L.B. Milstein

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (430)466.44 Total impact

  • Arash Vosoughi, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the joint source-channel coding (JSCC) problem of 3-D stereo video transmission in video plus depth format over noisy channels. Full resolution and downsampled depth maps are considered. The proposed JSCC scheme yields the optimum color and depth quantization parameters as well as the optimum forward error correction code rates used for unequal error protection (UEP) at the packet level. Different coding scenarios are compared and the UEP gain over equal error protection is quantified for flat Rayleigh fading channels.
    IEEE Signal Processing Letters 01/2015; 22(1):31-34. DOI:10.1109/LSP.2014.2346739 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Madushanka Soysa, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the performance of a cognitive radio system in a hostile environment where an intelligent adversary tries to disrupt communications by minimizing the system throughput. We investigate the optimal strategy for spoofing and jamming a cognitive radio network with a Gaussian noise signal over a Rayleigh fading channel. We analyze a cluster-based network of secondary users (SUs). The adversary may attack during the sensing interval to limit access for SUs by transmitting a spoofing signal. By jamming the network during the transmission interval, the adversary may reduce the rate of successful transmission. We present how the adversary can optimally allocate power across subcarriers during sensing and transmission intervals with knowledge of the system, using a simple optimization approach specific to this problem. We determine a worst-case optimal energy allocation for spoofing and jamming, which gives a lower bound to the overall information throughput of SUs under attack.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 08/2014; 62(8):2681-2695. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2014.2331964 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • T.V. Nguyen, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a wireless relay network with a single source, a single destination, and a multiple relay. The relays are half-duplex and use the decode-and-forward protocol. The transmit source is a layered video bitstream, which can be partitioned into two layers, a base layer (BL) and an enhancement layer (EL), where the BL is more important than the EL in terms of the source distortion. The source broadcasts both layers to the relays and the destination using hierarchical 16-QAM. Each relay detects and transmits successfully decoded layers to the destination using either hierarchical 16-QAM or QPSK. The destination can thus receive multiple signals, each of which can include either only the BL or both the BL and the EL. We derive the optimal linear combining method at the destination, where the uncoded bit error rate is minimized. We also present a suboptimal combining method with a closed-form solution, which performs very close to the optimal. We use the proposed double-layer transmission scheme with our combining methods for transmitting layered video bitstreams. Numerical results show that the double-layer scheme can gain 2–2.5 dB in channel signal-to-noise ratio or 5–7 dB in video peak signal-to-noise ratio, compared with the classical single-layer scheme using conventional modulation.
    IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 04/2014; 23(4):1791-1804. DOI:10.1109/TIP.2014.2308428 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • S.-H. Chang, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: This paper studies the optimal design of multimedia progressive communication systems that are combined with low-complex open-loop multiple-input multiple-output techniques. First, we analyze the behavior of the crossover point of the error probability curves for orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBC) and spatial multiplexing (SM) with a zero-forcing linear receiver. We mathematically prove that, in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, for both the information outage probability and the uncoded bit error rate, as data rate increases, the crossover point for the error probability monotonically decreases, and the crossover point for the SNR monotonically increases. We prove that this holds, regardless of the numbers of transmit and receive antennas and the spatial multiplexing rate of OSTBC. We next show how those results can be exploited for the optimal transmission of progressive sources, such as embedded image, which require unequal target error rates in their bitstream. That is, the computational complexity involved with the optimal space-time coding of progressive bitstream can be decreased.
    IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 01/2014; 63(1):94-106. DOI:10.1109/TVT.2013.2243851 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Dawei Wang, Laura Toni, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a multiuser OFDM system in which users want to transmit videos via a base station. The base station knows the channel state information (CSI) as well as the rate distortion (RD) information of the video streams and tries to allocate power and spectrum resources to the users according to both physical layer CSI and application layer RD information. We derive and analyze a condition for the optimal resource allocation solution in a continuous frequency response setting. The optimality condition for this cross layer optimization scenario is similar to the equal slope condition for conventional video multiplexing resource allocation. Based on our analysis, we design an iterative subcarrier assignment and power allocation algorithm for an uplink system, and provide numerical performance analysis with different numbers of users. Comparing to systems with either only physical layer or only application layer information available at the base station, our results show that the user capacity and the video PSNR performance can be increased significantly by using cross layer design. Bit-level simulations which take into account the imperfection of the video coding rate control, the variation of RD curve fitting, as well as channel errors, are presented.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 05/2013; 61(5):2060-2073. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2013.032013.120053 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To increase spectrum efficiency, researchers envision a device-to-device (D2D) communication system in which a closely located mobile device pair may share the same spectrum with a cellular user. By opportunistically choosing the frequency, the D2D pair may increase the spectrum efficiency in terms of data rate per Hertz, at the price of additional interference to that cellular user. In previous models, users either stop cellular transmission and switch to D2D transmission or vice versa. However, if the cell is fully loaded, a D2D pair will not be able to switch back to the conventional mode because no extra resource is available. In this paper, we propose a D2D assisted model, where a D2D link is enabled to assist transmission, while keeping the conventional cellular transmission. In this way, the D2D link can be turned on and off according to the link quality. We also propose a PHY-layer study for the transmission scheme in such a way that the system throughput and the video reception quality is always improved compared to a conventional link.
    Packet Video Workshop (PV), 2013 20th International; 01/2013
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the joint source-channel coding problem of a 3D video transmitted over an AWGN channel. The goal is to minimize the total number of bits, which is the sum of the number of source bits and the number of forward error correction bits, under two constraints: the quality of the primary view and the quality of the secondary view must be greater than or equal to a predetermined threshold at the receiver. The quality is measured in terms of the expected PSNR of an entire decoded group of pictures. A MVC (multiview coding) encoder is used as the source encoder, and rate compatible punctured turbo codes are utilized for protection of the encoded 3D video over the noisy channel. Equal error protection and unequal error protection are compared for various 3D video sequences and noise levels.
    Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2013 IEEE International Conference on; 01/2013
  • Hobin Kim, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: We study motion compensated fine granular scalable (MC-FGS) video transmission over multiinput multioutput (MIMO) wireless channels applicable to video streaming, where leaky and partial prediction schemes are applied in the enhancement layer of MC-FGS to exploit the tradeoff between error propagation and coding efficiency. For reliable transmission, we propose unequal error protection (UEP) by considering a tradeoff between reliability and data rates, which are controlled by forward error correction and MIMO mode selection to minimize the average distortion. In a high Doppler environment, where it is hard to get an accurate channel estimate, we investigate the performance of the proposed MC-FGS video transmission scheme with joint control of both the leaky and partial prediction parameters, and the UEP. In a slow fading channel, where the channel throughput can be estimated at the transmitter, adaptive control of prediction parameters is considered.
    IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 01/2013; 23(1):116-127. DOI:10.1109/TCSVT.2012.2203202 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With progressive image or scalable video encoders, as more bits are received, the source can be reconstructed with progressively better quality. These progressive codes have gradual differences of importance in their bitstreams, which necessitates multiple levels of unequal error protection (UEP). One practical method of achieving UEP is based on a constellation of nonuniformly spaced signal points, or hierarchical constellations. However, hierarchical modulation can achieve only a limited number of UEP levels for a given constellation size. Though hierarchical modulation has been intensively studied for digital broadcasting or multimedia transmission, most work has considered only two layered source coding, and methods of achieving a large number of UEP levels for progressive transmission have rarely been studied. In this paper, we propose a multilevel UEP system using multiplexed hierarchical quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). We show that multiple levels of UEP are achieved by the proposed multiplexing method. When the BER is dominated by the minimum Euclidian distance, we derive an optimal multiplexing approach which minimizes both the average and peak powers. We next propose an asymmetric hierarchical QAM which reduces the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the proposed UEP system without any performance loss. Numerical results show that the performance of progressive transmission over Rayleigh fading channels is significantly enhanced by the proposed methods.
    IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 09/2012; 58(9):5816-5840. DOI:10.1109/TIT.2011.2173613 · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Laura Toni, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: Optimization of multimedia transmissions over wireless channels should be aimed at maximizing the video quality perceived by the final user. For transmission of video sequences over an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system in a slowly varying Rayleigh faded environment, we develop a cross-layer technique, based on a slice loss visibility (SLV) model used to evaluate the visual importance of each slice. In particular, taking into account the visibility scores available from the bitstream, depending on the scenario, we optimize the mapping of video slices within a 2-D time-frequency resource block and/or the channel code rates, in order to better protect more visually important slices. The proposed algorithm is investigated for several scenarios, with different levels of information about the channel available in the optimization process. Results demonstrate that, for different physical environments and different video sequences, the proposed algorithm outperforms baseline ones which do not take into account either the SLV or the CSI in the video transmission.
    IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 08/2012; 30(7):1172-1183. DOI:10.1109/JSAC.2012.120803 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Suayb S. Arslan, Pamela C. Cosman, Laurence B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: The original design of standard digital fountain codes assumes that the coded information symbols are equally important. In many applications, some source symbols are more important than others, and they must be recovered prior to the rest. Unequal Error Protection (UEP) designs are attractive solutions for such source transmissions. In this study, we introduce a more generalized design for the first universal fountain code design, LT codes, that makes it particularly suited for progressive bit stream transmissions. We apply the generalized LT codes to a progressive source and show that it has better UEP properties than other published results in the literature. For example, using the proposed generalization, we obtained up to 1.7dB PSNR gain in a progressive image transmission scenario over the two major UEP fountain code designs.
    IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 04/2012; 21(8). DOI:10.1109/TIP.2012.2195668 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Seok-Ho Chang, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple description coding has been receiving attention as a robust transmission framework for multimedia services. This paper studies the iterative decoding of FEC-based multiple description codes. The proposed decoding algorithms take advantage of the error detection capability of Reed-Solomon (RS) erasure codes. The information of correctly decoded RS codewords is exploited to enhance the error correction capability of the Viterbi algorithm at the next iteration of decoding. In the proposed algorithm, an intradescription interleaver is synergistically combined with the iterative decoder. The interleaver does not affect the performance of noniterative decoding but greatly enhances the performance when the system is iteratively decoded. We also address the optimal allocation of RS parity symbols for unequal error protection. For the optimal allocation in iterative decoding, we derive mathematical equations from which the probability distributions of description erasures can be generated in a simple way. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated over an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing system. The results show that the performance of the multiple description codes is significantly enhanced.
    IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 04/2012; 21(3-21):1138 - 1152. DOI:10.1109/TIP.2011.2169973 · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: We propose superposition multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) coding for the transmission of unequally important sources in a point-to-multipoint system. First, a tradeoff between Alamouti code and spatial multiplexing (V-BLAST) is analyzed in terms of the average bit error rate (BER), where the maximum data rates of both MIMO schemes are set to be equal. The results show that for a given target bit error rate, Alamouti code is preferable for a low data rate, and spatial multiplexing is preferable for a high data rate. For layered sources such as scalable video, the more important component typically has lower data rate than does the less important component. Based on these, we construct a superposition MIMO scheme where two different MIMO techniques are hierarchically combined such that important data is Alamouti coded, less important data is spatially multiplexed, and then two unequally important data symbols are superposed.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 01/2012; 59(12-59):3240 - 3248. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2011.090911.100112 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal sensing-deception strategy by a power-limited intelligent adversary of a cognitive radio network is analyzed in this paper. The average number of false detections of the secondary users is maximized when the adversary employs noise spoofing signals, and each such signal experiences multipath-induced fading. The global optimal solution to what turns out to be a nonlinear, non-convex optimization is obtained through a two-step transformation. Numerical results show that, under i.i.d. Rayleigh fading, the optimal sensing-deception strategy for the adversary corresponds to equal-power, partial-band spoofing.
    Computational Problem-Solving (ICCP), 2012 International Conference on; 01/2012
  • Zhuwei Wang, Dacheng Yang, Laurence B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses an adaptive multi-user resource allocation for a distributed multi-carrier direct sequence-code division multiple access (MC DS-CDMA) network. The packet throughput, which turns out to be nonconvex and nondifferentiable, is considered to measure the system performance. A sub-optimal non-cooperative power control game is proposed to adaptively allocate the transmit power, available subchannels and alphabet size by minimizing the transmit power with a transmit power constraint and a packet throughput requirement. Also, the paper investigates the effect of channel estimation error on the adaptive resource allocation in a distributed MC DS-CDMA network, and shows that using the Gaussian approximation for the signal-dependent noise can lead to a nontrivial discrepancy in system performance.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 01/2012; 60(1):143-152. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2011.112811.100685 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • S.S. Arslan, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: Rateless codes allow a user to incrementally send additional redundancy, so they can be useful for heterogeneous and time-varying networks for which the choice of redundancy level in advance is difficult. Rateless codes are an attractive application layer forward error correction solution due to their flexibility and capacity-approaching performance. The original rateless codes were developed for the delivery of equally important information. In many multimedia applications, some data symbols are more important than others. Unequal error protection (UEP) designs are attractive solutions for such transmissions. However previous UEP rateless code designs were aimed for coarsely layered sources and might exhibit poor performance for fine-grained progressive coding. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a more generalized coding scheme, parameters of which can be tailored for progressive multimedia transmission. We present the optimization of a generalized rateless code using two different progressive source transmission protocols. Proposed coding scheme is shown to exhibit better unequal protection and recovery time properties than other published results.
    Visual Communications and Image Processing (VCIP), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
  • L. Toni, Dawei Wang, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: We address channel code rate optimization for transmission of non-scalable coded video sequences over orthogonal frequency division multiplexing networks for scenarios with arbitrary mobility. A slice loss visibility (SLV) model is used to evaluate the visual importance of each H.264 slice. In particular, taking into account both the visibility scores available from the bitstream and the channel state information, we optimize the channel code rate for each GOP and the mapping of video slices within 2-D time-frequency resource blocks, in order to better protect more visually important slices. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms baseline ones which do not take into account the SLV in the video transmission.
    Signals, Systems and Computers (ASILOMAR), 2012 Conference Record of the Forty Sixth Asilomar Conference on; 01/2012
  • Source
    Suayb S. Arslan, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: A robust coded scheme for progressive multimedia transmission is proposed for additive white Gaussian noise, flat Rayleigh fading channels, and frequency-selective channels using different unequal error protection methods in combination. Hierarchical modulation is coupled with a packetization/combining strategy and an efficient channel encoder consisting of a cyclic redundancy check outer coder concatenated with an inner rate-compatible punctured convolutional coder. Distortion-optimal hierarchical parameters are jointly chosen with the set of channel coding parameters on a packet-switched wireless network with fixed length packets. A lower bound for the performance improvement of the proposed system is derived and shown to give significant gains at lower packet sizes and higher transmission rates. The proposed system is also shown to outperform several existing schemes for realistic wireless channels.
    IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 12/2011; 60(9-60):4299 - 4313. DOI:10.1109/TVT.2011.2163179 · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    S.-H. Chang, P.C. Cosman, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: We study single-term exponential-type bounds (also known as Chernoff-type bounds) on the Gaussian error function. This type of bound is analytically the simplest such that the performance metrics in most fading channel models can be expressed in a concise closed form. We derive the conditions for a general single-term exponential function to be an upper or lower bound on the Gaussian error function. We prove that there exists no tighter single-term exponential upper bound beyond the Chernoff bound employing a factor of one-half. Regarding the lower bound, we prove that the single-term exponential lower bound of this letter outperforms previous work. Numerical results show that the tightness of our lower bound is comparable to that of previous work employing eight exponential terms.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 11/2011; 59(11):2939-2944. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2011.072011.100049 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Zhuwei Wang, Qihang Peng, L.B. Milstein
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider an adaptive multi-user resource allocation for the downlink transmission of a multi-cluster tactical multicarrier DS CDMA network. The goal is to maximize the sum packet throughput, subject to transmit power constraints. Since the objective function turns out to be noncovex and nondifferentiable, we propose a simple iterative bisection algorithm. At each iteration, a closed-form expression is derived for the transmit power, subchannel, and modulation assignment, which significantly reduces the computational complexity. We also provide an optimization algorithm for the downlink transmission under the condition of imperfect channel knowledge, and investigate the effects of both channel estimation error and partial-band jamming.
    IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 09/2011; 10(8-10):2534 - 2542. DOI:10.1109/TWC.2011.061511.100408 · 2.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
466.44 Total Impact Points


  • 1977–2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      • • Department of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2009
    • Italian Institute of Technology (IIT)
      Genova, Liguria, Italy
    • Qualcomm
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2000–2008
    • Indian Institute of Science
      • Department of Electrical and Communication Engineering
      Bengalore, State of Karnataka, India
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      College Station, TX, United States
  • 1994–2008
    • Politecnico di Milano
      • • Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Ghent University
      Gand, Flemish, Belgium
    • University of Haifa
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1980–2006
    • CSU Mentor
      • Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2004
    • Chonnam National University
      • Department of Electrical, Electronic Communication and Computer Engineering
      Yeoju, Gyeonggi, South Korea
    • Broadcom Corporation
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 1995–2004
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Naval Medical Center San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Yokohama National University
      • Department of Physics, Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
  • 1999–2003
    • San Diego State University
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1998–2001
    • University of Colorado Colorado Springs
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Colorado Springs, CO, United States
    • Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command
      San Diego, California, United States
    • LSI Corporation
      San Jose, California, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1982–1999
    • George Washington University
      • Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1989–1997
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1996
    • Signal Processing Inc.
      Maryland, United States
  • 1993
    • Newport Corporation
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 1992
    • University of San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1991–1992
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Blacksburg, VA, United States
    • Nanyang Technological University
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Thünen Institute
      Brunswyck, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1985–1991
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Santa Barbara, CA, United States
    • General Electric
      Fairfield, California, United States
    • Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications
      Ch’ung-ch’ing-shih, Chongqing Shi, China
  • 1990
    • City College of New York
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1984–1987
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 1983–1985
    • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
      • Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering
      Troy, New York, United States
    • Chengdu Institute of Technology
      Hua-yang, Sichuan, China