T.S. Sidhu

University of Ontario Institute of Technology, QWA, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (198)177.12 Total impact

  • Sarasij Das · Tarlochan Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: A fault-transient synchrophasor is computed over a window of pre-fault and fault samples. A fault synchrophasor is computed over a window of fault samples only. Fault-transient synchrophasors are discarded and are generally not used in the synchrophasor applications. Recently, an algorithm has been proposed to compute fault synchrophasor from fault-transient synchrophasor in phasor data concentrator (PDC). The accuracy of the existing algorithm deteriorates due to fault-induced transients and inaccurate fault starting time. A robust algorithm has been proposed to compute fault synchrophasor from fault-transient synchrophasor in PDC. The proposed algorithm does not use fault starting time in the calculations. It also performs better than the existing algorithm when fault-induced transients are present in the signal. The proposed algorithm is simple, non-iterative and performs satisfactorily in various investigated scenarios. The advantage of the proposed algorithm has been demonstrated in the context of fault location application.
    IET Generation Transmission & Distribution 01/2015; 9(2):124-132. DOI:10.1049/iet-gtd.2014.0100 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • U.N. Khan · T.S. Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new directional comparison-based internal/external fault detection and discrimination technique for the protection of all commonly used phase-shifting transformer (PST) types. Similar to traditional differential protection, the proposed solution offers features, such as speed and selectivity. However, unlike PST differential techniques, the proposed technique offers great reliability. It provides secure operation during conditions, such as current-transformer (CT) saturation, magnetizing inrush current, core saturation, any mismatch between CTs and zero-sequence current, etc. Moreover, unlike the differential solutions, the proposed technique solves the problem of nonstandard varying phase shift without tracking the tap-changer position. Performance evaluation of the proposed technique shows that it provides the best overall protection solution for commonly used single/two-core symmetrical/asymmetrical PSTs. This paper also addresses and solves various challenges that can influence the overall performance of the algorithm.
    IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 10/2014; 29(5):2315-2323. DOI:10.1109/TPWRD.2014.2308898 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Sarasij Das · Tarlochan Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: Faults and switching operations often cause step changes in voltage and current waveforms. A fault/switching transient synchrophasor is computed over a window of pre- and post-fault/switching samples. Many synchrophasor applications are not designed to use these transient synchrophasors. So, there is a need to detect fault/switching transient synchrophasors. A robust algorithm is proposed to detect synchrophasors computed over switching/fault transients. The proposed algorithm runs in phasor measurement unit. The proposed algorithm performs satisfactorily in the presence of noises, harmonics, off nominal frequencies, decaying DC and missing/bad samples. The proposed algorithm can detect fault/switching transient synchrophasors caused by smaller or larger disturbances. The proposed algorithm is simple, non-iterative and mainly needs additions. Possible applications of the proposed algorithm are also discussed.
    IET Generation Transmission & Distribution 09/2014; DOI:10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0493 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Sneha Lele · Robert Sobot · Tarlochan Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: We present a novel microsystem methodology to detect voltage and current disturbances in high power distribution lines. Our system employs a custom designed piezoelectric transformer operating at 50/60 Hz, as an alternative to the bulky electromagnetic transformer, to detect disturbances up to few kilohertz. In the frequency range of 10 Hz to 250 Hz, the piezotransformer steps down the 10–150 V input voltage with a linearity of ${pm}{1%}$ . This stepped down piezo output is treated with a signal processing system designed based on frequency composition of the piezo signal, to generate a digital output. A 7-bit digital output from this system reports various types of line disturbances within 3 ms of occurrence. We present details of the proposed system, supported both by numerical simulations and experimental results.
    IEEE Sensors Journal 05/2014; 14(5):1425-1434. DOI:10.1109/JSEN.2013.2296504 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • M. Amin Zamani · Tarlochan S. Sidhu · Amirnaser Yazdani
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    ABSTRACT: With the increasing attention to the concept of microgrids, it has become important to identify the requirements that enable an electric distribution network to operate as a microgrid. This paper studies a realistic distribution network to accomplish the following: 1) determine the conditions under which the network can operate as a microgrid and 2) present the control scenarios that allow the islanded operation of the network. In particular, the employment of electronically coupled distributed energy resources with the fault-ride-through and synchronization capabilities is investigated. Another objective of this paper is to propose practical protection strategies that are effective in both operational modes of a microgrid (i.e., the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode), considering the system constraints; the protection strategies provide the microgrid with acceptable reliability against different fault scenarios. The effectiveness of the control and protection strategies is demonstrated and discussed through a comprehensive set of simulation studies conducted in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment.
    IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 04/2014; 61(4):1904-1915. DOI:10.1109/TIE.2013.2267695 · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Mohamed Elsamahy · S.O. Faried · T.S. Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores the impact of a transmission-line midpoint STATCOM on the performance of the generator loss-of-excitation (LOE) protection. In this context, investigations are conducted on a two-hydrogenerator power station for two LOE contingencies, namely, a complete LOE due to a field-winding short circuit and a partial LOE due to a sudden drop in the excitation voltage at different generator loadings. The results of these investigations show that the midpoint STATCOM has adverse impacts on the LOE distance relay in the form of delay time and/or underreach phenomenon. These adverse impacts vary with the generator loading and the LOE mode. The time-domain simulation studies are conducted using PSCAD/EMTDC software.
    IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 04/2014; 29(2):724-732. DOI:10.1109/TPWRD.2013.2281581 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Sarasij Das · Tarlochan Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: Shannon’s Nyquist theorem has always dictated the conventional signal acquisition policies. Power system is not an exception to this. As per this theory, the sampling rate must be at least twice the maximum frequency present in the signal. Recently, compressive sampling (CS) theory has shown that the signals can be reconstructed from samples obtained at sub-Nyquist rate. Signal reconstruction in this theory is exact for “sparse signals” and is near exact for compressible signals provided certain conditions are satisfied. CS theory has already been applied in communication, medical imaging, MRI, radar imaging, remote sensing, computational biology, machine learning, geophysical data analysis, and so forth. CS is comparatively new in the area of computer based power system monitoring. In this paper, subareas of computer based power system monitoring where compressive sampling theory has been applied are reviewed. At first, an overview of CS is presented and then the relevant literature specific to power systems is discussed.
    01/2014; DOI:10.1155/2014/524740
  • Umar Khan · T.S. Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: Delta/hexagonal phase shifting transformer (PST) represents both magnetically coupled and electrically connected circuits, which makes it unique in design and construction from a standard transformer. Conventionally, differential protection serves as a main protection element of PST and offers distinguished features such as speed and selectivity. On the contrary, it is prone to various new challenges in addition to well-recognised traditional ones when applied to delta/hexagonal PST. New challenges include non-standard phase shift between two ends, saturation of the series winding, dependence of differential/restraining currents on tap changer position and turn-turn fault detection. This study exploits the unique design of PST and explores the suitability of applying electromagnetic equations by presenting a new algorithm for the protection of PST. In addition to the internal/external fault detection and discrimination capability, unlike differential protection, the proposed algorithm remains stable during magnetisation inrush current, current transformer saturation and saturation of the series winding. Even though the implementation of the proposed algorithm requires currents, voltages and tracking of the tap-changer position, capabilities of the algorithm make it a distinguished and unique protection solution. Performance of the algorithm is tested and analysed for various fault and non-faulted power system conditions using power systems computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC) software.
    IET Generation Transmission & Distribution 01/2014; 8(1):178-186. DOI:10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0135 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Sarasij Das · Tarlochan Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a simple synchrophasor estimation algorithm has been proposed considering power system steady state, dynamic conditions, and protection requirements. The new IEEE Standard C37.118.1-2011 for synchrophasor measurements includes the dynamic performance requirements for the phasor measurement units. It is shown that the proposed method satisfies all the steady state and dynamic requirements of the new IEEE Standard. Presently, synchrophasors are mainly used for wide area monitoring. Increasingly, synchrophasors are being considered for protection applications in smart grids. Protection applications require shorter response times and lower overshoot/undershoot values for estimated phasors during large disturbances. It is shown that the proposed method performs satisfactorily during system faults, which is an important requirement for protection applications. A detailed performance comparison with the existing phasor estimation algorithms has also been presented.
    IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 10/2013; 62(10). DOI:10.1109/TIM.2013.2263675 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Il-Hyung Lim · Tarlochan S. Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: The IEC 61850-based substation automation system (SAS) provides opportunities for a new level of substation operation, enhancing operating efficiency and protection reliability with a new environment based on an Ethernet-based communication network and high-performance intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). With these changes, importance and dependence on IEDs are increasing rapidly in IEC 61850-based substations. While consideration of protection device faults has so far been infrequent, IED faults will become increasingly important in the future. Thus, this paper proposes a design of a backup IED for protection IED faults in IEC 61850-based substations. The proposed backup IED can be remotely converted into any type of protection IED without IED exchange, firmware update, or field control. The backup IED was designed through SCL engineering and file transfer functions in IEC 61850 and implemented by Windows programming with a commercially available IEC 61850 library.
    IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 10/2013; 28(4):2048-2055. DOI:10.1109/TPWRD.2013.2258686 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Palak P. Parikh · Tarlochan S. Sidhu · A. Shami
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    ABSTRACT: Today's power grid is facing many challenges due to increasing load growth, aging of existing power infrastructures, high penetration of renewable, and lack of fast monitoring and control. Utilizing recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at the power-distribution level, various smart-grid applications can be realized to achieve reliable, efficient, and green power. Interoperable exchange of information is already standardized in the globally accepted smart-grid standard, IEC 61850, over the local area networks (LANs). Due to low installation cost, sufficient data rates, and ease of deployment, the industrial wireless LAN technologies are gaining interest among power utilities, especially for less critical smart distribution network applications. Extensive work is carried out to examine the wireless LAN (WLAN) technology within a power distribution substation. The first phase of the work is initiated with the radio noise interference measurements at 27.6- and 13.8-kV distribution substations, including circuit breaker switching operations. For a detailed investigation, the hardware prototypes of WLAN-enabled IEC 61850 devices are developed using industrial embedded systems, and the performance of smart distribution substation monitoring, control, and protection applications is analyzed for various scenarios using a round trip-time of IEC 61850 application messages. Finally, to examine the real-world field performance, the developed prototype devices are installed in the switchyard and control room of 27.6 power distribution substation, and testing results of various applications are discussed.
    IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 08/2013; 9(3):1466-1476. DOI:10.1109/TII.2012.2223225 · 8.79 Impact Factor
  • Sarasij Das · Tarlochan Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: The IEEE standard C37.118.1-2011 specifies performance requirements for the synchrophasor measurements. In this standard, the maximum modulation frequency for the phasor domain oscillations is 5 Hz. The synchrophasor reporting rates below 10 frames/s are exempted from the dynamic requirements of the standard. Synchrophasors reported below 10 frames/s cannot be used in the dynamics monitoring applications due to violation of the Nyquist theory (considering maximum 5 Hz oscillation frequency). Recently, compressive sampling (CS) theory has generated significant interest in the signal processing community because of its potential to enable signal reconstruction from fewer samples than suggested by the Nyquist rate. In this paper, the CS theory has been used to reconstruct the signal dynamics at higher rates using synchrophasors reported at the sub-Nyquist rate. This cannot be achieved in the conventional interpolation theory due to aliasing. As an example, in this paper, synchrophasors of an amplitude and frequency modulated (5 Hz) waveform are reported at 8 frames/s; thus causing aliasing. This aliased data is used in the phasor data concentrators (PDCs) to accurately (low TVE) reconstruct the synchrophasors at 24 frames/s rate using CS theory. The results indicate that the CS theory may also be useful in reducing the communication bandwidth requirements.
    Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), 2013 IEEE PES, 24-27 Feb. 2013; 02/2013
  • U. Khan · T.S. Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: Various current differential based protection approaches are applied to detect and discriminate the internal/external faults in phase shifting transformer (PST). The differential current measuring principle is the one that distinguishes these approaches. These approaches exploit PST unique design to propose the differential current measuring principle that presents magnetically couple circuit, electrically connected circuit or compensated currents entering and leaving the zone of PST. In addition to the traditional challenges, PST brings new challenges to the biased differential protection. This paper presents a comparative performance analysis between various differential current measuring principles associated with PST. Old and new approaches are reviewed first followed by the detail performance analysis. Simulation studies are performed in the real time digital simulator (RTDS) and PSCAD/EMTDC. The results of the analysis identify the limitations of these approaches and suggest new research directions for the protection of non-standard transformers like PST.
    Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), 2013 12th International Conference on; 01/2013
  • Sarasij Das · Tarlochan Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: Synchrophasors are increasingly used in the wide area monitoring applications. Computational window lengths of the practical synchrophasor estimation filters are often multiple fundamental cycles long to achieve robustness. In many situations, the window length of the synchrophasor estimation filter is greater than the fault clearing time. In this case, there are not enough fault samples within the window to compute a synchrophasor corresponding to the fault condition. So, transient state synchrophasors are only available for use in this case. A fault transient synchrophasor is computed over a window consisting of pre-fault and fault samples. Currently, these transient synchrophasors are discarded and generally not used in the applications. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to compute fault voltage/current synchrophasor from a fault transient synchrophasor value. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is that this algorithm can be used in a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The proposed algorithm is simple, non-iterative and performs satisfactorily in presence of noise. One possible application of the proposed algorithm is in the fault location on transmission lines where the fault clearing time is lower than the estimation filter window length.
    IEEE PES General Meeting 2013, 21-25 July 2013; 01/2013
  • M. Amin Zamani · Amirnaser Yazdani · Tarlochan S. Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a communication-assisted protection strategy implementable by commercially available microprocessor-based relays for the protection of medium-voltage microgrids. Even though the developed protection strategy benefits from communications, it offers a backup protection strategy to manage communication network failures. The paper also introduces the structure of a relay that enables the proposed protection strategy. Comprehensive simulation studies are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed protection strategy under different fault scenarios, in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment.
    IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 12/2012; 3(4):2088-2099. DOI:10.1109/TSG.2012.2211045 · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • M. Amin Zamani · Amirnaser Yazdani · Tarlochan S. Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an enhanced control strategy for electronically coupled distributed energy resources that improves the performance of the host microgrid under network faults and transient disturbances. The proposed control strategy does not require controller mode switchings and enables the electronically coupled distributed energy resources to ride through network faults, irrespective of whether they take place within the host microgrid or impact the upstream grid. Moreover, the proposed control ensures acceptable power quality for the duration of the faults, which is an important feature for protection against certain classes of faults, as well as for sensitive loads. Further, the paper proposes a supplementary control loop that improves the microgrid post-fault recovery. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated through a comprehensive set of simulation studies, conducted in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment.
    IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 10/2012; 27(4):1737-1747. DOI:10.1109/TPWRD.2012.2205713 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This presentation will update a 2005 Power System Relaying Committee paper on protection issues during power system restoration [1]. The abstract of the original paper as follows is still applicable, but updates due to technological advances will be presented.
    Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Cyber security in interconnected smart grid is vital for reliability of power system operations. Power communication applications are different from cooperate information technology applications. Utilities that follow defense in depth strategy have to confront many network security technologies. This paper presents an application of IPSec tunnel in substation gateways. IPSec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) tunnels are selected for our experiments. Since security overhead of cyber security measures introduce additional delays, several performance tests are conducted on IPSec ESP tunnels. The results are used to determine the balance between security and performance of IPSec ESP tunnel on substation gateways.
    Information and Automation for Sustainability (ICIAfS), 2012 IEEE 6th International Conference on; 01/2012
  • S. Lele · R. Sobot · T. Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: We present a numerical model based on three-dimensional (3D) finite element modelling for the piezoelectric transformer (PT). The resonant frequency and low frequency regions of operation of PT for voltage sensing are discussed and experimental results are presented. Results from the numerical analysis are compared with these established results. Hence, a model suitable for low frequency voltage measurements and disturbance monitoring in power systems is proposed and developed with a scope for future design modifications.
    Electrical Power and Energy Conference (EPEC), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
  • Sneha Lele · Robert Sobot · Tarlochan Sidhu
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    ABSTRACT: A novel line monitoring methodology based on piezoelectric transformer (PT) is proposed. The frequency range of operation and magnitude levels for voltage sensing are discussed and experimental results are presented. The experimental results show that a PT sustains high input voltages at power-line frequency and steps it down while stepping up the transient high frequency tones. Hence, an unexplored low-frequency region of operation of the PT is exploited and proposed in line frequency measurement and disturbance monitoring.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
177.12 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2015
    • University of Ontario Institute of Technology
      • Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
      QWA, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002–2012
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007
    • University of Bahrain
      • Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
      Al Manāmah, Manama, Bahrain
  • 1989–2006
    • University of Saskatchewan
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 1996
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada