Goutam Ghosh Choudhury

University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States

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Publications (120)589.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: High glucose-induced Akt acts as a signaling hub for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix expansion that are recognized as cardinal signatures for development of diabetic nephropathy. How mesangial cells sustain the activated state of Akt is not clearly understood. Here we show Akt-dependent phosphorylation of the transcription factor FoxO1 by high glucose. Phosphorylation deficient constitutively active FoxO1 inhibited high glucose-induced phosphorylation of Akt to suppress phosphorylation/inactivation of PRAS40 and mTORC1 activity. In contrast, dominant negative FoxO1 increased phosphorylation of Akt resulting in increased mTORC1 activity similar to high glucose treatment. Notably, FoxO1 regulates high glucose-induced protein synthesis, hypertrophy and, expression of fibronectin and PAI-1. High glucose paves the way for complications of diabetic nephropathy through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We considered whether the FoxO1 target antioxidant enzyme catalase contributes to sustained activation of Akt. High glucose-inactivated FoxO1 decreases the expression of catalase to increase production of ROS. Moreover, we show that catalase blocks high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation to attenuate inactivation of FoxO1 and PRAS40, resulting in inhibition of mTORC1 and mesangial cell hypertrophy, and, fibronectin and PAI-1 expression. Finally, using kidney cortex from type 1 diabetic OVE26 mice, we show that increased FoxO1 phosphorylation is associated with decreased catalase expression and increased fibronectin and PAI-1 expression. Together our results provide the first evidence for the presence of a positive feedback loop for sustained activation of Akt involving inactivated FoxO1 and decrease in catalase expression, leading to increased ROS and mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cancer metastasis may result from oncogenic forces that contribute to the primary tumor. We have recently identified microRNA-21 as an oncogenic driver of renal cancer cells. The mechanism by which miR-21 controls renal cancer cell invasion is poorly understood. We show that miR-21 directly downregulates the proapoptotic protein PDCD4 to increase migration and invasion of ACHN and 786-O renal cancer cells as a result of phosphorylation/activation of Akt and IKKβ, which activate NFκB-dependent transcription. Constitutively active (CA) Akt or CA IKKβ blocks PDCD4-mediated inhibition and restores renal cancer cell migration and invasion. PDCD4 inhibits mTORC1 activity, which was reversed by CA IKKβ. Moreover, CA mTORC1 restores cell migration and invasion inhibited by PDCD4- and dominant negative IKKβ. Moreover, PDCD4 negatively regulates mTORC2-dependent Akt phosphorylation upstream of this cascade. We show that PDCD4 forms a complex with rictor, an exclusive component of mTORC2, and that this complex formation is reduced in renal cancer cells due to increased miR-21 expression resulting in enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. Thus our results identify a previously unrecognized signaling node where high miR-21 levels reduce rictor-PDCD4 interaction to increase phosphorylation of Akt and contribute to metastatic fitness of renal cancer cells.
    Experimental cell research. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor BB and its receptor (PDGFRβ) play pivotal role in development of renal glomerular mesangial cells. Their roles in increased mesangial cell proliferation during mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis have long been noted; but the signaling mechanism regulating these changes remains poorly understood. We examined the role of a recently identified MAPK, Erk5, in this process. PDGF increased the activating phosphorylation of Erk5 and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in a time-dependent manner. A pharmacologic inhibitor of Erk5, XMD8-92, abrogated PDGF-induced DNA synthesis and mesangial cell proliferation. Similarly, expression of dominant negative Erk5 or siRNAs against Erk5 blocked PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation. Inhibition of Erk5 attenuated expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein, resulting in suppression of CDK4-mediated phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor protein pRb. Expression of cyclin D1 or CDK4 prevented the dominant negative Erk5- or siErk5-mediated inhibition of DNA synthesis and mesangial cell proliferation induced by PDGF. We have previously shown that PI 3 kinase contributes to PDGF-induced proliferation of mesangial cells. Inhibition of PI 3 kinase blocked PDGF-induced phosphorylation of Erk5. Since PI 3 kinase acts through Akt, we determined the role of Erk5 on Akt phosphorylation. XMD8-92, dominant negative Erk5 and siErk5 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt by PDGF. Interestingly, we found inhibition of PDGF-induced Erk5 phosphorylation by a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt kinase and kinase dead Akt in mesangial cells. Thus our data unfold the presence of a positive feedback microcircuit between Erk5 and Akt downstream of PI 3 kinase nodal point for PDGF-induced mesangial cell proliferation.
    AJP Cell Physiology 04/2014; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increase in matrix protein content in the kidney is a cardinal feature of diabetic kidney disease. While renal matrix protein content is increased by chronic hyperglycemia, whether it is regulated by acute elevation of glucose and insulin has not been addressed. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if short duration of combined hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, mimicking metabolic environment of pre-diabetes and early type 2 diabetes, induces kidney injury. Normal rats were subjected to either saline infusion (control, n=4) or seven hours of combined hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (HG+HI clamp; n=6). During the clamp, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were maintained at about 350 mg/dl and 16 ng/ml, respectively. HG+HI clamp increased the expression of renal cortical TGFβ and renal matrix proteins, laminin and fibronectin. This was associated with the activation of SMAD3, Akt, mTOR complexes and Erk signaling pathways and their downstream target events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation, an important step in protein synthesis. Additionally, HG+HI clamp provoked renal inflammation as shown by the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and infiltration of CD68 positive monocytes. Urinary F2t isoprostane excretion, an index of renal oxidant stress, was increased in the HG+HI clamp rats. We conclude that even a short duration of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia contributes to activation of pathways that regulate matrix protein synthesis, inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidney. This finding could have implications for the control of short term rises in blood glucose in diabetic individuals at risk of developing kidney disease.
    AJP Cell Physiology 10/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptomic landscape in many tumors including renal cell carcinoma. We have recently shown significantly increased expression of miR-21 in renal tumors and that this miRNA contributes to the proliferation of renal cancer cells in culture. However, the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates renal cancer cells proliferation is poorly understood. Addiction to constitutive NFκB activity is hallmark of many cancers including renal cancer. Using miR-21 Sponge in renal cancer cells to block endogenous function of miR-21, we show inhibition of phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB, IKKβ and IκB, which results in attenuation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Subtle reduction in the tumor suppressor PTEN has been linked to various malignancies. We showed previously that miR-21 targeted PTEN in renal cancer cells. Inhibition of PTEN by siRNAs restored miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of phosphorylation of p65, IKKβ, IκB and NFκB transcriptional activity along with reversal of miR-21 Sponge-reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Expression of constitutively active Akt protected against miR-21 Sponge- and PTEN-mediated decrease in p65/IKKβ/IκB phosphorylation and NFκB transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IKKβ and p65 were required for miR-21-induced renal cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFκB-dependent transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-21-regulated renal cancer cell proliferation is mediated by cyclin D1 and CDK4. Together, our results establish a molecular order of a phosphatase-kinase couple involving PTEN/Akt/IKKβ and NFκB-dependent cyclin D1 expression for renal carcinoma cell proliferation by increased miR-21 levels.
    Cellular Signalling 08/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) by angiotensin II (Ang II) leads to extracellular matrix accumulation. Here, we demonstrate that, in MCs, Ang II induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling with enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased production of nitric oxide (NO). Ang II promotes a rapid increase in 3-nitrotyrosine formation and uric acid attenuates Ang II-induced decrease in NO bioavailability, demonstrating that peroxynitrite mediates the effects of Ang II on eNOS dysfunction. Ang II rapidly up-regulates Nox4 protein. Inhibition of Nox4 abolishes the increase in ROS and peroxynitrite generation as well as eNOS uncoupling triggered by Ang II, indicating that Nox4 is upstream of eNOS. This pathway contributes to Ang II-mediated fibronectin accumulation in MCs. Ang II also elicits an increase in mitochondrial abundance of Nox4 protein and the oxidase contributes to ROS production in mitochondria. Overexpression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) prevents the stimulatory effects of Ang II on mitochondrial ROS production, loss of NO availability and MC fibronectin accumulation, whereas MnSOD depletion increases mitochondrial ROS, NO deficiency and fibronectin synthesis basally and in cells exposed to Ang II. This work provides the first evidence that uncoupled eNOS is responsible for Ang II-induced MC fibronectin accumulation and identifies Nox4 and mitochondrial ROS as mediators of eNOS dysfunction. These data shed light on molecular processes underlying the oxidative signaling cascade engaged by Ang II and identify potential targets for intervention to prevent renal fibrosis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Podocyte apoptosis is a critical mechanism for excessive loss of urinary albumin that eventuates in kidney fibrosis. Pharmacological doses of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduce albuminura in diabetes. We explored the hypothesis that mTOR mediates podocyte injury in diabetes. High glucose (HG) induces apoptosis of podocytes, inhibits AMPK activation, inactivates tuberin and activates mTOR. HG also increases the levels of Nox4 and Nox1 and NADPH oxidase activity. Inhibition of mTOR by low dose rapamycin decreases HG-induced Nox4 and Nox1, NADPH oxidase activity and podocyte apoptosis. Inhibition of mTOR had no effect on AMPK or tuberin phosphorylation indicating that mTOR is downstream of these signaling molecules. In isolated glomeruli of OVE26 mice, there is similar decrease in the activation of AMPK and tuberin and activation of mTOR with increase in Nox4 and NADPH oxidase activity. Inhibition of mTOR by small dose of rapamycin reduces podocyte apoptosis, attenuates glomerular injury and albuminuria. Our data provide evidence for a novel function of mTOR in Nox4-derived ROS generation and podocyte apoptosis that contributes to urinary albumin excretion in type 1 diabetes. Thus mTOR and or NADPH oxidase inhibition may represent a therapeutic modality of diabetic kidney disease.
    Diabetes 04/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In many renal diseases, TGFβ-stimulated canonical Smad 3 and noncanonical mTOR promote increased protein synthesis and mesangial cell hypertrophy. The cellular underpinnings involving these signaling molecules to regulate mesangial cell hypertrophy are not fully understood. Deptor has recently been identified as an mTOR interacting protein and functions as an endogenous inhibitor of the kinase activity for both TORC1 and TORC2. Prolonged incubation of mesangial cells with TGFβ reduced the levels of deptor concomitant with increase in TORC1 and TORC2 activity. Sustained TGFβ activation was required to inhibit association of deptor with mTOR while rapid activation had no effect. Using mTOR inhibitor PP242, we found that TGFβ-induced both early and sustained activation of TORC1 and TORC2 were necessary for deptor suppression. PP242-induced reversal of deptor suppression by TGFβ was associated with significant inhibition of TGFβ-stimulated protein synthesis and hypertrophy. Interestingly, expression of siRNA against Smad 3 or Smad 7, which blocks TGFβ receptor-specific Smad 3 signaling, prevented TGFβ-induced suppression of deptor abundance and TORC1/2 activities. Furthermore, overexpression of Smad 3 decreased deptor expression similar to TGFβ stimulation concomitant with increased TORC1 and TORC2 activities. Finally, knockdown of deptor reversed Smad 7-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis and mesangial cell hypertrophy induced by TGFβ. These data reveal the requirement of both early and late activation of mTOR for TGFβ-induced protein synthesis. Our results support that TGFβ-stimulated Smad 3 acts as a key node to instill a feed back loop between deptor downregulation and TORC1/2 activation in driving mesangial cell hypertrophy.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factorβ (TGFβ)-induced canonical signal transduction is involved in glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy; however, the role played by the noncanonical TGFβ signaling remains largely unexplored. TGFβ time-dependently stimulated eIF4E phosphorylation at Ser-209 concomitant with enhanced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 (extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2) and MEK (mitogen-activated and extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase) in mesangial cells. Inhibition of Erk1/2 by MEK inhibitor or by expression of dominant negative Erk2 blocked eIF4E phosphorylation, resulting in attenuation of TGFβ-induced protein synthesis and mesangial cell hypertrophy. Expression of constitutively active MEK was sufficient to induce protein synthesis and hypertrophy similar to those induced by TGFβ. Pharmacological or dominant negative inhibition of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3 kinase decreased MEK/Erk1/2 phosphorylation leading to suppression of eIF4E phosphorylation. Inducible phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser-209 is mediated by Mnk-1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase signal-integrating kinase-1). Both PI 3 kinase and Erk1/2 promoted phosphorylation of Mnk-1 in response to TGFβ. Dominant negative Mnk-1 significantly inhibited TGFβ-stimulated protein synthesis and hypertrophy. Interestingly, inhibition of mTORC1 activity, which blocks dissociation of eIF4E-4EBP-1 complex, decreased TGFβ-stimulated phosphorylation of eIF4E without any effect on Mnk-1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutant eIF4E S209D, which mimics phosphorylated eIF4E, promoted protein synthesis and hypertrophy similar to TGFβ. These results were confirmed using phosphorylation deficient mutant of eIF4E. Together our results highlight a significant role of dissociation of 4EBP-1-eIF4E complex for Mnk-1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4E. Moreover, we conclude that TGFβ-induced noncanonical signaling circuit involving PI 3 kinase-dependent Mnk-1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser-209 is required to facilitate mesangial cell hypertrophy. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explored molecular events associated with aging-induced matrix changes in the kidney. C57BL6 mice were studied in youth, middle age, and old age. Albuminuria and serum cystatin C level (an index of glomerular filtration) increased with aging. Renal hypertrophy was evident in middle-aged and old mice and was associated with glomerulomegaly and increase in mesangial fraction occupied by extracellular matrix. Content of collagen types I and III and fibronectin was increased with aging; increment in their mRNA varied with the phase of aging. The content of ZEB1 and ZEB2, collagen type I transcription inhibitors, and their binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter by ChIP assay also showed age-phase-specific changes. Lack of increase in mRNA and data from polysome assay suggested decreased degradation as a potential mechanism for kidney collagen type I accumulation in the middle-aged mice. These changes occurred with increment in TGFβ mRNA and protein and activation of its SMAD3 pathway; SMAD3 binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter was also increased. TGFβ-regulated microRNAs (miRs) exhibited selective regulation. The renal cortical content of miR-21 and miR-200c, but not miR-192, miR-200a, or miR-200b, was increased with aging. Increased miR-21 and miR-200c contents were associated with reduced expression of their targets, Sprouty-1 and ZEB2, respectively. These data show that aging is associated with complex molecular events in the kidney that are already evident in the middle age and progress to old age. Age-phase-specific regulation of matrix protein synthesis occurs and involves matrix protein-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.
    Aging cell 09/2012; · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence shows the beneficial effects of fish oil on breast cancer growth and invasion in vitro and in animal models. Expression of CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) by breast cancer cells acts as potent activator of malignancy and metastasis. In this report, we used two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, to show that the bioactive fish oil component DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) inhibits expression of CSF-1 and its secretion from these cancer cells. We found that the tumor suppressor protein PTEN regulates CSF-1 expression through PI 3 kinase/Akt signaling via a transcriptional mechanism. The enhanced abundance of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in breast cancer cells contributes to the growth and metastasis. Interestingly, DHA significantly inhibited expression of miR-21. miR-21 Sponge, which derepresses the miR-21 targets, markedly decreased expression of CSF-1 and its secretion. Furthermore, miR-21-induced upregulation of CSF-1 mRNA and its transcription were prevented by expression of PTEN mRNA lacking 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and miR-21 recognition sequence. Strikingly, miR-21 reversed DHA-forced reduction of CSF-1 expression and secretion. Finally, we found that expression of miR-21 as well as CSF-1 was significantly attenuated in breast tumors of mice receiving a diet supplemented with fish oil. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the therapeutic function of fish oil diet that blocks miR-21, thereby increasing PTEN levels to prevent expression of CSF-1 in breast cancer.
    Carcinogenesis 06/2012; 33(10):1897-908. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling gas, affects several cell functions. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide modulates high glucose (30 mm) stimulation of matrix protein synthesis in glomerular epithelial cells. High glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis, cellular hypertrophy, and matrix laminin and type IV collagen content was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H(2)S donor. High glucose activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), shown by phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, was inhibited by NaHS. High glucose stimulated mTORC1 to promote key events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation: binding of eIF4A to eIF4G, reduction in PDCD4 expression and inhibition of its binding to eIF4A, eEF2 kinase phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of eEF2; these events were inhibited by NaHS. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, was examined. NaHS dose-dependently stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and restored AMPK phosphorylation reduced by high glucose. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abolished NaHS modulation of high glucose effect on events in mRNA translation as well as global and matrix protein synthesis. NaHS induction of AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by siRNA for calmodulin kinase kinase β, but not LKB1, upstream kinases for AMPK; STO-609, a calmodulin kinase kinase β inhibitor, had the same effect. Renal cortical content of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes, was significantly reduced in mice with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, coinciding with renal hypertrophy and matrix accumulation. Hydrogen sulfide is a newly identified modulator of protein synthesis in the kidney, and reduction in its generation may contribute to kidney injury in diabetes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(7):4451-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) promotes glomerular hypertrophy and matrix expansion, leading to glomerulosclerosis. MicroRNAs are well suited to promote fibrosis because they can repress gene expression, which negatively regulate the fibrotic process. Recent cellular and animal studies have revealed enhanced expression of microRNA, miR-21, in renal cells in response to TGFβ. Specific miR-21 targets downstream of TGFβ receptor activation that control cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expression have not been studied. Using 3'UTR-driven luciferase reporter, we identified the tumor suppressor protein PTEN as a target of TGFβ-stimulated miR-21 in glomerular mesangial cells. Expression of miR-21 Sponge, which quenches endogenous miR-21 levels, reversed TGFβ-induced suppression of PTEN. Additionally, miR-21 Sponge inhibited TGFβ-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt kinase, resulting in attenuation of phosphorylation of its substrate GSK3β. Tuberin and PRAS40, two other Akt substrates, and endogenous inhibitors of mTORC1, regulate mesangial cell hypertrophy. Neutralization of endogenous miR-21 abrogated TGFβ-stimulated phosphorylation of tuberin and PRAS40, leading to inhibition of phosphorylation of S6 kinase, mTOR and 4EBP-1. Moreover, downregulation of miR-21 significantly suppressed TGFβ-induced protein synthesis and hypertrophy, which were reversed by siRNA-targeted inhibition of PTEN expression. Similarly, expression of constitutively active Akt kinase reversed the miR-21 Sponge-mediated inhibition of TGFβ-induced protein synthesis and hypertrophy. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active mTORC1 prevented the miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of mesangial cell protein synthesis and hypertrophy by TGFβ. Finally, we show that miR-21 Sponge inhibited TGFβ-stimulated fibronectin and collagen expression. Suppression of PTEN expression and expression of both constitutively active Akt kinase and mTORC1 independently reversed this miR-21-mediated inhibition of TGFβ-induced fibronectin and collagen expression. Our results uncover an essential role of TGFβ-induced expression of miR-21, which targets PTEN to initiate a non-canonical signaling circuit involving Akt/mTORC1 axis for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein synthesis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42316. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metastatic renal cancer manifests multiple signatures of gene expression. Deviation in expression of mature miRNAs has been linked to human cancers. Importance of miR-21 in renal cell carcinomas is proposed from profiling studies using tumor tissue samples. However, the role of miR-21 function in causing renal cancer cell proliferation and invasion has not yet been shown. Using cultured renal carcinoma cells, we demonstrate enhanced expression of mature miR-21 along with pre-and pri-miR-21 by increased transcription compared to normal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-21 Sponge to quench endogenous miR-21 levels inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of renal cancer cells. In the absence of mutation in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene, PTEN protein levels are frequently downregulated in renal cancer. We show that miR-21 targets PTEN mRNA 3'untranslated region to decrease PTEN protein expression and augments Akt phosphorylation in renal cancer cells. Downregulation of PTEN as well as overexpression of constitutively active Akt kinase prevented miR-21 Sponge-induced inhibition of renal cancer cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, we show that miR-21 Sponge inhibited the inactivating phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor protein tuberin and attenuated TORC1 activation. Finally, we demonstrate that expression of constitutively active TORC1 attenuated miR-21 Sponge-mediated suppression of proliferation and migration of renal cancer cells. Our results uncover a layer of post-transcriptional regulation of PTEN by transcriptional activation of miR-21 to force the canonical oncogenic Akt/TORC1 signaling conduit to drive renal cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e37366. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study was undertaken to explore the effect of rapamycin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on the metabolic profile of type 2 diabetic mice. Seven-month-old diabetic db/db mice and their lean littermate non-diabetic controls (db/m) were randomized to receive control chow or chow mixed with rapamycin (2.24 mg/kg/day) (each group n =20, males and females) for 4 months and sacrificed. Serum samples were analyzed for the measurement of glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and total protein, using the automated dry chemistry analysis. Rapamycin elevated serum glucose in female diabetic mice. Serum creatinine tended to be higher in diabetic mice but was not affected by rapamycin; there was no difference in BUN levels among the groups. Serum ALP was elevated in diabetic mice and rapamycin lowered it only in female diabetic mice; serum ALT levels were increased in female diabetic mice, unaffected by rapamycin. Serum total protein was elevated in diabetic mice of both genders but was not affected by rapamycin. Diabetic mice from both genders had elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides; rapamycin did not affect serum cholesterol but decreased serum total triglycerides in male diabetic mice. We conclude that rapamycin elicits complex metabolic responses in aging diabetic mice, worsening hyperglycemia in females but improving ALP in female diabetic and total triglycerides in male diabetic mice, respectively. The metabolic effects of rapamycin should be considered while performing studies with rapamycin in mice.
    Pathobiology of aging & age related diseases. 01/2012; 2.
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) function to block growth factor-induced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and are mutated in autosomal dominant hamartoma syndromes. mTOR binds to a spectrum of common and different proteins to form TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TORC2, which regulate cell growth, division, and metabolism. TSC2 deficiency induces constitutive activation of mTOR, leading to a state of insulin resistance due to a negative feedback regulation, resulting in reduced Akt phosphorylation. We have recently described an alternative mechanism showing that in TSC2 deficiency, enhanced PTEN expression contributes to reduced Akt phosphorylation. To explore the mechanism of PTEN regulation, we used rapamycin and constitutively active mTOR to show that TORC1 increases the expression of PTEN mRNA and protein. We found that in TSC2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts expression of a kinase-dead mutant of mTOR, which inhibits both TORC1 and TORC2, decreases the expression of PTEN via transcriptional mechanism. Furthermore, kinase-dead mTOR increased and decreased phosphorylation of Akt at catalytic loop site Thr-308 and hydrophobic motif site Ser-473, respectively. Moreover, inhibition of deregulated TORC1 in TSC2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in 293 cells by down-regulation of raptor decreased the levels of the transcription factor Hif1α and blocked PTEN expression, resulting in enhanced phosphorylation of Akt at Thr-308 and Ser-473. Finally, knockdown of rictor or mSin1 attenuated the expression of Hif1α, which decreased transcription of PTEN. These results unravel a previously unrecognized cell-autonomous function of TORC1 and TORC2 in the up-regulation of PTEN, which prevents phosphorylation of Akt and may shield against the development of malignancy in TSC patients.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 287(6):3808-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling gas, affects several cell functions. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide modulates high glucose (30 mm) stimulation of matrix protein synthesis in glomerular epithelial cells. High glucose stimulation of global protein synthesis, cellular hypertrophy, and matrix laminin and type IV collagen content was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H(2)S donor. High glucose activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), shown by phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, was inhibited by NaHS. High glucose stimulated mTORC1 to promote key events in the initiation and elongation phases of mRNA translation: binding of eIF4A to eIF4G, reduction in PDCD4 expression and inhibition of its binding to eIF4A, eEF2 kinase phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation of eEF2; these events were inhibited by NaHS. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an inhibitor of protein synthesis, was examined. NaHS dose-dependently stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and restored AMPK phosphorylation reduced by high glucose. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abolished NaHS modulation of high glucose effect on events in mRNA translation as well as global and matrix protein synthesis. NaHS induction of AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by siRNA for calmodulin kinase kinase β, but not LKB1, upstream kinases for AMPK; STO-609, a calmodulin kinase kinase β inhibitor, had the same effect. Renal cortical content of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes, was significantly reduced in mice with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, coinciding with renal hypertrophy and matrix accumulation. Hydrogen sulfide is a newly identified modulator of protein synthesis in the kidney, and reduction in its generation may contribute to kidney injury in diabetes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 287(7):4451-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia induces a wide array of signaling pathways in the kidney that lead to hypertrophy and matrix expansion, eventually culminating in progressive kidney failure. High glucose-induced reduction of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome 10 (PTEN) contributes to renal cell hypertrophy and matrix expansion. We identified microRNA-21 (miR-21) as the molecular link between high glucose and PTEN suppression. Renal cortices from OVE26 type 1 diabetic mice showed significantly elevated levels of miR-21 associated with reduced PTEN and increased fibronectin content. In renal mesangial cells, high glucose increased the expression of miR-21, which targeted the 3'-UTR of PTEN mRNA to inhibit PTEN protein expression. Overexpression of miR-21 mimicked the action of high glucose, which included a reduction in PTEN expression and a concomitant increase in Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, expression of miR-21 Sponge, to inhibit endogenous miR-21, prevented down-regulation of PTEN and phosphorylation of Akt induced by high glucose. Interestingly, high glucose-stimulated miR-21 inactivated PRAS40, a negative regulator of TORC1. Finally, miR-21 enhanced high glucose-induced TORC1 activity, resulting in renal cell hypertrophy and fibronectin expression. Thus, our results identify a previously unrecognized function of miR-21 that is the reciprocal regulation of PTEN levels and Akt/TORC1 activity that mediate critical pathologic features of diabetic kidney disease.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(29):25586-603. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia induces a wide array of signaling pathways in the kidney that lead to hypertrophy and matrix expansion, eventually culminating in progressive kidney failure. High glucose-induced reduction of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN contributes to renal cell hypertrophy and matrix expansion. We identified miR-21 as the molecular link between high glucose and PTEN suppression. Renal cortices from OVE26 type 1 diabetic mice showed significantly elevated levels of miR-21 associated with reduced PTEN and increased fibronectin content. In renal mesangial cells, high glucose increased the expression of miR-21, which targeted the 3′UTR of PTEN mRNA to inhibit PTEN protein expression. Overexpression of miR-21 mimicked the action of high glucose, which included a reduction in PTEN expression and a concomitant increase in Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, expression of miR-21 Sponge, to inhibit endogenous miR-21, prevented downregulation of PTEN and phosphorylation of Akt induced by high glucose. Interestingly, high glucose-stimulated miR-21 inactivated PRAS40, a negative regulator of TORC1. Finally, miR-21 enhanced high glucose-induced TORC1 activity, resulting in renal cell hypertrophy and fibronectin expression. Thus our results identify a previously unrecognized function of miR-21 that is the reciprocal regulation of PTEN levels and Akt/TORC1 activity that mediate critical pathologic features of diabetic kidney disease.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Akt kinase signaling pathway is frequently deregulated in many human diseases including cancer, autoimmune disease and diabetes. In nephropathy, associated with diabetes, increased Akt signal transduction results in glomerular especially mesangial cell hypertrophy. The mechanism of Akt activation by elevated glucose is poorly understood. The oncogene DJ-1 prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease and in culture. We identified DJ-1 to increase in response to high glucose in renal glomerular mesangial cells concomitant with an increase in phosphorylation of Akt in a time-dependent manner. Plasmid-derived overexpression as well as downregulation of DJ-1 by siRNA showed the requirement of this protein in high glucose-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. The tumor suppressor protein PTEN acts as a negative regulator of Akt activation. Interestingly, DJ-1 was associated with PTEN and this interaction was significantly increased in response to high glucose. High glucose-induced increase in DJ-1 promoted phosphorylation of the PRAS40, a negative regulator of TORC1 kinase activity, resulting in activating and inactivating phosphorylation of S6 kinase and 4EBP-1, respectively. Furthermore, DJ-1 increased protein synthesis and hypertrophy of mesangial cells. Our results provide evidence for a unique mechanism whereby DJ-1 induces Akt/PRAS40/TORC1-mediated hypertrophy in response to high glucose.
    Cellular Signalling 03/2011; 23(8):1311-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
589.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2013
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Cellular and Structural Biology
      San Antonio, TX, United States
  • 1993–2012
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Lubbock, TX, United States
  • 1989–2012
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler
      Tyler, Texas, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Texas at San Antonio
      San Antonio, Texas, United States