Ian P. Johnson

Aston University, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (11)3.93 Total impact

  • Ian P. Johnson, David J. Webb, Kyriacos Kalli
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    ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor fabricated in polymer optical fibre (POF) to hydrostatic pressure was investigated for the first time. In this initial investigative work a reflected Bragg response of a FBG fabricated in multimode microstructured POF (MMmPOF) was monitored, whilst the hydrostatic pressure was increased up to 10MPa. Positive sensitivities were observed, meaning a positive wavelength shift to increasing pressure, as opposed to negative sensitivities monitored when using a FBG sensor fabricated in silica optical fibre. The FBG sensors fabricated in the MMmPOF gave fractional changes in wavelength and hence sensitivities of at least 64.05×10-6/MPa, which is some 25 times larger than the -2.50×10-6/MPa sensitivity of a FBG sensor fabricated in silica optical fibre that was measured in this work. Furthermore this work highlighted a decrease in sensitivity of the FBG sensor fabricated in the MMmPOF by some 50% by sealing the holes of the mPOF at the tip of the fibre with an adhesive. This offers the potential to tailor the response of the sensor to hydrostatic pressure.
    Proc SPIE 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have been fabricated in polymer photonic crystal fibre (PCF). Results are presented using two different types of polymer optical fibre (POF); first multimode PCF with a core diameter of 50mum based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and second, endlessly single mode PCF with a core diameter of 6mum based on TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. Bragg grating inscription was achieved using a 30mW continuous wave 325nm helium cadmium laser. Both TOPAS and PMMA fibre have a large attenuation of around 1dB/cm in the 1550nm spectral region, limiting fibre lengths to no longer than 10cm. However, both have improved attenuation of under 10dB/m in the 800nm spectral region, thus allowing for fibre lengths to be much longer. The focus of current research is to utilise the increased fibre length, widening the range of sensor applications. The Bragg wavelength shift of a grating fabricated in PMMA fibre at 827nm has been monitored whilst the POF is thermally annealed at 80°C for 7 hours. The large length of POF enables real time monitoring of the grating, which demonstrates a permanent negative Bragg wavelength shift of 24nm during the 7 hours. This creates the possibility to manufacture multiplexed Bragg sensors in POF using a single phase mask in the UV inscription manufacturing. TOPAS holds certain advantages over PMMA including a much lower affinity for water, this should allow for the elimination of cross-sensitivity to humidity when monitoring temperature changes or axial strain, which is a significant concern when using PMMA fibre.
    Proc SPIE 05/2011;
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    Ian P. Johnson, David J. Webb, Kyriacos Kalli
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    ABSTRACT: Fibre Bragg gratings have been UV inscribed in multimode microstructured polymer optical fibre in both the 1550nm and 800nm spectral regions. Thermally annealing the fibre at 80°C has been shown to shrink the fibre length and as a result a permanent negative Bragg wavelength shift is observed. The blue shift can be tuned between 0-16nm in the 1550nm spectral region and 0-6nm in the 800nm spectral region, depending on the duration the heat is applied before a saturation level is reached and the fibre stops shrinking in the region of 2 hours. Exploiting this, wavelength division multiplexed sensors have been UV inscribed in both the 1550nm and 800nm regions using a single phase mask for each wavelength region. The 800nm sensor takes advantage of the lower attenuation of poly (methyl methacrylate) of 2dB/m compared to 100dB/m at 1550nm.
    Proc SPIE 05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: A report is presented on the inscription of a fibre Bragg grating into a microstructured polymer optical fibre fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. This material offers two important advantages over poly (methyl methacrylate), which up to now has formed the basis for polymer fibre Bragg gratings: TOPAS has a much lower water affinity and has useful properties for biosensing. The grating had a Bragg wavelength of 1569 nm and a temperature sensitivity of -36.5 ±0.3 pm/°C.
    Electronics Letters 03/2011; · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a growing interest for esophageal measurements which can provide important and reliable data when diagnosing the motor function of the sphincters and the esophageal body. Biocompatibility, sensing resolution and the comfort of the patient are key parameters for manometric sensing systems. A new sensing approach which could fulfill all these needs is presented in this paper consisting of an embedded polymer fiber sensor, based on multiplexed fiber Bragg gratings. A response to a radial pressure almost 6 times that of a comparable silica fiber based sensor is obtained.
    01/2011;
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    I.P. Johnson, K. Kalli, D.J. Webb
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    ABSTRACT: Reported is the fabrication and characterisation of a Bragg grating in multimode microstructured polymer optical fibre with a Bragg wavelength of 827 nm. This is the smallest Bragg wavelength reported to date for a polymer optical fibre grating, and the relatively low loss of the fibre at this wavelength considerably enhances the utility of the device compared to gratings at longer wavelengths.
    Electronics Letters 09/2010; · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A long period grating was photoinscribed step-by-step in microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) fiber for the first time using a continuous wave HeCd laser at 325 nm, irradiating the fiber with a power of 1 mW. The grating had a length of 2 cm and a period of 1 mm. A series of cladding mode coupling resonances were observed throughout the spectral region studied of 600 to 1100 nm. The resonance wavelengths were shown to be sensitive to the diffusion of water into the fiber.
    IEEE Sensors Journal 08/2010; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: bre Bragg gratings have been inscribed in multimode microstructured polymer optical fibre (POF), with a core size of 50mum. The microstructured POF (mPOF) consists of a three ring hole structure and is made purely from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). In comparison to silica fibre, POF has a much smaller Young's modulus and a much greater breaking strain; additionally multimode fibre holds advantages of ease of handling and launching conditions. A linear strain sensitivity of 1.32 +/- 0.01pm/muε has been measured in the range 0 to 2% strain. The fibre drawing process leads to a degree of molecular alignment along the fibre axis. This alignment can be thermally annealed out; this can induce a permanent blue shift in the Bragg wavelength of a grating fabricated prior to annealing by up to 20 nm. Utilising this, wavelength demultiplexed gratings can be fabricated using a single phase mask. As an illustration of this we present for the first time wavelength division multiplexing of the spectral response of three Bragg gratings in POF within the C-band region. Complementing this work, a technique of splicing mPOF to step index silica fibre is described using UV curing optical adhesive, allowing characterisation of Bragg gratings fabricated in this fibre.
    Proc SPIE 04/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Long period gratings were written step-by-step in microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibre using a continuous wave HeCd laser at 325nm irradiating the fibre with a power of 1mW. The grating had a length of 2 cm and a period of 1mm. A series of cladding mode coupling resonances were observed throughout the spectral region studied of 600 to 1100nm. The resonance wavelengths were shown to be sensitive to both surrounding refractive index and the water content of the polymer fibre.
    Proc SPIE 05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the fabrication and characterisation of a Bragg grating in multimode microstructured polymer optical fibre with a Bragg wavelength of 827nm. This is the smallest Bragg wavelength reported to date for a polymer optical fibre grating and the relatively low loss of the fibre at this wavelength considerably enhances the utility of the device compared to gratings at longer wavelengths.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A long period grating was photoinscribed step-by-step in microstructured poly(methyl methacrylate) fiber for the first time using a continuous wave HeCd laser at 325 nm, irradiating the fiber with a power of 1 mW. The grating had a length of 2 cm and a period of 1 mm. A series of cladding mode coupling resonances were observed throughout the spectral region studied of 600 to 1100 nm. The resonance wavelengths were shown to be sensitive to the diffusion of water into the fiber.