vascular remodeling in response to injury.Methods and ResultsThe targeted ablation of Fstl1 in muscle led to an increase in neointimal formation following wire-induced arterial injury compared with control mice. Conversely, muscle-specific Fstl1 transgenic (TG) mice displayed a decrease in the neointimal thickening following arterial injury. Muscle-specific Fstl1 ablation and overexpression increased and decreased, respectively, the frequency of BrdU-positive proliferating cells in injured vessels. In cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), treatment with human FSTL1 protein decreased proliferation and migration induced by stimulation with PDGF-BB. Treatment with FSTL1 enhanced AMPK phosphorylation, and inhibition of AMPK abrogated the inhibitory actions of FSTL1 on HASMC responses to PDGF-BB. The injured arteries of Fstl1-TG mice exhibited an increase in AMPK phosphorylation, and administration of AMPK inhibitor reversed the antiproliferative actions of Fstl1 on the vessel wall. Our findings indicate that muscle-derived Fstl1 attenuates neointimal formation in response to arterial injury by suppressing SMC proliferation through an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Thus, the release of protein factors from muscle, such as Fstl1, may partly explain why the maintenance of muscle function can have a therapeutic effect on the cardiovascular system.
    Cardiovascular research 04/2014; · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the impacts of omentin on myocardial injury in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and explored its underlying mechanisms. Obesity is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Omentin is a circulating adipokine that is downregulated by obesity. In patients who underwent successful reperfusion treatment after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiac function and perfusion defect were assessed by scintigraphic images. Mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. High levels of plasma omentin associated with improvement of heart damage and function after reperfusion therapy in patients with AMI. Systemic administration of human omentin to mice led to reduction of myocardial infarct size and apoptosis following I/R, which was accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt in the ischemic heart. Fat-specific overexpression of human omentin also resulted in reduction of infarct size after I/R. Blockade of AMPK or Akt activity reversed omentin-induced inhibition of myocardial ischemic damage and apoptosis in mice. In cultured cardiomyocytes, omentin suppressed hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis, which was blocked by inactivation of AMPK or Akt. Our data indicate that omentin functions as an adipokine that ameliorates acute ischemic injury in the heart by suppressing myocyte apoptosis through both AMPK- and Akt-dependent mechanisms.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2014; · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Strategies to stimulate revascularization are valuable for cardiovascular diseases. Here we identify neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NDNF)/epidermacan as a secreted molecule that is upregulated in endothelial cells in ischemic limb of mice. NDNF was secreted from cultured human endothelial cells, and its secretion was stimulated by hypoxia. NDNF promoted endothelial cell network formation and survival in vitro through activation of Akt/eNOS signaling involving integrin αvβ3. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of NDNF in endothelial cells led to reduction of cellular responses and basal Akt signaling. Intramuscular overexpression of NDNF led to enhanced blood flow recovery and capillary density in ischemic limb of mice, which was accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The stimulatory actions of NDNF on perfusion recovery in ischemic muscle of mice were abolished by eNOS deficiency or NOS inhibition. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated reduction of NDNF in muscle of mice resulted in reduction of perfusion recovery and phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in response to ischemia. Our data indicate that NDNF acts as an endogenous modulator that promotes endothelial cell function and ischemia-induced revascularization through eNOS-dependent mechanisms. Thus, NDNF can represent a therapeutic target for the manipulation of ischemic vascular disorders.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We examined the impacts of omentin on myocardial injury in a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and explored its underlying mechanisms. Background Obesity is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Omentin is a circulating adipokine that is downregulated by obesity. Methods In patients who underwent successful reperfusion treatment after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiac function and perfusion defect were assessed by scintigraphic images. Mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. Results High levels of plasma omentin associated with improvement of heart damage and function after reperfusion therapy in patients with AMI. Systemic administration of human omentin to mice led to reduction of myocardial infarct size and apoptosis following I/R, which was accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt in the ischemic heart. Fat-specific overexpression of human omentin also resulted in reduction of infarct size after I/R. Blockade of AMPK or Akt activity reversed omentin-induced inhibition of myocardial ischemic damage and apoptosis in mice. In cultured cardiomyocytes, omentin suppressed hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis, which was blocked by inactivation of AMPK or Akt. Conclusions Our data indicate that omentin functions as an adipokine that ameliorates acute ischemic injury in the heart by suppressing myocyte apoptosis through both AMPK- and Akt-dependent mechanisms.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2014; · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence demonstrates that dysregulation of fat-derived hormones, also known as adipokines, is linked with the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders including coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, we investigated whether circulating level of an adipokine C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 1 is associated with the prevalence of CAD.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99846. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obese states characterized by chronic inflammation are closely linked to the development of metabolic dysfunction. We identified adipolin/CTRP12 as an insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory adipokine. Although obese conditions down-regulate adipolin expression, its molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that the transcriptional regulator Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 15 is involved in the regulation of adipolin expression in adipocytes. White adipose tissue from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice showed decreased expression of KLF9 and KLF15 among several KLFs, which was accompanied by reduced expression of adipolin. In cultured 3T3L1 adipocytes, treatment with TNFα significantly reduced the mRNA levels of KLF9, KLF15 and adipolin. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of KLF15 but not KLF9 reversed TNFα-induced reduction of adipolin expression in adipocytes. Conversely, gene targeting ablation of KLF15 attenuated adipolin expression in adipocytes. Expression of KLF15 but not KLF9 enhanced the promoter activity of adipolin in HEK293 cells. Pretreatment of 3T3L1 adipocytes with the JNK inhibitor SP600125, but not p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 blocked the inhibitory effects of TNFα on adipolin and KLF15 expression. These data suggest that adipose inflammation under conditions of obesity suppresses adipolin expression via JNK-dependent down-regulation of KLF15 in adipocytes.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e83183. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is linked with an increased risk of lymphedema, which is a serious clinical problem. Adiponectin is a circulating adipokine that is down-regulated in obese states. We investigated the effects of adiponectin on lymphatic vessel formation in a model of lymphedema and dissected its mechanisms. A mouse model of lymphedema was created via ablation of tail surface lymphatic network. Adiponectin-knockout mice showed the greater diameter of the injured tail compared with wild-type mice, which was associated with lower numbers of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Systemic delivery of adiponectin reduced the thickness of the injured tail and enhanced LEC formation in wild-type and adiponectin-knockout mice. Adiponectin administration also improved the edema of injured tails in obese KKAy mice. Treatment with adiponectin protein stimulated the differentiation of human LECs into tubelike structures and increased LEC viability. Adiponectin treatment promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase n LECs. Blockade of AMPK or Akt activity abolished adiponectin-stimulated increase in LEC differentiation and viability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK activation also suppressed adiponectin-induced Akt phosphorylation in LECs. In contrast, inactivation of Akt signaling had no effects on adiponectin-mediated AMPK phosphorylation in LECs. Furthermore, adiponectin administration did not affect the thickening of the damaged tail in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-knockout mice. Adiponectin can promote lymphatic vessel formation via activation of AMPK/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling within LECs, thereby leading to amelioration of lymphedema.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2013; 2(5):e000438.
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is highly associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently we found that adipolin/CRTP12 is an adipocytokine that exerts beneficial actions on glucose metabolism. Here we investigated the regulation of circulating adipolin under conditions of obesity and assessed its potential mechanisms. Both full and cleaved forms of adipolin were observed in mouse plasma. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice showed a significant reduction of plasma levels of full and total (full and cleaved) adipolin compared with control mice, resulting in an increase in the ratio of cleaved to full isoform. In vitro gene transfection studies using HEK293 cells revealed that a deletion mutant of adipolin gene (Δaa90-93) caused a reduction of cleaved production of adipolin in media. A bioinformatics analysis of adipolin amino acid sequence indicated the potential involvement of the family of proprotein convertases (PCs) in cleavage of adipolin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with an inhibitor for PCs abolished the expression of cleaved adipolin form in the media. The expression of furin, the member of PCs, was increased in adipose tissue of DIO mice. Furin expression was also increased in cultured adipocytes by treatment with an inducer of inflammation. These data suggest that obesity states facilitate the cleavage of adipolin presumably through upregulation of furin in adipose tissue.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2012; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is closely associated with the progression of vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis and postangioplasty restenosis. C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) 9 is an adipocytokine that is down-regulated in obese mice. Here we investigated whether CTRP9 modulates neointimal hyperplasia and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Left femoral arteries of wild-type (WT) mice were injured by a steel wire. An adenoviral vector expressing CTRP9 (Ad-CTRP9) or β-galactosidase as a control was intravenously injected into WT mice 3 d before vascular injury. Delivery of Ad-CTRP9 significantly attenuated the neointimal thickening and the number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive proliferating cells in the injured arteries compared with that of control. Treatment of VSMCs with CTRP9 protein attenuated the proliferative and chemotactic activities induced by growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, and suppressed PDGF-BB-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. CTRP9 treatment dose-dependently increased cAMP levels in VSMCs. Blockade of cAMP-PKA pathway reversed the inhibitory effect of CTRP9 on DNA synthesis and ERK phosphorylation in response to PDGF-BB. The present data indicate that CTRP9 functions to attenuate neointimal formation following vascular injury through its ability to inhibit VSMC growth via cAMP-dependent mechanism, suggesting that the therapeutic approaches to enhance CTRP9 production could be valuable for prevention of vascular restenosis after angioplasty.-Uemura, Y., Shibata, R., Ohashi, K., Enomoto, T., Kambara, T., Yamamoto, T., Ogura, Y., Yuasa, D., Joki, Y., Matsuo, K., Miyabe, M., Kataoka, Y., Murohara, T., Ouchi, N. Adipose-derived factor CTRP9 attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal formation.
    The FASEB Journal 09/2012; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute coronary syndrome is a leading cause of death in developed countries. Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a myocyte-derived secreted protein that is upregulated in the heart in response to ischemic insult. Here, we investigated the therapeutic impact of FSTL1 on acute cardiac injury in small and large preclinical animal models of ischemia/reperfusion and dissected its molecular mechanism. Administration of human FSTL1 protein significantly attenuated myocardial infarct size in a mouse or pig model of ischemia/reperfusion, which was associated with a reduction of apoptosis and inflammatory responses in the ischemic heart. Administration of FSTL1 enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the ischemia/reperfusion-injured heart. In cultured cardiac myocytes, FSTL1 suppressed apoptosis in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory genes through its ability to activate AMP-activated protein kinase. Ischemia/reperfusion led to enhancement of bone morphogenetic protein-4 expression and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in the heart, and FSTL1 suppressed the increased phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in ischemic myocardium. Treating cardiac myocytes with FSTL1 abolished the bone morphogenetic protein-4-stimulated increase in apoptosis, Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, and proinflammatory gene expression. In cultured macrophages, FSTL1 diminished lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expression of proinflammatory genes via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and abolished bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent induction of proinflammatory mediators. Our data indicate that FSTL1 can prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting apoptosis and inflammatory response through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase- and bone morphogenetic protein-4-dependent mechanisms, suggesting that FSTL1 could represent a novel therapeutic target for post-myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome.
    Circulation 08/2012; 126(14):1728-38. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic heart disease is the major cause of death in Western countries. CTRP9 (C1q/TNF-related protein 9) is a fat-derived plasma protein that has salutary effects on glucose metabolism and vascular function. However, the functional role of CTRP9 in ischemic heart disease has not been clarified. Here, we examined the regulation of CTRP9 in response to acute cardiac injury and investigated whether CTRP9 modulates cardiac damage after ischemia and reperfusion. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury resulted in reduced plasma CTRP9 levels and increased plasma free fatty acid levels, which were accompanied by a decrease in CTRP9 expression and an increase in NADPH oxidase component expression in fat tissue. Treatment of cultured adipocytes with palmitic acid or hydrogen peroxide reduced CTRP9 expression. Systemic administration of CTRP9 to wild-type mice, before the induction of ischemia or at the time of reperfusion, led to a reduction in myocardial infarct size following ischemia-reperfusion. Administration of CTRP9 also attenuated myocyte apoptosis in ischemic heart, which was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Treatment of cardiac myocytes with CTRP9 protein reduced apoptosis in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation and stimulated AMPK phosphorylation. Blockade of AMPK activity reversed the suppressive actions of CTRP9 on cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Knockdown of adiponectin receptor 1 diminished CTRP9-induced increases in AMPK phosphorylation and survival of cardiac myocytes. Our data suggest that CTRP9 protects against acute cardiac injury following ischemia-reperfusion via an AMPK-dependent mechanism.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(23):18965-73. · 4.65 Impact Factor