L.B. Milstein

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (326)269.17 Total impact

  • Seok-Ho Chang · Jihwan Choi · Pamela Cosman · Laurence Milstein ·

    IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 01/2015; DOI:10.1109/TVT.2015.2412655 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Arash Vosoughi · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the joint source-channel coding (JSCC) problem of 3-D stereo video transmission in video plus depth format over noisy channels. Full resolution and downsampled depth maps are considered. The proposed JSCC scheme yields the optimum color and depth quantization parameters as well as the optimum forward error correction code rates used for unequal error protection (UEP) at the packet level. Different coding scenarios are compared and the UEP gain over equal error protection is quantified for flat Rayleigh fading channels.
    IEEE Signal Processing Letters 01/2015; 22(1):31-34. DOI:10.1109/LSP.2014.2346739 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Madushanka Soysa · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the performance of a cognitive radio system in a hostile environment where an intelligent adversary tries to disrupt communications by minimizing the system throughput. We investigate the optimal strategy for spoofing and jamming a cognitive radio network with a Gaussian noise signal over a Rayleigh fading channel. We analyze a cluster-based network of secondary users (SUs). The adversary may attack during the sensing interval to limit access for SUs by transmitting a spoofing signal. By jamming the network during the transmission interval, the adversary may reduce the rate of successful transmission. We present how the adversary can optimally allocate power across subcarriers during sensing and transmission intervals with knowledge of the system, using a simple optimization approach specific to this problem. We determine a worst-case optimal energy allocation for spoofing and jamming, which gives a lower bound to the overall information throughput of SUs under attack.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 08/2014; 62(8):2681-2695. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2014.2331964 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Arash Vosoughi · Vanessa Testoni · Pamela Cosman · Laurence Milstein ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We consider the joint source-channel coding problem of a 3D video transmitted over an AWGN channel. The goal is to minimize the total number of bits, which is the sum of the number of source bits and the number of forward error correction bits, under two constraints: the quality of the primary view and the quality of the secondary view must be greater than or equal to a predetermined threshold at the receiver. The quality is measured in terms of the expected PSNR of an entire decoded group of pictures. A MVC (multiview coding) encoder is used as the source encoder, and rate compatible punctured turbo codes are utilized for protection of the encoded 3D video over the noisy channel. Equal error protection and unequal error protection are compared for various 3D video sequences and noise levels.
    Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2013 IEEE International Conference on; 10/2013
  • Dawei Wang · Laura Toni · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a multiuser OFDM system in which users want to transmit videos via a base station. The base station knows the channel state information (CSI) as well as the rate distortion (RD) information of the video streams and tries to allocate power and spectrum resources to the users according to both physical layer CSI and application layer RD information. We derive and analyze a condition for the optimal resource allocation solution in a continuous frequency response setting. The optimality condition for this cross layer optimization scenario is similar to the equal slope condition for conventional video multiplexing resource allocation. Based on our analysis, we design an iterative subcarrier assignment and power allocation algorithm for an uplink system, and provide numerical performance analysis with different numbers of users. Comparing to systems with either only physical layer or only application layer information available at the base station, our results show that the user capacity and the video PSNR performance can be increased significantly by using cross layer design. Bit-level simulations which take into account the imperfection of the video coding rate control, the variation of RD curve fitting, as well as channel errors, are presented.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 05/2013; 61(5):2060-2073. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2013.032013.120053 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Yichao Shen · Wenwen Zhou · Peizhi Wu · L. Toni · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: To increase spectrum efficiency, researchers envision a device-to-device (D2D) communication system in which a closely located mobile device pair may share the same spectrum with a cellular user. By opportunistically choosing the frequency, the D2D pair may increase the spectrum efficiency in terms of data rate per Hertz, at the price of additional interference to that cellular user. In previous models, users either stop cellular transmission and switch to D2D transmission or vice versa. However, if the cell is fully loaded, a D2D pair will not be able to switch back to the conventional mode because no extra resource is available. In this paper, we propose a D2D assisted model, where a D2D link is enabled to assist transmission, while keeping the conventional cellular transmission. In this way, the D2D link can be turned on and off according to the link quality. We also propose a PHY-layer study for the transmission scheme in such a way that the system throughput and the video reception quality is always improved compared to a conventional link.
    Packet Video Workshop (PV), 2013 20th International; 01/2013
  • S.S. Arslan · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: Rateless codes allow a user to incrementally send additional redundancy, so they can be useful for heterogeneous and time-varying networks for which the choice of redundancy level in advance is difficult. Rateless codes are an attractive application layer forward error correction solution due to their flexibility and capacity-approaching performance. The original rateless codes were developed for the delivery of equally important information. In many multimedia applications, some data symbols are more important than others. Unequal error protection (UEP) designs are attractive solutions for such transmissions. However previous UEP rateless code designs were aimed for coarsely layered sources and might exhibit poor performance for fine-grained progressive coding. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a more generalized coding scheme, parameters of which can be tailored for progressive multimedia transmission. We present the optimization of a generalized rateless code using two different progressive source transmission protocols. Proposed coding scheme is shown to exhibit better unequal protection and recovery time properties than other published results.
    Visual Communications and Image Processing (VCIP), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
  • L. Toni · Dawei Wang · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: We address channel code rate optimization for transmission of non-scalable coded video sequences over orthogonal frequency division multiplexing networks for scenarios with arbitrary mobility. A slice loss visibility (SLV) model is used to evaluate the visual importance of each H.264 slice. In particular, taking into account both the visibility scores available from the bitstream and the channel state information, we optimize the channel code rate for each GOP and the mapping of video slices within 2-D time-frequency resource blocks, in order to better protect more visually important slices. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms baseline ones which do not take into account the SLV in the video transmission.
    Signals, Systems and Computers (ASILOMAR), 2012 Conference Record of the Forty Sixth Asilomar Conference on; 01/2012
  • Qihang Peng · Dingyong Hu · Qicong Peng · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal sensing-deception strategy by a power-limited intelligent adversary of a cognitive radio network is analyzed in this paper. The average number of false detections of the secondary users is maximized when the adversary employs noise spoofing signals, and each such signal experiences multipath-induced fading. The global optimal solution to what turns out to be a nonlinear, non-convex optimization is obtained through a two-step transformation. Numerical results show that, under i.i.d. Rayleigh fading, the optimal sensing-deception strategy for the adversary corresponds to equal-power, partial-band spoofing.
    Computational Problem-Solving (ICCP), 2012 International Conference on; 01/2012
  • Zhuwei Wang · Qihang Peng · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider an adaptive multi-user resource allocation for the downlink transmission of a multi-cluster tactical multicarrier DS CDMA network. The goal is to maximize the sum packet throughput, subject to transmit power constraints. Since the objective function turns out to be noncovex and nondifferentiable, we propose a simple iterative bisection algorithm. At each iteration, a closed-form expression is derived for the transmit power, subchannel, and modulation assignment, which significantly reduces the computational complexity. We also provide an optimization algorithm for the downlink transmission under the condition of imperfect channel knowledge, and investigate the effects of both channel estimation error and partial-band jamming.
    IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 09/2011; 10(8-10):2534 - 2542. DOI:10.1109/TWC.2011.061511.100408 · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Dawei Wang · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: We study an uplink video communication system with multiple users in a centralized wireless cell. The multiple access scheme is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). Both physical layer channel state information (CSI) and application layer rate distortion (RD) information of video streams are collected by the base station. With the goal of minimizing the average video distortion across all the users in the system, we design an iterative resource allocation algorithm for subcarrier assignment and power allocation. Based on the physical layer resource allocation decision, the user will adapt the application layer video source coding rate. To show the advantage of this cross layer algorithm, numerical results are compared with two baseline resource allocation algorithms using only physical layer information or only application layer information. Bit-level simulation results are presented which take into account the imperfection of the video coding rate control, as well as channel errors.
    Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011), 2011 IEEE; 01/2011
  • Qi Qu · L.B. Milstein · D.R. Vaman ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we investigate the issue of cooperative node selection in MIMO communications for wireless ad hoc/sensor networks, where a source node is surrounded by multiple neighbors and all of them are equipped with a single antenna. Given energy, delay and data rate constraints, a source node dynamically chooses its cooperating nodes from its neighbors to form a virtual MIMO system with the destination node (which is assumed to have multiple antennas), as well as adaptively allocates the power level and adjusts the constellation size for each of the selected cooperative nodes. In order to optimize system performance, we jointly consider the optimization of all these parameters, given the aforementioned system constraints. We assume that the source node either has CSI, or has no CSI. Heuristic algorithms, such as maximal channel gain (MCG) and least channel correlation (LCC) algorithms are proposed in order to exploit available system information and to solve the constrained optimization problem.
    IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 11/2010; 9(10-9):3120 - 3129. DOI:10.1109/TWC.2010.090210.091119 · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Sanghoon Park · L.E. Larson · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: A receiver detection technique is proposed by measuring the low-level leakage signal from a nearby receiver local oscillator. The probabilities of false alarm and missed detection are derived to quantify the detection performance. The technique provides higher sensitivity than a radiometer and is robust to estimation error even if the power spectral density of the ambient noise is unknown.
    Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, IEEE Transactions on 09/2010; 57(8-57):652 - 656. DOI:10.1109/TCSII.2010.2050955 · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Hobin Kim · Ramesh Annavajjala · Pamela Cosman · Laurence Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we are concerned with the design and analysis of joint source-channel coding schemes for block fading channels with relay-assisted distributed spatial diversity. Assuming a progressive image coder with a constraint on the transmission bandwidth, we formulate a joint source-channel rate allocation scheme that maximizes the expected source throughput. Specifically, using Gaussian as well as BPSK inputs on flat Rayleigh fading channels, we lower bound the average packet error rate by the corresponding mutual information outage probability, and derive the average throughput expression as a function of channel code rates as well as channel SNR for both a frequency-division multiplexing-based baseline system without relaying, and a half-duplex relay system with a decode-and- forward protocol. At high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), for the systems considered in this paper, we show that our rate optimization problem is a convex function of the channel code rates, and we show that a known recursive algorithm can be used to predict the performance of both systems.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 07/2010; 58(6-58):1631 - 1642. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2010.06.080203 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Ning Kong · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: This paper derives closed-form asymptotic symbol error rates (ASERs) for MPSK and MQAM signals with selection combining (SC) over Nakagami-m fading channels. It also presents a closed-form expression for the power loss of SC compared to maximal ratio combining (MRC) over a Nakagami- m fading channel. It is found that this power gap is a function of only the number (L) of independent Nakagami-m channels and the fading parameter m. For a fixed m, the gap monotonically increases with L. For a fixed L, the gap monotonically increases with m and approaches 10 log<sub>10</sub> L dB (the asymptotic gap between MRC and SC in an AWGN channel) as m ¿ ¿. In addition, numerical results show the accuracy of the ASERs obtained from closed-form expressions for both MRC and SC with MPSK and MQAM signals for large SNRs. They also show that the SNR gap is identical to that predicted by the analysis for arbitrary L and m.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 05/2010; 58(4-58):1142 - 1150. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2010.04.080328 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • J.I. Montojo · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of channel estimation techniques for OFDM systems often assume idealized conditions such as a cyclic prefix (CP) long enough to absorb the entire channel delay spread, or perfect time and frequency synchronization at the receiver. This paper studies the impact of removing these assumptions. We characterize the mean square error (MSE) of various linear channel estimation methods, and we derive analytical expressions for the BER performance. The derivations are kept generic so that they apply to both time-division and frequency-division multiplexing of the pilot signal and the data subcarriers. The analysis is specialized to the BER performance characterization of OFDM-based UWB systems for different realistic channel estimation methods with residual time and frequency errors. The effect of inter-carrier interference (ICI) on channel estimation is shown to be small. However, inter-symbol interference (ISI) severely impacts the quality of the channel estimates and hence can yield a large (>2 dB) data demodulation performance degradation.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 02/2010; 58(1-58):146 - 156. DOI:10.1109/TCOMM.2010.01.070650 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Qihang Peng · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the design of the power-limited intelligent adversary for sensing deception in a cognitive radio network. The average number of successfully spoofed bands by the adversary is analyzed, which can be expressed in terms of the individual spoofing probability on each band. The worst-case sensing deception strategy is obtained by maximizing the average number of successfully spoofed bands, under the adversary's power constraint. Specifically, for a cognitive radio network where energy detection is utilized by secondary users, it is shown that the worst-case deception strategy is equal-power, partial-band spoofing.
    Global Telecommunications Conference, 2009. GLOBECOM 2009. IEEE; 01/2010
  • Liwen Yu · L.B. Milstein · J.G. Proakis · B.D. Rao ·
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a convolutionally coded orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) based cognitive radio system where each user achieves perfect synchronization for its own signal, while different users are asynchronized due to random timing offsets. The presence of asynchronous secondary users introduces potential multiple access interference (MAI) to each primary user's receiver. The strength of the MAI is determined by the secondary users' transmission powers, and their distances and frequency separations to the primary user. Expressions for the primary user's pairwise error probability and average probability of error are derived, and an error floor prediction method is presented. Finally, the trade-off between the MAI to the primary user and the secondary users' performances are investigated through numerical examples and simulations.
    Communications (ICC), 2010 IEEE International Conference on; 01/2010
  • Qihang Peng · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: We are interested in determining the sensitivity of a tactical cognitive radio (CR) system to intentional spoofing. That is, we assume the existence of an intelligent adversary whose goal is to attack the CR system by deceiving the secondary users into believing that as many frequency bands as possible are occupied by primary users, thus minimizing the number of bands in which the secondary users attempt to transmit. We refer to this operation by the adversary as "spoofing", and the specific spoofing signal we choose is a partial-band noise waveform. That is, for a given total power level that is available to the adversary, we maximize the average number of false detections incurred by secondary users as a result of the spoofing. We consider a channel such that each band experiences flat Rayleigh fading, whereby the fading is independent from band to band, and derive the average number of false detections by the secondary users due to the spoofing. The results obtained for the fading channel are compared to similar results for an additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGN). They are also compared to a physically unrealizable scenario whereby the spoofing knows the instantaneous fade gains of the spoofing waveform at the victim CR receiver. This latter result is presented as a "worst-case" perspective as to how well the spoofing operation can be expected to perform.
    Wireless Communications Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), 2010 6th International Conference on; 01/2010
  • Laura Toni · Yee Sin Chan · P.C. Cosman · L.B. Milstein ·
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    ABSTRACT: Coding and diversity are very effective techniques for improving transmission reliability in a mobile wireless environment. The use of diversity is particularly important for multimedia communications over fading channels. In this work, we study the transmission of progressive image bitstreams using channel coding in a 2D time-frequency resource block in an OFDM network, employing time and frequency diversities simultaneously. In particular, in the frequency domain, based on the order of diversity and the correlation of individual subcarriers, we construct symmetric n -channel FEC-based multiple descriptions using channel erasure codes combined with embedded image coding. In the time domain, a concatenation of RCPC codes and CRC codes is employed to protect individual descriptions. We consider the physical channel conditions arising from various coherence bandwidths and coherence times, leading to a range of orders of diversities available in the time and frequency domains. We investigate the effects of different error patterns on the delivered image quality due to various fade rates. We also study the tradeoffs and compare the relative effectiveness associated with the use of erasure codes in the frequency domain and convolutional codes in the time domain under different physical environments. Both the effects of intercarrier interference and channel estimation errors are included in our study. Specifically, the effects of channel estimation errors, frequency selectivity and the rate of the channel variations are taken into consideration for the construction of the 2D time-frequency block. We provide results showing the gain that the proposed model achieves compared to a system without temporal coding. In one example, for a system experiencing flat fading, low Doppler, and imperfect CSI, we find that the increase in PSNR compared to a system without time diversity is as much as 9.4 dB.
    IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 12/2009; 18(11-18):2476 - 2490. DOI:10.1109/TIP.2009.2026676 · 3.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
269.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of California, Davis
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1981-2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2009
    • Qualcomm
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1994-2008
    • Politecnico di Milano
      • • Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1986-2006
    • California State University
      • Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Broadcom Corporation
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2003
    • San Diego State University
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1998-2001
    • University of Colorado Colorado Springs
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Colorado Springs, CO, United States
    • Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command
      San Diego, California, United States
    • LSI Corporation
      San Jose, California, United States
  • 1997-2001
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1992-2001
    • CSU Mentor
      • Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
      Long Beach, California, United States
    • University of San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1982-2001
    • George Washington University
      • Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1999
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1989-1997
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1996
    • Signal Processing Inc.
      Maryland, United States
  • 1995-1996
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Naval Medical Center San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1993
    • Newport Corporation
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 1991-1992
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Blacksburg, VA, United States
    • Nanyang Technological University
      Tumasik, Singapore
    • Thünen Institute
      Brunswyck, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Santa Barbara, CA, United States
  • 1990
    • City College of New York
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1984-1987
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 1985
    • General Electric
      Fairfield, California, United States
  • 1984-1985
    • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
      • Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering
      Troy, New York, United States