V.-M. Kolmonen

Aalto University, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (38)15.26 Total impact

  • R. He · O. Renaudin · V.-M. Kolmonen · K. Haneda · Z. Zhong · B. Ai · C. Oestges ·
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    ABSTRACT: To statistically model time-variant vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) channels, the dynamic multi-path components (MPCs) are characterized based on suburban measurements conducted at 5.3 GHz. The correlation matrix distance (CMD) is used to determine the size of local wide-sense stationary (WSS) region. Within each WSS time window, MPCs are extracted using wideband spatial spectrum of Bartlett beamformer. A MPC distance (MCD)-based tracking algorithm is used to identify the »birth» and »death» of MPCs over different WSS regions, and the lifetime of MPC is modeled with a truncated Gaussian distribution. Distributions of number of MPCs and their positions are statistically modeled. The MPC characterization considers both angular and delay domain properties as well as the dynamic evolution of MPCs over different WSS regions. The results shows insight into the dynamic behaviors of MPCs in V2V environments, and is useful for the scatterer modeling in the geometry-based stochastic channel modeling.
  • J Salo · K Haneda · V -M Kolmonen · A A H Azremi · P Vainikainen ·
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a measurement-based evaluation of link budget gain from uplink transmit antenna selection in 3GPP LTE. In contrast to earlier studies, the results are based on channel measurements and realistic non-omnidirectional mobile terminal antennas. Further, in addition to the impact of fast selection based on small-scale fading power, also the gain from slow selection based on average signal power is evaluated. In the evaluated measurement cases, fast and slow fading based transmit antenna selection result in up to $3.7$ and $3.2$ dB average power gain, respectively, with respect to the fixed uplink transmit antenna case. This implies that with practical non-omnidirectional terminal antennas a major portion of the gain can be realized based on slow selection, hence justifying a simple open-loop transmit antenna selection scheme which is also applicable to FDD systems.
    Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2013 IEEE 77th; 01/2013
  • M. Kyro · V. Semkin · V.-M. Kolmonen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Modeling radio wave propagation at millimeter-wave frequencies in urban environments requires knowledge of the reflection and scattering properties of built surfaces. Here, a measurement campaign has been conducted in order to empirically analyze the scattering patterns of two different built surfaces, i.e., brick and glass walls. Wideband millimeter-wave channel measurement system has been used to record transfer functions of the propagation channels from 69 to 74 GHz and in the post-processing reflected and scattered multipath components have been identified from the measured averaged power delay profiles. It is found that, e.g., for the brick wall, the reflection loss at the mirror reflection angles is 1-4 dB and the losses increase almost linearly up to 45 dB as a function of the observation angle. The reflection loss is larger for the glass wall because some part of the power propagates through the glass. The results of this work can be utilized, e.g., in geometry-based stochastic channel modeling.
    Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013 7th European Conference on; 01/2013
  • K. Haneda · A. Khatun · V.-M. Kolmonen · J. Salmi ·
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents insights on spatial degrees-of-freedom (SDoF) of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) mobile propagation channels. The SDoF depends on multipath richness of the propagation channel and antenna aperture size, and indicates the number of effective antenna elements for the spatial multiplexing on the antenna aperture. We first define the SDoF using expression of propagation channels in plane and spherical wave domains. The SDoF is estimated for indoor MIMO mobile scenarios based on measurements, revealing that at least two SDoFs corresponding to two orthogonal polarizations are always available. Furthermore, the SDoF is mostly less than 10 when the antenna aperture size at the base and mobile sides is 3λ2, and less than 4 if the aperture size is 0.25λ2, revealing feasibility of spatial multiplexing with at most 4 eigenmodes using an electrically small antenna aperture at the mobile end. Significant fluctuation of the SDoF is observed during a mobile is in motion even though there is always a line-of-sight (LOS). The fluctuation is attributed to difference in LOS path dominance over other multipath components and varying angular distribution of the multipaths.
    Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013 7th European Conference on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, the design of a millimeter-wave conformal antenna array for cylindrical structure is developed. Antenna array consists of 4×4 elements and operates at 60 GHz. Different substrates and their properties are considered. Fiber Teflon substrate was chosen for the antenna structure due to its good flexibility properties and low losses. The performance of the antenna array is simulated with Ansoft HFSS™ software. Simulation results for planar structure and bent along a cylinder axis are presented. Conformal antenna array structure has wider beamwidth but the realized gain value decreases from 19.2 dB to 12.8 dB. Placing two antenna arrays on the cylindrical surface, which allows achieving high gain value and at the same time covering large angular region, are also presented.
    Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013 7th European Conference on; 01/2013
  • U.T. Virk · K. Haneda · V.-M. Kolmonen · J.-F. Wagen · P. Vainikainen ·
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a full-wave characterization of an indoor office environment at wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WIMAX) frequencies using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical technique. The aim is to demonstrate the applicability of accurate full wave oriented approach for large scale propagation prediction in contrast to conventional approximate ray models. Numerical simulation were carried out using a 3D full-wave electromagnetic solver SEMCAD-X and simulated results including pathloss and small scale fading characteristics are validated through multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel measurements. The simulated and measured results are found to be in close proximity of each other.
    Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), 2013 International Conference on; 01/2013
  • A. Khatun · V. Kolmonen · T. Laitinen · K. Nikoskinen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Many different multiple-input multiple-output over-the-air (MIMO-OTA) test methods have been investigated for the terminal performance evaluation, which vary in their propagation channel characteristics, cost, and size. Anechoic chamber and fading emulator based multi-probe techniques have been widely investigated as a method for MIMO-OTA testing. In such system several probes are placed around the device under test (DUT). This paper investigates related uncertainties associated with multi-probe systems particularly 2-D multi-probe systems where probes are placed on the horizontal plane on a circle around the test zone.
    Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013 7th European Conference on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate radio wave propagation prediction is crucial in designing wireless instruments for medical use. In this paper we simulate the 60 GHz radio channel in a hospital ultrasonic inspection room using ray tracing based on single-bounce scattering. The scattering is calculated with a single-lobe directive model and the room structure is modeled with a large point cloud, acquired via laser scanning. It is shown that the scattering model is able to predict the power delay profile with a proper scattering parameter. It is also noticed that measuring the environment dimensions with laser scanning is a suitable method in order to obtain appropriate prediction of the propagation channel.
    Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), 2012 Loughborough; 11/2012
  • M. Kyro · V.-M. Kolmonen · P. Vainikainen · D. Titz · C. Villeneuve ·
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    ABSTRACT: A two element antenna array has been designed and manufactured for the 60 GHz frequency band using micromachining technology. The use of micromachining to remove the substrate material under the antenna elements provides high efficiency and good radiation properties compared to a bulk silicon process at millimeter wave frequencies. The antenna array can be used for 60 GHz beam steering applications, which have attracted a lot of attention lately. The array has been designed to have two uncorrelated radiation patterns, which are formed by using a 180° phase shifter. Passive phase shifters using different lengths of transmission lines were used in the manufactured antenna prototypes to demonstrate beam steering. The prototypes include antenna arrays with different phase shift values and single antenna elements. The manufactured antennas fulfil the -10 dB matching criterion and the maximum measured realized gain is 6.0 dBi.
    Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), 2012 6th European Conference on; 04/2012
  • Dristy Parveg · T. Laitinen · A. Khatun · V.-M. Kolmonen · P. Vainikainen ·
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-probe based systems are an attractive alternative for MIMO over-the-air testing of mobile communication devices. Many studies have been conducted on synthesizing fields inside a test system assuming that each of the probes generates a plane wave arriving in the test zone from the direction of the probe. In most practical systems, this is however not the case due to the near-field effects and scattering contributions from the neighboring probes. This paper presents a calibration procedure to partially compensate those near-field and the scattering effects. This calibration procedure is based on two measurement steps and related data processing, which provide the required excitation coefficients for the probes for enabling the partial compensation of the near-field and scattering effects inside the test zone. The proposed calibration procedure is validated by computer calculations.
    6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), 2012, Prague; 03/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-polarization coupling is an important radio propagation characteristic in dual-polarized multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) systems. Still, few studies analyze the po- larimetric properties of the radio channel in relation to the actual propagation conditions and processes taking place in urban envi- ronment. The topic is studied in the present paper with the aid of dual-polarized MIMO measurements and ray tracing simulations. Several scenarios are considered, and the impact of the different propagation characteristics (LOS, NLOS, link-distance, presence of diffuse-scattering, angular distribution of the signal, etc.) on cross-polarization coupling is analyzed. Generally, a fairly high degree of coupling is observed due to multipath propagation and especially to diffuse scattering. Surprisingly, it does not appear to depend on link distance.
    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 11/2011; 59(11-11):4247 - 4256. DOI:10.1109/TAP.2011.2164226 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we have discussed the recent development in realistic evaluation of the performance of MIMO antenna systems. The development in both propagation channel research and in antenna testing is presented. I. INTRODUCTION The use of multi-antenna configurations such as MIMO or diversity is an essential part of the modern mobile communications systems such as the IEEE 802.11n WLAN systems, the LTE (long term evolution) cellular systems, and the "4G" systems. The multi-antenna configurations with typically 2-4 antennas in the terminal and somewhat more in the base station are used in these systems to enhance transmission reliability, range, or capacity. The antenna configurations utilize multi-path propagation including polarization to provide multiple more or less independent propagation channels between the transmitter and receiver. In both MIMO and diversity systems, typically both improved reliability through diversity and increased delivered power over the channel due to higher antenna system gain are obtained. In MIMO there is the well-known additional benefit of parallel transmission providing link capacity that is in the ideal case linearly proportional to the number of antennas in the transmitter and the receiver. In the evaluation of performance of the antenna systems one has to have realistic description of both the antennas and the multi-path propagation channel in different usage environments (urban, residential, rural, indoor, outdoor-indoor, etc.). Traditionally, this was obtained by moving the prototypes of the antenna(s) under test (AUT) in several environments. This is fairly realistic, but very time-consuming, which often the limits the amount of testing both with different AUTs and propagation environments. Therefore, during the last couple of decades, new computational and laboratory test methods have been developed. The computational methods can be used already in the early design phases of the antenna systems and the laboratory measurements are typical in testing the prototypes and products. In computational methods, the concept of mean effective gain (MEG) was introduced to utilize the information on the antenna pattern of the mobile terminal and the average distribution of the incident signals in different propagation environments (1). The next step was to include the instantaneous properties of the transmission link. This can be done by combining the information on the possible changes of mobile terminal antenna patterns (due to different holding positions and other user effects) with propagation data given by dynamic geometric channel models (2). The propagation data can be obtained from either experimental "recorded" channels or stochastic synthetic channel models. In the laboratory tests, methods to measure the total radiated power (TRP) and total isotropic sensitivity (TIS) were developed for standard testing of mobile terminals. These include the user effect obtained with a phantom head but the propagation environment at the mobile was assumed isotropic. Currently, a phantom hand "holding" the terminal is being added to the test configuration. The methods described above were typically intended for single antennas at both the mobile terminal and the base station. Recently the development of evaluation methods has largely concentrated on the multi-antenna configurations. In this paper we investigate some significant development of models, methods and tools for the evaluation of performance of multi-antenna configurations. In Sec. II, the new descriptions of the multipath propagation channels are discussed, as well as their use in the multi-antenna evaluation. In Sec. III the development of laboratory testing methods for MIMO antenna configurations is presented. In Sec. IV some examples of interesting results obtained in MIMO antenna evaluation are shown and in Sec. V conclusions are drawn. II. EVALUATION BASED ON PROPAGATION CHANNEL MODELS In the propagation research, the need to test multi-antenna configurations has meant enhanced investigation of the directional and polarization properties of the propagation channels with complicated multi-antenna and in some cases also multi-link channel sounder systems (3)(4). A dual-link
    Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP); 01/2011
  • O. Renaudin · V.-M. Kolmonen · P. Vainikainen · C. Oestges ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we focus on the stationarity of the scatterer contributions in highly time-variant wideband Car-to-Car (C2C) channels. To do so, these scatterer contributions were first extracted using a high-resolution algorithm and the corresponding time-variant stationarity intervals were estimated using the Correlation Matrix Distance (CMD).
    Electromagnetic Theory (EMTS), 2010 URSI International Symposium on; 09/2010
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe measurements and models of 30 × 30 narrowband multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) radio propagation channels at 5.3 GHz. Four environments were considered: a campus, a highway, a suburban area, and an urban area. Since the scattering environment may rapidly change in V2V communications, we first investigate the validity of the wide-sense stationarity (WSS) assumption for such channels using the correlation matrix distance (CMD), which is a metric for the characterization of the MIMO channel nonstationarity. Moreover, statistical channel models were developed for these environments, which take into account the non-stationary behavior of the measured V2V channels. The large-scale fading was found to be lognormally distributed, whereas the small-scale fading was characterized by the flexible Weibull distribution. Finally, the non-stationary behavior of both large-scale fading and small-scale fading statistics was investigated.
    IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 06/2010; 59(4-59):2007 - 2015. DOI:10.1109/TVT.2010.2040851 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • A. Richter · J. Salmi · V.-M. Kolmonen ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper the spatial variation of dense multipath in radio channels is analysed. It is shown that the angular distribution of dense multipath is only weakly coupled between both link ends. The influence of partial shadowing of dense multipath on one link-end on its angular distribution on the other link-end is analysed. Furthermore, the influence of scenario transitions, from non line-of-sight to line-of-sight or obstructed line-of-sight, on the angular characteristic of dense multipath is demonstrated.
    Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2010 Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on; 05/2010
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    ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a model for incorporating the influence of the diffuse scattering in the MIMO radio propagation channel to the popular geometry-based stochastic channel models (GSCM). The proposed model is based on a superposition of clusters, each of which contributes to the channel as a multivariate random variable having a Kronecker structured covariance matrix. These covariance matrices are derived based on parametric modeling of the angular and delay power spectral densities related to each cluster. The model also includes polarization and temporal evolution of the clusters. The proposed approach is validated using a spectral-based visual analysis comparing the model with measured channel sounding data.
    Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2010 Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on; 05/2010
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present and evaluate the performance of a dynamic dual-link wideband multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channel sounder. The channel sounder can simultaneously measure two wideband dual-polarized links, each with a MIMO matrix size of 30 ?? 30 and 30 ?? 32. Multilink MIMO systems, including multiuser and cooperative MIMO, are essential parts of future high-throughput wireless local area networks and fourth-generation cellular systems. To fully understand such systems, the dynamic characteristics of multilink MIMO channels have to be measured. In this paper, we present a channel sounder that enables such measurements, including double-directional parameter estimation possibility for both links. The presented dual-link MIMO channel sounder does not suffer from the deficiencies of previous "virtual multiuser"measurement systems. Furthermore, system analysis and sample results from a measurement campaign with this channel sounder at 5.3 GHz in an indoor office environment are presented.
    IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 05/2010; 59(4-59):873 - 883. DOI:10.1109/TIM.2009.2026608 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The properties of the single-link multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) propagation channels have been analyzed in many studies based on extensive propagation measurements. In this letter, we extend the measurement-based analysis to dual-link MIMO propagation channels. Here, we examine interlink correlation by evaluating the correlation of eigenvectors obtained from multiple MIMO links. We also investigated how the physical propagation phenomena produced the interlink correlation. Results indicate that interlink correlation may exist. Sometimes it is found to be very high also for far separated receive units, depending on similarity of dominant propagation mechanisms between multiple MIMO links and also on antenna array properties.
    IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 02/2010; 9(9):311 - 314. DOI:10.1109/LAWP.2010.2047491 · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • E.M. Vitucci · V.-M. Kolmonen · V. Degli-Esposti · P. Vainikainen ·
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    ABSTRACT: The behavior of radio propagation in cross-polarization (X-pol) in urban environment is studied with the aid of both MIMO measurements and ray tracing simulation. Several microcellular scenarios are considered in the paper (LOS, NLOS, street corner), and the behavior of X-pol discrimination (XPD) as a function of the distance is analyzed. Results show that typical XPD values fall between 8 and 10 dBs, and are nearly independent of link distance.
    Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, 2009. ICEAA '09. International Conference on; 10/2009
  • J. Poutanen · K. Haneda · J. Salmi · V.-M. Kolmonen · J. Koivunen · P. Almers · P. Vainikainen ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper the radio wave propagation from an indoor hall to a corridor was studied by analyzing the results from a multi-link MIMO channel sounding measurement. The results showed that despite NLOS conditions, the dominant propagation mechanisms comprised direct path through the wall and specular reflections. These findings were verified by plotting the dominant pathways with a measurement-based ray tracer. In contrast to what was expected, the wave-guide propagation around the corner had almost negligible effects in this case. The results indicate that indoor localization and navigation applications using the direction or the delay of the first arriving path can be possible even in NLOS scenarios.
    Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2009. APSURSI '09. IEEE; 07/2009

Publication Stats

345 Citations
15.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2010-2013
    • Aalto University
      • Department of Radio Science and Engineering
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2006-2009
    • University of Helsinki
      • Laboratory of Radiochemistry
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2008
    • Lund University
      • Department of Electrical and Information Technology
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden