ABSTRACT: To learn about the prevalence and risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Data were obtained from a 12-month retrospective investigation of the patients with RA, randomly selected from Departments of Rheumatology and Immunology in 21 big hospitals in China. The data were collected about their social conditions, clinical conditions, medications associated with RA, such as disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoid, biologic agents. A nonparameter test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed.
In the study, 960 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of CAD was 3.5% in China, which was obviously higher than that of normal people. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and cerebrovascular disease were 35.1%, 12.3%, 17.0%, 7.7%, 0.4% and 3.0%, respectively. Compared with the control group, the CAD group had higher age [(64.7±9.3) years vs. (52.3±14.0) years,P<0.001], more rheumatoid nodules (14.7% vs. 3.1%,P=0.005), lower rate of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use (5.9% vs. 22.6%,P=0.021), higher prevalence rates of lung interstitial disease (17.5% vs. 7.0%,P<0.001), diabetes mellitus and hypertension (29.4% vs. 7.0%,P<0.001; 38.2% vs. 16.2%,P=0.001). There was no obvious correlation of CAD in RA with joint deformity, rheumatoid factor (RF) titer, glucocorticoid use, hypercholesterolemia and body mass index (BMI). Multivariate analysis showed higher age, diabetes mellitus and hypertension were independent predictors of CAD, and the use of HCQ was a protective factor of CAD.
The prevalence of CAD is 3.5%. Higher age, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are independent predictors of CAD, and the use of HCQ is a protective factor of CAD.
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences 04/2012; 44(2):176-81.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the current status of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors application in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in China and to analyze the related factors.
A retrospective survey was conducted in 21 hospitals from different parts of China. The patients with RA were randomly enrolled. Data of their social backgrounds, clinical conditions, usage and adverse effects of TNF inhibitors were collected. The costs of TNF inhibitors and the indirect costs of the disease were calculated. A multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the factors related to TNF inhibitors application.
In the study, 1 095 RA patients from July 2009 to November 2010 were enrolled, of whom 112 had received TNF inhibitors, representing 10.2% of the total patients. The patients who received etanercept and infliximab were 7.4% (86/1 095) of the patients and 2.4% (26/1 095), respectively. There were 0.5% of the patients (5/1 095) who had received both of the TNF inhibitors. The patients who had accepted etanercept and treatment duration for less than 3 months and 3-6 months accounted for 38.5% and 25.0% respectively, while those treated with Infliximab were 38.1%. Their health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) scores were 1.1, 0.5 and 0.1, corresponding to treatment duration of infliximab for less than 3, 3-6 and 6-9 months and those were 1.3, 1.0, 0.3 corresponding to treatment duration of etanercept, respectively. Infliximab costs were RMB 24 525.0, 69 300.0 and 96 800.0 Yuan and etanercept costs were RMB 7 394.8, 9 158.6, 54 910.9 Yuan, respectively. Indirect costs for RA patients who accepted infliximab for less than 3, 3-6 and 6-9 months were RMB 365.6, 0 and 158.9 Yuan and those who accepted etanercept were RMB 2 158.4, 288.5 and 180.1 Yuan, respectively. Allergy and infection were the main side-effects of etanercept and both happened in 3.5% of all the patients. Liver damage happened in 2.3% of all the patients, while allergy and infection happened in 6.5% of all the patients who accepted infliximab. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients with higher education experience increased the odds of entering the TNF inhibitors group (OR: 1.292, 95%CI: 1.132-1.473, P=0.000).
About one-tenth of RA patients in China have accepted TNF inhibitors. Higher education experience is the key factor for using TNF inhibitors.
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences 04/2012; 44(2):182-7.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the medication status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to analyze the clinical use of sulphasalazine (SSZ) and the adverse effect.
A total of 1 096 outpatients and inpatients diagnosed with RA were investigated in 21 hospitals all over China from July 2009 to December 2010, including gender, age of onset, clinical manifestations, as well as the clinical characteristics and medication status of 160 RA patients who received SSZ therapy.
In the group of 160 patients who received SSZ, the male-to-female ratio was 1:7, The average age at onset was (46.1±15.0) years, while the average course was (9.9±7.8) years. The average dose of sulphasalazine was (1.87±0.52) g/d for a mean duration of (26.3± 14.6) months. Only 17% (27/160) of the patients received SSZ monotherapy. Methotrexate (63.1%), leflunomide (36.2%) and hydroxychloroquine (18.1%) were most commonly used combination drugs. And 36.2% (58/160) of the patients used the two-drug combination of methotrexate plus sulphasalazine .In this group, 41.9% (67/160) once used SSZ but withdrew for adverse events and other reasons, while 17.5% (28/160) withdrew for adverse events, of which the most common were gastrointestinal (8.8%), skin (3.8%) and liver toxicity (3.1%).
Sulphaszlazine is not a common choice in the RA therapeutics in China, and the average dose of SSZ is lower than the standard dose of 2 to 3 g/d . The adverse events of SSZ are common; however, there are few severe adverse events or threat to life,SSZ is relatively safe in clinical practice.
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences 04/2012; 44(2):188-94.