Sang Hyun Kim

Korea Maritime University, Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea

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Publications (131)187.61 Total impact

  • Heung Bae Jeon, Kyoung Tae Kim, Sang Hyun Kim
    Tetrahedron Letters 07/2014; 55(29):3905–3908. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of behavioral sensitization following repeated cocaine exposure. We hypothesized that increased ROS following cocaine exposure would act as signaling molecules in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which might play an important role in mediating the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate cocaine enhancement of brain metabolic activity and the effects of ROS scavengers on cocaine self-administration behavior, cocaine-induced ROS production in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and cocaine enhancement of DA release in the NAc. Metabolic neural activity monitored by temperature and oxidative stress were increased in NAc following cocaine exposure. Systemic administration of the ROS scavenger N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN) or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), either pre- or post-treatment, significantly decreased cocaine self-administration without affecting food intake. Infusion of TEMPOL into the NAc inhibited cocaine self-administration. Increased oxidative stress was found mainly on neurons, but not astrocytes, microglia or oligodendrocytes, in NAc of rats self-administering cocaine. TEMPOL significantly attenuated cocaine-induced enhancement of DA release in the NAc, compared to saline controls. TEMPOL had no effect on the enhancement of DA release produced by the DA transporter inhibitor GBR12909. Taken together, these findings suggest that enhancement of ROS production in NAc neurons contributes to the reinforcing effect of cocaine.
    Addiction Biology 06/2014; · 5.91 Impact Factor
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    Jun Hee Park, Sang Hyun Kim, Ki Hong Cho
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    ABSTRACT: To verify the clinical outcomes of posterior C2-C3 fixation for unstable Hangman's fracture compared with posterior C1-C3 fixation.
    Korean Journal of Spine. 06/2014; 11(2):33-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Silibinin, an effective anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent, has been shown to exert multiple effects on cancer cells, including inhibition of both cell proliferation and migration. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood. We observed that silibinin significantly induced the expression of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) in both p53 wild-type and p53-null cancer cell lines, suggesting that silibinin-induced NAG-1 up-regulation is p53-independent manner. Silibinin up-regulates EGR-1 expression. The ectopic expression of EGR-1 significantly increased NAG-1 promoter activity and NAG-1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, down-regulation of EGR-1 expression using siRNA markedly reduced silibinin-mediated NAG-1 expression, suggesting that the expression of EGR-1 is critical for silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. We also observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by silibinin; however, ROS did not affect silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression and apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) signal transduction pathway is involved in silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. Inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) attenuated silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. Furthermore, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of NAG-1 attenuated silibinin-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time that up-regulation of NAG-1 contributes to silibinin-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.
    Chemico-biological interactions 01/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports empirical and numerical analyses on the electrical behavior of no-insulation (NI) coil. The spiral and radial current flows of NI coil in the case of the nominal operation and over-current condition are quantitatively identified using numerical analysis. Moreover, the origins of charging/discharging delays and magnetic field saturation are discussed in detail. Experimental results are also compared with the simulations to validate the numerical approach.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 01/2014; 24(3):1-4. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 1,2,3-triazole crosslinked polymers with potential use as a binder system in solid rocket propellants were prepared by mixing of an azide chain-ends diazide prepolymer, a dipolarophile curing agent, which act as a crosslinker, and a plasticizer at C 3
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 01/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) with an MgO insulator was fabricated on a silicon (100) substrate using a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering system. The MgO insulator was deposited using the same deposition system; the total pressure during the deposition process was maintained at 5 mTorr, and the oxygen percentage of O2/(Ar + O2) was set at 30%, 50%, or 70%. The process temperature was maintained at below 300°C. The dielectric constant of the MgO thin layer was approximately 11.35 with an oxygen percentage of 70%. This ZnO TFT displayed enhanced transistor properties, with a field-effect mobility of 0.0235 cm2·V-1·s-1, an ION/IOFF ratio of ∼105, and an SS value of 1.18 V·decade-1; these properties were superior to those measured for the MgO insulators synthesized using oxygen percentages of 30% and 50%.
    Current Applied Physics 01/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Withaferin A, a withanolide derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumorigenic activity against various cancer cells. In this study, we show that withaferin A inhibits the constitutive and recombinant human growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (rhGas6)-induced phosphorylation of Axl and STAT3. In addition, withaferin A also induces the down-regulation of Axl protein expression in a lysosome-dependent manner and inhibits rhGas6-induced wound healing and cell migration. Furthermore, the overexpression of Axl attenuates withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data from the present study indicate that the withaferin A-mediated down-regulation of the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway mediates the inhibition of cell migration and the induction of apoptosis.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.
    Natural product communications 12/2013; 8(12):1739-40. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary spinal cord melanoma is a rare central nervous system malignant tumor. Usually it resembles an intradural extramedullary (IDEM) nerve sheath tumor or melanoma. We experienced a patient with upper thoracic primary IDEM spinal cord melanoma who was diagnosed to be with hydrocephalus and without intracranial lesions. Initial symptoms of the patient were related to the hydrocephalus and the primary spinal cord melanoma was diagnosed eight months later. At the first operation, complete resection was impossible and the patient refused additional radiotherapy or chemotherapy. At 22 months after surgery, the patient revisited our institution with recurrent both leg weakness. Leptomeningeal dissemination was present in the whole spinal cord and only partial resection of tumor was performed. The symptoms slightly improved after surgery. Primary spinal cord melanoma is extremely rare but complete resection and additional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can prolong the disease free interval. Hydrocephalus or signs of increased intracranial pressure may be the diagnostic clue of spinal cord malignancy and progression.
    Brain tumor research and treatment. 10/2013; 1(2):116-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Object Several controversial issues arise in the management of unstable hangman's fractures. Some surgeons perform external reduction and immobilize the patient's neck in a halo vest, while others perform surgical reduction and internal fixation. The nonsurgical treatments with rigid collar or halo vest immobilization present problems, including nonunion, pseudarthrosis, skull fracture, and scalp laceration and may also fail to achieve anatomical realignment of the local C2-3 kyphosis. With recent advances in surgical technique and technology, surgical intervention is increasingly performed as the primary treatment in high cervical fractures. The outcomes of such surgeries are often superior to those of conservative treatment. The authors propose that surgical intervention as a primary management for hangman's fracture may avoid risks inherent in conservative management when severe circumferential discoligamentous instability is present and may reduce the risk of catastrophic results at the fracture site. The purposes of this study were to assess fracture healing following expedient reduction and surgical fixation and to propose a guideline for treatment of unstable hangman's fractures. Methods From April 2006 to December 2011, the authors treated 105 patients with high cervical fractures. This study included 23 (21.9%) of these patients (15 men and 8 women; mean age 46.4 years) with Type II, IIa, and III hangman's fractures according to the Levine and Edwards classification. The patient's age, sex, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, neurological status, and complications were ascertained. The authors retrospectively assessed the clinical outcome (Neck Disability Index), radiological findings (disc height, translation, and angulation), and bony healing. Results The average follow-up period was 28.9 months (range 12-63.2 months). The overall average Neck Disability Index score at the time of this study was 6.6 ± 2.3. The average duration of hospitalization was 20.3 days, and fusion was achieved in all cases by 14.8 ± 1.6 weeks after surgery, as demonstrated on dynamic radiographs and cervical 3D CT scans. The mean pretreatment translation was 6.9 ± 3.2 mm, and the mean postoperative translation was 1.6 ± 1.8 mm (mean reduction 5.2 ± 3.1 mm). The initial angulation was 4.7° ± 5.3° and the postoperative angulation was 2.5° ± 1.8° (mean reduction 6.1° ± 5.3°). The preoperative and postoperative values for translation and angulation differed significantly (p < 0.05). The overall C2-3 disc height was 6.7 ± 1.2 mm preoperatively, whereas 3 months after surgery it was 6.4 ± 1.1 mm. These values did not differ significantly (p = 0.0963). Conclusions The authors observed effective reduction and bony healing in cases of unstable hangman's fractures after fixation, and all patients experienced favorable clinical outcomes with neck pain improvement. The protocols allowed for physiological reconstruction of the fractured deformities and avoided external fixation. The authors suggest that posterior reduction and screw fixation should be used as a primary treatment to promote stability of hangman's fracture in the presence of discoligamentous instability or combined fractures.
    Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 09/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a retrospective review of 13 unstable Hangman's fractures who underwent posterior C2-3 fixation to describe clinical outcomes with a literature review. Thirteen patients for unstable Hangman's fracture were enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 were included in this study. The medical records of all patients were reviewed. Concurrently, clinical outcomes were evaluated using Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores during preoperative and postoperative follow up period. Plain radiographs were obtained on postoperative 1day, 1week, and then at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months. CT was done at postoperative 12 months in all patients for evaluation of bone fusion. The mean period of clinical follow-up was 17 months. Mean age were 43 years old. Bone fusion was recognized in all cases at the final follow-up. The average preoperative VAS score for neck pain was 8.3±1.1, while the final follow-up VAS score was 2.07±0.8 (p<0.001). The average immediate postoperative NDI was 84% points and final NDI was 22% points (p<0.001). There were one case of infection and 1 case of screw loosening. In the treatment of the patients with unstable Hangman's fracture, posterior C2-C3 fusions is effective and curative treatments to achieve cervical spinal stability.
    Korean Journal of Spine. 09/2013; 10(3):165-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate radiologic result of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with allobone graft and plate augmentation, and the change of radiologic outcome between screw type and insertion angle. Retrospective review of clinical and radiological data of 29 patients. Segmental angle, height and screw angles were measured and followed. The fusion rate was assessed by plain radiography and CT scans. We divided the patients into two groups according to screw type and angles. Group A: fixed screw, Group B: variable screw. Interscrew angle was measured between most upper and lower screws with Cobb's methods. Overall fusion rate was 86.2% on plain radiography. Fusion was also assessed by CT scan and Bridwell's grading system. There was no difference in fusion and subsidence rates between two groups. Subsidence was found in 5 patients (17.2%). Segmental lordotic angle was increased from preoperative status and maximized at the immediate postoperative period and then reduced at 1 year follow up. Segmental height showed similar increase and decrease values. ACDF with allograft and plate showed favorable fusion rates, and the screw type and angle did not affect results of surgery.
    Korean Journal of Spine. 09/2013; 10(3):160-4.
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    Aasif Helal, Sang Hyun Kim, Hong-Seok Kim
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    ABSTRACT: A new reactive and highly selective fluorescent chemosensor (1) based on thiazole was synthesized for the quantification of aluminum ions in ethanol. The mechanism of fluorescence was based on the aluminum-promoted hydrolysis of the ester moiety and subsequent complexation.
    Tetrahedron. 07/2013; 69(30):6095–6099.
  • Sang Hyun Kim, Seung-Hi Lee, Chung Choo Chung
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a method for designing a resonance filter to improve steady-state response as well as transient response in nonminimum-phase systems. The resonance filter was designed via the plant inversion of a minimum-phase reduced-order plant model. With the resonance filter, the state feedback controller based on the nominal second-order rigid body model was used in the servo system. The resonance filter reduces the peak of the magnitude of the sensitivity function while improving the transient response. The numerical case study supports the robustness of the proposed resonance filter against parameter uncertainties.
    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 06/2013; 49(6):2657-2660. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RU486 (mifepristone) exerts an anticancer effect on cancer cells via induction of apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of RU486 on the apoptosis of U937 human leukemia cells. RU486 markedly increased apoptosis in U937 cells as well as in MDA231 human breast carcinoma, A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial and HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. RU486 increased dose-dependent release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm) in RU486‑treated U937 cells. We also found that overexpression of Bcl-2 completely blocked RU486-mediated apoptosis. However, reactive oxygen species signaling had no effect on RU486‑induced apoptosis. RU486 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK, but p38 MAPK only was associated with RU486-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, RU486 induces apoptosis through reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of p38 MAPK in U937 human leukemia cells.
    Oncology Reports 04/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study aimed to elucidate the anatomy of the abdominal head of the pectoralis major (AHPM) in relation to transaxillary breast augmentation (TBA). METHODS: In 20 hemithoraxes of fresh Korean cadavers, the width, thickness, and location of the origin of the AHPM were measured in relation to the seventh rib-costal cartilage junction. A force gauge was used to measure the force needed to detach the AHPM from its origin. In another four breasts, an implant pocket was made first, followed by observation of the AHPM. In 92 patients who underwent surgery, the AHPM was observed at its origin during performance of endoscopic TBA. RESULTS: The AHPM was observed in 23 (96 %) of 24 hemithoraxes dissected. The AHPM was observed in 170 (92.4 %) of 184 breasts subjected to surgery. The AHPM originated from the rectus fascia at the sixth (60 %) and seventh (35 %) costochondral junctions. The width of the AHPM was 23.5 ± 5.2 mm at its origin, 15.2 ± 3.9 mm at midbelly, and 7.3 ± 4.3 mm at insertion. The thickness of the AHPM at its origin was 1.6 ± 0.5 mm. The force needed to detach AHPM from its origin was 23.5 ± 12.0 N. In two cadavers of mock surgery, the AHPM could limit the boundary of the implant pocket after division of the costal origins. After division of the AHPM, the free inferior space was obtained. CONCLUSION: In submuscular or dual-plane breast augmentation, the AHPM should be cut to place the implant in the correct desired position. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .
    Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 02/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eight phenolic glycosides, tachioside (1), isotachioside (2), koaburaside (3), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 4,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), a mixture of erigeside C (6a) and salidroside (6b), and 6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from the stems of Lindera obtusiloba Blume. The structures of the isolates were determined by 1H-, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC spectroscopy. To evaluate their anti-allergic inflammatory activities, the inhibitory effects of isolates (1-7) on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-6 were examined using human mast cells; previous studies have reported that TNF-alpha and IL-6 release from mast cells is positively related to the severity of allergic symptoms. Of the tested compounds, koaburaside (3), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), and (6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) suppressed histamine release from mast cells as compared with gallic acid (positive control). In particular, 6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) attenuated the gene expressions of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in human mast cells. Our results support the notion that phenolic glycosides isolated from L. obtusiloba inhibit mast-cell-derived allergic inflammation, histamine, and proinflammatory cytokines.
    Natural product communications 02/2013; 8(2):181-2. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to precisely determine the course of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) in the axillary region and as it is related to bony landmarks, and all of this might be of use for transaxillary breast augmentation. METHODS: Thirty hemithoraxes of 15 fresh cadavers of Korean adults were dissected. After removal of the skin, the ICBN from its origin was identified. The point of emergence (EP) and the branching point (BP) were marked on translucent paper. RESULTS: The ICBN appeared at the second intercostal space approximately (mean ± SD; 33.4 ± 12.7) mm lateral to the midclavicular line and 9.8 ± 6.4 mm medial to the lateral border of the pectoralis minor (P minor) muscle. The mean (SD) distance from the lower border of the second rib to the EP was 5.2 ± 2.0 mm. The mean ± SD distance from the upper border of the third rib to the EP was 12.7 ± 3.3 mm. It traveled inferolaterally (mean ± SD) 15.1 ± 10.4 degrees from the horizontal plane) 39.4 ± 19.2 mm to reach to the BP. The BP was located at the second intercostal space approximately (mean ± SD) 59.4 ± 21.2 mm lateral to the midclavicular line and 28.5 ± 18.2 mm lateral to the lateral border of the P minor muscle. The mean ± SD distance from the lower border of the second rib to the BP was 11.3 ± 5.4 mm. The mean ± SD distance from the upper border of the third rib to the BP was 6.3 ± 7.1 mm. At the BP, the ICBN gave off a medial brachial cutaneous nerve, and this coursed superolaterally [mean (mean ± SD, 50.7 ± 15.1 degrees from the horizontal plane) toward the medial surface of the upper arm. The mean ± SD depth of the ICBN from the superficial surface of the pectoralis major and P minor was 22.7 ± 5.7 mm and 15.0 ± 5.2 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: When performing mammary augmentation, care should be taken not to dissect the undersurface of the P minor at the second intercostal space to avoid injury to the ICBN.
    Annals of plastic surgery 01/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus is the autoimmune response against self nuclear Ags, including dsDNA. The increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β has been found in the cutaneous lesion and PBMCs from lupus patients, suggesting a potential involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of lupus. IL-1β is produced primarily by innate immune cells such as monocytes and can promote a Th17 cell response, which is increased in lupus. IL-1β production requires cleaving pro-IL-β into IL-1β by the caspase-1-associated multiprotein complex called inflammasomes. In this study we show that self dsDNA induces IL-1β production from human monocytes dependent on serum or purified IgG containing anti-dsDNA Abs by activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and K(+) efflux were involved in this activation. Knocking down the NLRP3 or inhibiting caspase-1, ROS, and K(+) efflux decreased IL-1β production. Supernatants from monocytes treated with a combination of self dsDNA and anti-dsDNA Ab(+) serum promoted IL-17 production from CD4(+) T cells in an IL-1β-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights in lupus pathogenesis by demonstrating that self dsDNA together with its autoantibodies induces IL-1β production from human monocytes by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through inducing ROS synthesis and K(+) efflux, leading to the increased Th17 cell response.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
187.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Korea Maritime University
      • Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Daegu Haany University
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Kwangwoon University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2014
    • Ajou University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Changwon Polytechnic College
      Shōgen, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Yeungnam University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2005–2014
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • School of Business Administration
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chosun University
      • Research Center for Resistant Cells
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Catholic Institute for Applied Anatomy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Hanyang University
      • • Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2013
    • Keimyung University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea University of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • Inje University
      • College of Medicine
      Kimhae, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Yale University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      New Haven, CT, United States
    • Soonchunhyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Asan, South Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Korea Electronics Technology Institute
      • Electronic Materials and Device Research Center
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • Good Samsun Hospital
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2002–2011
    • Seoul National University
      • School of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2011
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Samsung Medical Center
      • • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • University of Ulsan
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2007–2008
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Youngsan University
      Ryōzan, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Hanoi University of Science and Technology
      Hà Nội, Ha Nội, Vietnam
    • Seoul Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kangwon National University
      • College of Medicine
      Kang-neung, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Georgia
      • Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 2000–2004
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea