[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes
additional collimators in the LHC lattice. The longitudinal space
for the collimators can be obtained by replacing some LHC main
dipoles with shorter but stronger dipoles compatible with the LHC
lattice and the existing powering circuits, cryogenics, and beam
vacuum. A joint development programme aiming at building a
5.5 m long two-in-one aperture Nb3Sn dipole prototype suitable
for installation in the LHC is being conducted by FNAL and
CERN. As part of the first phase of the programme, 1 m and
2 m long single aperture models are being built and tested. Later
on, the collared coils from these models will be assembled and
tested in a two-in-one aperture configuration in both laboratories.
A 2 m long practice model made of a single coil wound with Nb3Sn
cable, MBHSM101, was developed and constructed at CERN. It
has been completed, and tested at both 4.3 K and 1.9 K. This
practice model features collared coils based on removable pole
concept, S2-glass cable insulation braided over a mica layer, and
coil end spacers made of sintered stainless steel with springy legs.
The paper describes the main features of this practice model, the
main manufacturing steps and the results of the cold tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design and construction of a 120-mm wide-aperture, Nb-Ti superconducting quadrupole magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) insertion region is part of a study towards a luminosity upgrade of the LHC at CERN, envisaged for 2020-22. The main challenges for this accelerator quality magnet are to operate reliably with the high heat and radiation loads that are predicted in the insertion magnet regions. Calculations give approximately 500 Watts over the 30-m-long string of insertion magnets, while today LHC is operating for a nominal heat load of 12 Watts. To extract this heat, the model magnets incorporate new features: Open cable insulation, open ground insulation, open magnet structure, and a quench heater that has open channels to help extract the steady state heat load. This paper presents results from tests at room temperature and 1.8 K for the initial model magnet. We report magnet training, transfer function and field quality measurements, quench heater performance, and heat extraction studies using imbedded heaters to simulate the deposited beam heating profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The requirement at CERN for 1 kA range High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables optimized for long electrical transfer has led to the design and assembly of a novel type of cable that can be made from pre-reacted MgB2, Bi-2223 or YBCO tapes. The cable consists of an assembly of twisted pairs, each of which is made from three superconducting tapes with the required copper stabilizer. The twisted pair cable is designed to transfer a DC current of ± 600 A in helium gas environment. The paper reports on the results of the electrical tests performed on twisted-pair cables of identical structure and made from commercially available MgB2, Bi-2223 and YBCO tapes. The twist pitch of the cables is adapted to match the mechanical properties of the different superconductors. Critical current tests were performed at both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperature. The electrical performance of several cables made from different conductors is reported and compared.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following the incident in one of the main dipole circuits of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in September 2008, a detailed analysis of all magnet circuits has been performed by a dedicated task force. This analysis has revealed critical issues in the design of the 13 kA splices between the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets. These splices have to be consolidated before increasing the beam energy above 4 TeV and operating the LHC at 6.5-7 TeV per beam. The design of the consolidated 13 kA splices is complete and has been reviewed by an international committee of experts. Also, all other types of superconducting circuits have been thoroughly screened for potential safety issues and several important recommendations were established. They were critically assessed and the resulting actions are presented. In addition to the work on the 13 kA splices, other interventions will be performed during the first long shut-down of the LHC to consolidate globally all superconducting circuits. The associated quality control has been defined. Schedule constraints, repair production rate, available space and resources are presented as well.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accident in the LHC in September 2008 occurred in an interconnection between two magnets of the 13 kA dipole circuit. Successive measurements of the resistance of other interconnects revealed other defective joints, even though the SC cables were properly connected. These defective joints are characterized by a poor bonding between the SC cable and the copper stabilizer in combination with an electrical discontinuity in the copper stabilizer. A quench at the 7-13 kA level in such a joint can lead to a fast and unprotected thermal run-away and hence opening of the circuit. It has therefore been decided to operate the LHC at a reduced and safe current of 6 kA corresponding to 3.5 TeV beam energy until all defective joints are repaired. A task force is reviewing the status of all electrical joints in the magnet circuits and preparing for the necessary repairs. The principle solution is to resolder the worst defective joints and, in addition, to apply an electrical shunt made of copper across all joints with sufficient cross-section to guarantee safe 12-13 kA operation at 7-7.5 TeV. In this paper the various actions that have lead to this solution are presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The test of the first LARP (LHC Accelerator Research Program) Long Quadrupole is a significant milestone toward the development of Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn quadrupoles for LHC (Large Hadron Collider) Luminosity Upgrades. These 3.7-m long magnets, scaled from the 1-m long Technological Quadrupoles, are used to develop our capabilities to fabricate and assemble Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn coils and structures with lengths comparable to accelerator magnet dimensions. The long quadruples have a target gradient of 200 T/m in a 90-mm aperture. Pre-stress and support are provided by an Al-shell-based structure pre-loaded using bladders and keys. The coils were fabricated at BNL and FNAL, the shell-based structure was designed and assembled at LBNL, the test is performed at FNAL. In this paper we present the final steps of the development of the first model (LQS01), several upgrades to the test facility, the test results of witness cables, and the short sample limit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feasibility study of Cu stabilized Nb<sub>3</sub>Al strand and Rutherford cable for the application to high field accelerator magnets are being done at Fermilab in collaboration with NIMS. The Nb<sub>3</sub>Al strand, which was developed and manufactured at NIMS in Japan, has a non-copper Jc of about 844 A/mm<sup>2</sup> at 15 Tesla at 4.2 K, a copper content of 50%, and filament size of about 50 microns. Rutherford cables with 27 Nb<sub>3</sub>Al strands of 1.03 mm diameter were fabricated and tested. Quench tests on a short cable were done to study its stability with only its self field, utilizing a high current transformer. A pair of 2 meter long Nb<sub>3</sub>Al cables was tested extensively at CERN at 4.3 and 1.9 K up to 11 Tesla including its self field with a high transport current of 20.2 kA. In the low field test we observed instability near splices and in the central region. This is related to the flux-jump like behavior, because of excessive amount of Nb in the Nb<sub>3</sub>Al strand. There is possibility that the Nb in Nb<sub>3</sub>Al can cause instability below 2 Tesla field regions. We need further investigation on this problem. Above 8 Tesla, we observed quenches near the critical surface at fast ramp rate from 1000 to 3000 A/sec, with quench velocity over 100 m/sec. A small racetrack magnet was made using a 14 m of Rutherford cable and successfully tested up to 21.8 kA, corresponding to 8.7 T.