K. Kim

Sejong University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (816)1101.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The independent isomeric yield ratios of 87m,g Y produced from the 93 Nb(γ, α2n) and nat Zr(γ, px n) reactions with the end-point bremsstrahlung energy of 45–70 MeV have been determined by an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang accelerator laboratory, Korea. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,g Y were also determined from the nat Zr(p, αx n) and the 89 Y(p, p2n) reactions with E P = 15–45 MeV as well as those from the 89 Y(α, α2n) reaction with Eα = 32–43 MeV using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Korea. The iso-meric yield ratios of 87m,g Y from the present work in the 93 Nb(γ, α2n), nat Zr(γ, px n), nat Zr(p, αx n), 89 Y(p, p2n), and 89 Y(α, α2n) reactions were compared with those of the literature data in the 85 Rb(α, 2n), the 86,87,88 Sr(d, x n), 89 Y(n, 3n), and the 89 Y(γ, 2n) reactions to examine the role of target, projectiles, and ejec-tiles through compound nucleus excitation energy and input angular momentum. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,g Y in the above eleven reactions were also calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.4 and com-pared with the experimental data. The different behaviors between photon-and neutron-induced reactions and charged-particle–induced reactions are discussed from the viewpoint of compound and non-compound (pre-equilibrium) process.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Collection of sufficient CD34+ cells for autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation is frequently failed in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM). We investigated the incidence and the predictive factors for poor mobilization.Materials and MethodsA total of 205 adult patients (101 lymphoma and 104 MM) were retrospectively included for identifying the incidence of mobilization failure and the predictive factors for poor mobilization in conventional G-CSF-based mobilization regimen. Another 17 patients who used plerixafor for mobilization were included.ResultsOverall, 14·1% of patients (21·8% of patients with lymphoma, 6·7% of patients with MM) were poor mobilizers. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis revealed an interval from G-CSF administration to PBSC collection exceeding 10 days and peripheral blood mononuclear cells count on the first day of collection were predictive factors for poor mobilization in lymphoma, but not in MM. Among plerixafor-treated patient group, 9 of 11 poor mobilizers who received second-cycle plerixafor mobilization were able to collect higher number of CD34+ cells than that of CD34+ cells during the G-CSF-based first mobilization. All patients who had received initial plerixafor mobilization reached 2·0 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg during the four leukaphereses.Conclusion In conventional G-CSF-based mobilization, early PBSC collection after G-CSF administration might enhance CD34+ cell yield. A combination of a new mobilizing agent, plerixafor, would be helpful to harvest sufficient number of CD34+ cells for successful transplantation outcome while reducing the effort of collection procedures in poor mobilizers.
    Vox Sanguinis 07/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastrointestinal (GI) disease has been noticed frequently in cancer patients, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and GI bleeding. However, little is known about its actual incidence, clinical presentation, and the risk factors for its development among cancer patients. To answer these questions, we analyzed all cases that occurred during an 18-year period at our center. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for CMV GI disease. Electronic medical records were reviewed from individuals who were admitted and diagnosed with CMV GI disease during the period of January 1995 through March 2013 at a tertiary care center. Two CMV disease-free cancer patients were matched as controls. A total of 98 episodes of CMV GI disease were included in this study, and the overall incidence rate was 52.5 per 100,000 cancer patients, with an increasing trend throughout the study period. According to multivariate analysis, male sex, low body mass index, lymphopenia, hematological malignancy, and steroid use and red blood cell transfusion within 1 month prior to the CMV disease were identified to be independent risk factors. Among these factors, RBC transfusion showed the highest odds ratio (OR = 5.09). Male sex, low body mass index, lymphopenia, hematological malignancy, steroid use, and red blood cell transfusion within 1 month prior to the CMV disease diagnosis were independent risk factors for the development of CMV GI disease in adult patients with cancer.
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    Fusion Science and Technology 01/2014; 65:88. · 0.52 Impact Factor
  • K. Kim, J. Choi, M. Seo, S. Nam
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    ABSTRACT: A 500 MHz On-Off Keying (OOK) transmitter integrated with a high-efficiency wideband power amplifier (PA) is designed for low-power/high-data rate applications. The PA biased in Class C region, employs a bias current-reused and an RF current-combining structure to achieve a high-efficiency and high-data rate. The transmitter is fabricated using a 0.13 $mu$m CMOS process. The chip size is 0.6 mm$^{2}$ and the measured drain efficiency of the PA reaches 59.5% at 500 MHz with 1.62 dBm output power while consuming only 2.52 mW dc power from a 3 V power supply. The efficiency of the transmitter is 38.4% and the energy usage is 22 pJ/bit at a data rate of 100 Mbps with ${-}0.75$ dBm average output power.
    IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 01/2014; 24(6):424-426. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a linear precoding scheme for a single user multiple-input–multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system to minimize peak to average power ratio (PAPR) by using redundant spatial resources at the transmitter through a singular-value-decomposition-based generalized inverse. The proposed precoder based on the generalized inverse is composed of two parts. One is for minimizing PAPR, and the other is for obtaining the multiplexing gain. Moreover, the proposed precoder contains a scalar parameter $alpha$ that quantifies the received signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) loss at the cost of PAPR reduction. Even in cases of small SNR loss, the proposed scheme dramatically reduces PAPR. Furthermore, simulation results show that we can obtain a PAPR close to 1 by using dozens of transmission antennas with small SNR loss.
    IEEE Communications Letters 01/2014; 18(8):1363-1366. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Several new biomarkers for the detection of early tubular injury have been investigated in kidney transplant recipients. We recently identified day 2 urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a predictor of slow graft function and adverse 1-year outcome. In the present study, we further investigated the value of urinary NGAL and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for predicting long-term graft outcomes up to 2 years. Methods This study was a single-center, prospective observational study. Serial urinary NGAL and L-FABP levels at 0 hours, 2 days, and 6 days after kidney transplantation (KT) were measured, and the clinical data were assessed during the 2-year period after KT. Results During the 2-year follow-up period, 13 (18.8%), 5 (7.2%), and 4 (5.8%) patients were diagnosed with acute T-cell–mediated rejection, acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and chronic AMR, respectively. In addition, 10 patients (14.3%) developed calcineurin inhibitor toxicity and 6 (8.7%) developed BK viremia. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) at 1 and 2 years after KT were 65.1 ± 19.1 and 58.5 ± 22.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively, When poor long-term graft function was defined as eGFR of less than 50 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 2 years, elderly donors, acute rejection, and high 0-hour urinary L-FABP levels were significant risk factors. Furthermore, in rejection-free patients, L-FABP was strongly associated with poor long-term graft function (P = .006). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high 0-hour L-FABP (P = .015) and acute rejection (P = .006) were independent factors predicting poor long-term graft function. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for urinary L-FABP was 0.692 (P = .036). Conclusions Our results suggest that urinary L-FABP may be a useful predictor of adverse long-term outcomes in KT patients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2014; 46(2):376–380. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As NAND flash cell sizes have been scaled down, endurance characteristics have suffered severe limitations in the NAND flash memory. Two NAND flash cell structures, the wing spacer structure and the no wing spacer structure, have been constructed to compare their endurance characteristics. The wing spacer structure has more trap sites at the active edge area due to program/erase (P/E) cycle stress because of the short distance from the active edge to the control poly. Thus, the endurance characteristics are degraded by traps generated at the active edge area. In addition, it has been confirmed that the threshold voltage (VT) shift of the wing spacer structure was about 15.2% higher in erased cells and 10.9 % higher in programmed cells than those of the no wing spacer structure after the stress of 104 P/E cycles.
    Electronics Letters 01/2014; 50(10):739-741. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • J.H. Han, K. Kim, W.Y. Choi
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    ABSTRACT: The bit-to-bit interference (BI) of multibit nano-electromechanical memory cells (T cells) has been investigated, and an analytical model of BI has been derived. The relationship between the BI and the cell size is discussed using both the analytical and the finite-element-method models. It has been found that BI is independent of the cell size as long as all the geometrical dimensions are scaled down in proportion. However, in actual cases, BI becomes more severe as the cell size decreases owing to the nonscaling parameters.
    IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 01/2014; 13(4):659-666. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis, which is anti-inflammatory, and necrosis, which is pro-inflammatory, represent the extremes of the cell death spectrum. Cell death is complex and both apoptosis and necrosis can be observed in the same cells or tissues. Here, we introduce a novel combined mode of cellular demise - caspase-dependent regulated necrosis. Most importantly, it is mainly characterized with release of marked amount of oligo- or poly-nucleosomes and their attached damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and initiated by caspase activation. Caspase-activated DNase has dual roles in nucleosomal release as it can degrade extracellularly released chromatin into poly- or oligo-nucleosomes although it prohibits release of nucleosomes. In addition, osmotically triggered water movement following Cl(-) influx and subsequent Na(+) influx appears to be the major driving force for nucleosomal and DAMPs release. Finally, Ca(2+)-activated cysteine protease, calpain, is an another essential factor in nucleosomal and DAMPs release because of complete reversion to apoptotic morphology from necrotic one and blockade of nucleosomal and DAMPs release by its inhibition.Cell Death and Disease (2014) 5, e1494; doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.450; published online 30 October 2014.
    Cell Death & Disease 01/2014; 5:e1494. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Principle of tolerance design is receiving increased research focus to determine the optimal tradeoff between manufacturing cost and quality. However, current tolerance designs are not suitable for products such as electromagnetic devices that require high reliability, i.e., a very low failure rate. In this paper, a new tolerance design named as reliability-based optimum tolerance design is formulated and performed to guarantee the high reliability of the products while maximizing manufacturing tolerances. The proposed method quantifies the reliability using reliability analysis, which reflects the tolerance in the tolerance design. To validate the proposed method, tolerance design is applied to two examples: 1) a magnetic circuit ($C$ -core) and 2) a mass-produced interior permanent magnet motor that contains manufacturing tolerances of permanent magnet.
    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 01/2014; 50(2):713-716. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systematic investigation on thermal and mechanical properties of Cu60−xZr25Ti15Nix bulk metallic glasses with x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 at.% points out that monolithic Cu53Zr25Ti15Ni7 and Cu51Zr25Ti15Ni9 bulk metallic glasses containing optimum Ni content of 7 and 9 at.% are effective to enhance both thermal stability of amorphous structure up to 716 K and plastic strain of 2.4% at room temperature. This indicates that a selection of additional elements such as Ni by considering a mixing enthalpy to the constituent elements is very important to control the thermal stability and plasticity. Moreover, it is believed that the addition of minor Ni can be a trigger to form the chemical heterogeneity upon solidification. Such chemical heterogeneity formed by the selection of the minor elements has a strong influence to cause the oscillation of the shear stress by wavy propagation of the shear bands thus leading the improvement of macroscopic plasticity of the bulk metallic glasses.
    Metals and Materials International 01/2014; 20(1). · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • O Lee, K Lee, C Oh, K Kim, M Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of conditions such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, in the case of induration, involves palpating the infected area via hands and then selecting a ratings score. However, the score is determined based on the tester's experience and standards, making it subjective. To provide tactile feedback on the skin, we developed a prototype tactile feedback system to simulate skin wrinkles with PHANToM OMNI. To provide the user with tactile feedback on skin wrinkles, a visual and haptic Augmented Reality system was developed. First, a pair of stereo skin images obtained by a stereo camera generates a disparity map of skin wrinkles. Second, the generated disparity map is sent to an implemented tactile rendering algorithm that computes a reaction force according to the user's interaction with the skin image. We first obtained a stereo image of skin wrinkles from the in vivo stereo imaging system, which has a baseline of 50.8 μm, and obtained the disparity map with a graph cuts algorithm. The left image is displayed on the monitor to enable the user to recognize the location visually. The disparity map of the skin wrinkle image sends skin wrinkle information as a tactile response to the user through a haptic device. We successfully developed a tactile feedback system for virtual skin wrinkle simulation by means of a commercialized haptic device that provides the user with a single point of contact to feel the surface roughness of a virtual skin sample.
    Skin Research and Technology 11/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: National Health Insurance (NHI) claim records could provide valuable data for epidemiological studies of asthma in Korea. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of adult asthma and to investigate asthma-related healthcare use and prescription patterns in Korea over 5 years. National Health Insurance claim records from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2010 were analyzed in a retrospective, population-based study. Outcome measures included asthma prevalence, healthcare use, and prescription patterns over time, by type of hospital, and by medical specialty. Additionally, we assessed differences in healthcare use between newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed patients in 2009. Over 5 years, the prevalence of asthma among Korean adults increased from 4944 to 5707 cases per 100 000 population (from 3760 to 4445 in men and from 6108 to 6951 in women). Asthma-related outpatient visits decreased from 4.82 ± 8.02 to 3.44 ± 5.50. Approximately 3% of all patients were hospitalized and 2.4% received asthma-related emergency treatment each year. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 10-11% of patients an average of 1.3 times per year. Newly diagnosed patients experienced fewer asthma-related hospitalizations (1.78% vs 4.35%) and emergency department visits (0.80% vs 2.11%) than the previously diagnosed group. Prescriptions of inhaled corticosteroids-based inhalers were maintained with about 20% of average of all types of hospitals. The prevalence of asthma in Korea has increased over a recent 5-year period, and asthma is still suboptimally controlled. Public health strategies are needed to improve the management of asthma in adults.
    Allergy 10/2013; · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present studies of the transport properties of a Pb82Bi18 and Sn superconducting film with an array of parallel nickel or cobalt magnetic nanostripes (500 nm period) deposited on the top of a germanium insulating layer covering the superconducting film surface. The critical current parallel to the stripes is significantly larger than critical current perpendicular to the stripes for Pb82Bi18.
    Physica C Superconductivity 10/2013; · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The photo-neutron cross-sections of 93Nb at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12, 14 and 16 MeV as well as 45, 50, 55, 60 and 70 MeV have been determined by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric techniques using the 20 MeV electron linac (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany, and 100 MeV electron linac at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang, Korea. The 93Nb(γ, xn, x=1–4x=1–4) reaction cross-sections as a function of photon energy were also calculated using computer code TALYS 1.4. The flux-weighted average values were obtained from the experimental and the theoretical (TALYS) values based on mono-energetic photons. The experimental values of present work are in good agreement with the flux-weighted theoretical values of TALYS 1.4 but are slightly higher than the flux-weighted experimental data of mono-energetic photons. It was also found that the theoretical and the experimental values of present work and literature data for the 93Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections increase from the threshold values to a certain energy, where other reaction channels opens. However, the increase of 93Nb(γ, n) and 93Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections are sharper compared to 93Nb(γ, 3n) and 93Nb(γ, 4n) reaction cross-sections. The sharp increase of 93Nb(γ, n) and 93Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections from the threshold value up to 17–22 MeV is due to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) effect besides the role of excitation energy. After a certain values, the individual 93Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections decrease with increase of bremsstrahlung energy due to opening of other reaction channels.
    Nuclear Physics A 10/2013; 916:168 - 182. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The yields of various fission products in the 19.6, 32.2, and 44.8 MeV proton-induced fission of 232Th have been determined by recoil catcher and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the BARC-TIFR Pelletron in India and MC-50 cyclotron in Korea. The mass-yield distributions were obtained from the fission product yield using the charge distribution corrections. The peak-to-valley (P/V) ratio of the present work and that of literature data for 232Th(p,f) and 238U(p,f) were obtained from the mass yield distribution. The present and the existing literature data for 232Th(p,f), 232Th(n,f), and 232Th(γ,f) at various energies were compared with those for 238U(p,f), 238U(n,f), and 238U(γ,f) to examine the probable nuclear structure effect. The role of Th-anomaly on the peak-to-valley ratio in proton-, neutron-, and photon-induced fission of 232Th was discussed with the similar data in 238U. On the other hand, the fine structure in the mass yield distributions of the fissioning systems at various excitation energies has been explained from the point of standard I and II asymmetric mode of fission besides the probable role of even-odd effect, A/Z ratio, and fissility parameter.
    European Physical Journal A 10/2013; 49(10). · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the important rotational resonances in nonaxisymmetric neoclassical transport has been experimentally validated in the KSTAR tokamak by applying highly nonresonant n=1 magnetic perturbations to rapidly rotating plasmas. These so-called bounce-harmonic resonances are expected to occur in the presence of magnetic braking perturbations when the toroidal rotation is fast enough to resonate with periodic parallel motions of trapped particles. The predicted and observed resonant peak along with the toroidal rotation implies that the toroidal rotation in tokamaks can be controlled naturally in favorable conditions to stability, using nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbations.
    Physical Review Letters 08/2013; 111(9):095002. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between dose-volumetric parameters and the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) following curative resection for upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Medical records of patients who underwent postoperative CRT following curative resection, either pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) or pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) for upper GI cancers including pancreas, biliary, ampullary, and duodenal cancers, between January 2006 and December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 42 patients who were regularly followed for at least 2 years were included for analysis. Dose-volumetric parameters such as remnant pancreatic volume, mean dose, maximum dose (Dmax), and percentage of volume receiving specific dose or more were obtained from pre- and postoperative CT scan images and treatment plan. Dmax and V50 (percentage of volume receiving at least 50 Gy) were statistically significant factors for the development of DM (p = 0.013, p = 0.031, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of Dmax was 0.875 and 0.559, with cut-off value of 51.1 Gy, respectively. V50 had sensitivity of 0.875 and specificity of 0.618 for cut-off value of 16 %. No patient-related factor other than pretreatment cerebrovascular events was associated with the development of DM. On multivariate analysis, V50 was the only factor with statistical significance (p = 0.028), whereas Dmax showed borderline significance (p = 0.079). V50 was the only independent factor associated with the development of diabetes and may function as guideline to predict the development of DM in patients receiving CRT following curative resection.
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 08/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,101.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Sejong University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2014
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Samsung Medical Center
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1988–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      • • Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Pohang Accelerator Laboratory
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Gimcheon University
      Gimcheon, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2006–2013
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Dental Biomaterials
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Energy Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hanyang University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1985–2013
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      • • Center for Atomic Wires and Layers
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2012
    • Pusan National University
      • • School of Korean Medicine
      • • Department of Physics
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2011
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2011
    • Texas A&M University
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • Department of Chemistry
      College Station, TX, United States
  • 2000–2011
    • Yeungnam University
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      • • School of Chemical Engineering
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Ewha Womans University
      • School of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1997–2011
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1993–2011
    • Inje University
      Kŭmhae, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Kangnam University
      Risen, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kookmin University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Ajou University
      • Division of Energy Systems Research
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Dong-A University
      • College of Natural Resources and Life Science
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Kongju National University
      Gongju, South Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Daegu University
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Samsung Thales
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Keimyung University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2009
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • Georgia Electronic Design Center
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      Anzan, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Physics
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • Pukyong National University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 1999–2008
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2007
    • Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Institute for Physical Science and Technology
      College Park, MD, United States
    • University of Suwon
      Suigen, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2002–2006
    • Korea Basic Science Institute KBSI
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hannam University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2003–2005
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 1991–2005
    • Korea University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Maritime and Ocean University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2002–2004
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 1993–2004
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Industrial Engineering
      • • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1998–2002
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Wonkwang University
      Riri, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 1996–2002
    • Louisiana State University
      • • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Baton Rouge, LA, United States
  • 2001
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States
    • Tsinghua University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      University Park, MD, United States
  • 1993–2001
    • Chonnam National University
      • • Hormone Research Center
      • • Department of Biology
      Yeoju, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 1998–2000
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States
  • 1996–1997
    • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
      • Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1985–1997
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Urbana, IL, United States
  • 1994
    • Jeonju University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Gyeongsang National University
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1986–1994
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1987
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada