B. A. de la Morena

National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia, United States

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Publications (92)117.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Day-of-week variations in O3, NOx, CO and PM10 were analysed in the southwestern region of Europe (specifically Andalusia, Spain) using hourly concentrations collected at 43 stations (representing five typologies) over 6 years (2003-2008). This area has air pollution problems, and the study of the weekend effect is used as a tool to plan future strategies for emissions reductions. Maximum daily 8 h averages for O3, daily 90th percentiles for NO, NO2 and PM10 and mean daily values for CO were calculated and used to assess the weekend effect by applying three different metrics: weekly evolution, weekend-weekday differences and average daily difference between weekends minus workdays. Based on daily parameters and weekend-weekday differences, all the measured air pollutants exhibited clearly reduced concentrations (oscillating between 25 to 85%) on weekends, mainly at urban and suburban stations, with the exception of O3 (less than 10 g m-3). This decrease on weekend days was mostly observed for NO, NO2 and PM10 at urban stations, while differences at industrial and rural stations were low or null. CO showed a low reduction. Using the daily cycle of differences (weekend minus workdays) as a reference, positive deviations were observed at night and negative differences were observed during the daytime for NO, NO2 and PM10 at urban traffic, urban background and suburban background sites. A reduction in morning rush hour traffic during the weekends was reflected in the data from urban stations, which showed a decrease of up to 50, 15 and 12 g m-3 for NO, NO2 and PM10, respectively. An opposite daily behaviour was found for ozone, which showed an increase at urban area sites of up to 15 g m-3 in the early morning.
    Aerosol and Air Quality Research 07/2014; 14:1862-1874. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surface ozone is one of the most important photochemical pollutants in the low atmosphere, causing damage to human health, vegetation, materials and climate. The weather (high temperatures and high solar radiation), orography (presence of the Guadalquivir valley) and anthropogenic (the cities of Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva and Seville and two important industrial complexes) characteristics of the southwestern Iberian Peninsula make this region ideal for the formation and accumulation of ozone. To increase the knowledge of ozone behaviour in this area, the monthly, daily and weekly variations of ozone and its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), were analysed over a 4-year period (2003 to 2006). Using the k-means cluster technique, 12 representative stations of five different areas with different ozone behaviour were selected from a total of 29 monitoring sites. This is the first time that the analysis of these atmospheric pollutants has been carried out for the whole area, allowing therefore a complete understanding of the dynamics and the relationships of these compounds in this region. The results showed an opposite behaviour among ozone and NO and NO2 concentrations in urban and suburban zones, marked by maximums of ozone (minimums NOx) in spring and summer and minimums (maximums) in autumn and winter. A seasonal behaviour, with lower amplitude, was also observed in rural and industrial areas for ozone concentrations, with the NO and NO2 concentrations remaining at low and similar values during the year in rural zones due to the absence of emission sources in their surroundings. The daily cycles of ozone in urban, suburban and industrial sites registered a maximum value in the early afternoon (14:00-17:00 UTC) while for NOx two peaks were observed, at 7:00-10:00 UTC and 20:00-22:00. In the case of rural stations, no hourly peak of ozone or NOx was registered. The weekend effect was studied by using a statistical contrast tests (Student's t). The results indicated that only areas influenced by important traffic emissions presented a weekend effect for NO and NO2, whereas an ozone weekend effect was not detected in any case.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 05/2014; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms in relation to Nitrogen Oxides) campaign was carried out from 21 November to 8 December 2008 at El Arenosillo station (SW of Spain) in a coastal-rural environment. The main weather conditions are analysed using local meteorological variables, meteorological soundings, synoptic maps, as well as back trajectories of the air masses using the HYSPLIT model and high spatial resolution of meteorological fields. Measurements of the main meteorological parameters were collected both on the surface and on a tall tower. A detailed land use analysis was performed on a 80 km scale showing the main types of vegetation and land use. Also the main anthropogenic atmospheric emission sources both industrial-urban from Huelva and from the urban Seville area are shown. A study to identify air mass origins and their variation with height was carried out. In this intensive campaign air masses coming from different areas with different emission sources were observed: from the NW, with a highly industrial-urban character; continental flows from northerly directions; from the NE, with pathway, first, over the Seville metropolitan area and, then, over the Doñana national park; and maritime air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean. To study the chemistry in the four atmospheric scenarios identified, gas phase measurements of primary and secondary species such as ozone, NO, NO2 and SO2, biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs like benzene and isoprene, as well as total particles concentration and chemical composition of the aerosols are compared and discussed. The highest levels for total particle concentration, NO, NO2, SO2, benzene, PM10, PM2.5 and chemical elements such as As or Cu were found under flows associated with industrial-urban emissions from the Huelva-Portugal sector which are transported to the site before significant removal by chemical or deposition mechanism can occur. The air masses from the north were affected mainly by crustal elements and biogenic sources, the latter being exemplified by the biogenic species such as isoprene, particularly in the first part of the campaign. The urban air from the Seville area, before arriving at El Arenosillo traverses the Doñana National Park and therefore, was affected by industrial-urban and biogenic emissions. This aged air parcel can transport low levels of NOx, total particle concentration, SO2 as well as ozone and isoprene. Marine air masses from the Atlantic Ocean influence El Arenosillo frequently. Under these conditions the lowest levels of almost all the species were measured with the exception of ozone levels associated to long-range transport.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 03/2014; 14:2325–2342. · 5.51 Impact Factor
  • Reunión Ibérica de Ciencia y Tecnología de Aerosoles (RICTA); 07/2013
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    ABSTRACT: In the framework of the spanish research project "Development and validation of advanced atmospheric dispersion models for their application in radiological emergency systems" (ref:CGL2008-00473) /CLI, the "El Arenosillo" tower, belonging to the National Institute for Aerospace Technology (INTA) was equiped with radon monitors and, since 2011, is providing reliable and high quality measurements of Rn-222 air concentrations on an hourly basis at two elevations, namely 10 and 100 m above ground level. This radionuclide data is accompanied by continuous meteorological data including temperature, humidity, pressure and wind speed / direction. The location of the station, at the very edge of the Southern Europe, exposed to continental (rural, industrial and urban), marine and Saharan air masses, together with the Rn-222 and meteorological measurements, make it particularly attractive to study the transport phenomena and the performance of meteorological and transport models at all scales, as well as to carry out studies on the vertical structure of the atmosphere in a coastal site. In this context, two intensive measurement campaigns, including radio soundings, were performed during October 2011 and May 2012, allowing the comparison and a better understanding of the Rn-222 measurements under different meteorological conditions. This work will present a first evaluation of the two campaigns at the INTA station, analyzing the evolution of Rn-222 concentration data and the results of the meteorological numerical modelling of those episodes using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with different parameterizations. Finally, the atmospheric dispersion model inter-comparison (HYSPLIT-WRF and FLEXPART-WRF) with Rn-222 as a tracer is performed.
    04/2013;
  • European Aerosol Conference; 01/2013
  • I Reunión Ibérica de Ciencia y Tecnología de Aerosoles (RICTA2013); 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Forest and vegetation fires are a relevant atmospheric source of both trace gases and aerosols (Crutzen and Andreae, 1990; Andreae and Merlet, 2001). Biomass burning has an important impact on the atmospheric chemistry, air quality, climate and on global biogeochemical cycles. Europe, and specially the Mediterranean area, is a region that suffers, mostly in warm seasons, the effects of wildfires. The aim of this work has been to study the relation between the wildfires occurred in summer 2006, which affected both Galicia (Spanish northwest) and the north of Portugal and an exceptional air pollution event observed in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) which produced the increase of air pollutants to historical levels in some air quality stations of this region (Adame et al., 2012). The air pollution event was recorded by several air quality stations located in this region, both inland and coastal zones. These stations belong to the Air Quality Network of the Environmental Council, Andalusia Government. Three stations are suburban background (San Fernando, Aljarafe and Santa Clara), two urban backgrounds (El Carmen and Jerez) and one rural background (El Arenosillo). Three are located close to the coastal line (El Carmen, El Arenosillo and San Fernando) and three inland (Jerez, Aljarafe and Santa Clara). In the stations mentioned have been recorded surface ozone, NO 2 , CO, particle number concentration and PM10, but in all the stations not all the species are measured. To know the trajectory performed by the air masses that reach the event area, HYSPLIT model has been used whereas the WRF-ARW model has been used to achieve a detailed understanding of the mesoscale meteorological conditions. The fires start on 2 August and were extinguished on 16 August. Air pollution event occurred in the southwest of the IP from 12 to 13 August. The air pollution event in the southwest starts approximately at 17:00 UTC on 12 August when an unexpected increase on surface ozone was observed in the two coastal stations of El Arenosillo and El Carmen. From 18:00 to 21:00 UTC, the 200 µg m -3 as hourly values of surface ozone in both monitoring sites are exceeded, with peaks of 271 and 200 µg m -3 at 19:00 UTC at El Arenosillo and El Carmen, respectively. At this time, particle number concentration in the accumulation mode, which was monitored at El Arenosillo, was 8380 cm -3 . At El Carmen station a remarkable increase of CO was also measured. From 17:00 UTC on 12 August to 3:00 UTC on 13 August the 1500 µg m -3 was exceeded continuously, with a peak of 1870 µg m -3 at 23:00 UTC. PM10 concentrations were also increased at El Carmen from 18:00 UTC on 12 August with a peak of 243 µg m -3 at 23:00 UTC. From 23:00 UTC on 12 August, surface ozone starts to increase at San Fernando and Jerez stations, remaining during the night with values up to 140 µg m -3 . At 00:00 UTC on 13 August, peaks of 157 and 191 µg m -3 are measured at Jerez and San Fernando respectively. Regards to the CO, at San Fernando a peak of 1558 µg m -3 was registered at 23:00 UTC on 12 August, while at Jerez 167 µg m -3 were collected at 2:00 UTC on 13 August. From 00:00 to 13:00 UTC on 13 August the PM10 in both monitoring sites remain at 100 µg m -3 , with maximums of 184 µg m -3 at 00:00 and 162 µg m -3 at 08:00 UTC at San Fernando and Jerez respectively. Thanks to the modelling tools, have been known that after travelling approximately 1000 kilometres along the Atlantic coast of Portugal, the fire plume went parallel to the Gulf of Cadiz, affecting from the coast line to almost 40-50 km inland. However, the urban stations located in the metropolitan area of Seville were not affected, since air masses from the north didn’t reach this area.
    European Aerosol Conference; 09/2012
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    Earth Planets and Space 07/2012; 64(6):493-503. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are several sites in which the relationship between the atmospheric dynamics and behaviour of pollutants is difficult to understand, generally places with complex orography such as coastal areas or valleys. Inside the set of atmospheric circulations, sea-land breezes are a phenomenon widely studied in many regions around the world due to their interest in atmospheric dynamics and their impact on the local air pollution. Nowadays, to study with sufficient accuracy different aspects related to its structure and dynamics, such as inland penetration of the sea breeze front, the compensating return flow aloft or the features of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, is needed a Weather Prediction System (WPS). There is a lack of these studies in South-western Iberian Peninsula. Due to the orography characteristics, Guadalquivir valley, and emission levels, with industrial, urban or biogenic origin, this region is suitable to present air pollution problems. Therefore, the accurate understanding of the sea-land breeze characteristics will allow a reliable analysis of the air pollution. Thanks to observations, in previous works have been identified two different sea-land breeze patterns in this area, called as pure and non-pure. The aim is to increase the understanding of the meso-meteorological processes, analysing its structure, behaviour and evolution along the Guadalquivir valley, applying the mesoscale meteorological model of high resolution, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW)
    European Geosciences Union; 04/2012
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    ABSTRACT: There are several sites in which the relationship between the atmospheric dynamics and behaviour of pollutants is difficult to understand, generally places with complex orography such as coastal areas or valleys. Inside the set of atmospheric circulations, sea-land breezes are a phenomenon widely studied in many regions around the world due to their interest in atmospheric dynamics and their impact on the local air pollution. Nowadays, to study with sufficient accuracy different aspects related to its structure and dynamics, such as inland penetration of the sea breeze front, the compensating return flow aloft or the features of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, is needed a Weather Prediction System (WPS). There is a lack of these studies in South-western Iberian Peninsula. Due to the orography characteristics, Guadalquivir valley, and emission levels, with industrial, urban or biogenic origin, this region is suitable to present air pollution problems. Therefore, the accurate understanding of the sea-land breeze characteristics will allow a reliable analysis of the air pollution. Thanks to observations, in previous works have been identified two different sea-land breeze patterns in this area, called as pure and non-pure. The aim is to increase the understanding of the meso-meteorological processes, analysing its structure, behaviour and evolution along the Guadalquivir valley, applying the mesoscale meteorological model of high resolution, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW)
    European Geosciences Union; 04/2012
  • European Aerosol Conference; 01/2012
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    European Aerosol Conference; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: 222Rn concentration time series at 10 m and at 100 m have been measured hourly for one year at the meteorological station, El Arenosillo, on the Spanish southwest coast. A 222Rn flux characterization was also done.A seasonal analysis of atmospheric 222Rn concentration was performed and results for each season present evidence associated with the origin of air masses reaching the El Arenosillo station. An increase in 222Rn concentration was observed when the wind came from Morocco, the Sierra Morena and the Guadalquivir valley areas. On the other hand, a net 222Rn concentration decrease was found when the wind came from the Atlantic Ocean and the South of Portugal.Low 222Rn flux of 4 Bq m−2 h−1 was measured. This result makes this station a useful site for studies related to remote 222Rn source contributions because of low local 222Rn background. The measured annual average concentration of 222Rn gas at the El Arenosillo station is 3.51 ± 0.05 Bq m−3 at 10 m and 2.61 ± 0.05 Bq m−3 at 100 m.
    Radiation Measurements 01/2012; 47(2):149–162. · 0.86 Impact Factor
  • S. Magdaleno, M. Herraiz, B. A. de la Morena
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    ABSTRACT: The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) have been studied using slant total electron content (sTEC) derived from GPS data. The sTEC has been calculated from data measured at 15 International GNSS Service (IGS) stations located from 90°W to 30°W, covering the ionospheric equatorial anomaly at the American sector, for the years 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005 and 2008. The Ionospheric Bubbles Seeker (IBS) application has been used to detect and characterize the sTEC depletions associated to the EPBs. This technique bases its analysis on the time-variation of the sTEC and the population variance of this time-variation. The default configuration has been used and an EPB has been considered when a sTEC depletion was greater than 5 TEC units (TECu). The hourly occurrence shows the well-known maximum number of depletions after the post-sunset. The monthly occurrence of the EPBs is also analyzed and compared with previous studies. The International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI) has been used to calculate the equatorial vertical drift (EVD) and the peak densities of the E- and F-layers (NmE and NmF2, respectively). The EVD variation has been compared with the seasonal variation of the EPB. A discussion between the yearly mean occurrence EPBs rate and the solar activity is included. The variation of the yearly mean depth and duration of the sTEC depletions with the solar activity conditions and its relation with the ionospheric characteristics given by the IRI model has been also studied.
    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 01/2012; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the analysis of the submicron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and coastal environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days). The mean total concentration (NT) was 8660 cm−3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC), Aitken (NAIT) and accumulation (NACC) particle size ranges were 2830 cm−3, 4110 cm−3 and 1720 cm−3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm−3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC). Each day was Correspondence to: M. Sorribas (sorribasmm@inta.es) classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles moved offshore due to the land breeze and had an impact on the particle burden at noon, especially when the wind was blowing from the NW sector in the morning during summer time. This increased NNUC and NAIT by factors of 3.1 and 2.4, respectively. Nucleation events with the typical “banana” shape were characterised by a mean particle nucleation rate of 0.74 cm−3 s−1, a mean growth rate of 1.96 nm h−1 and a mean total duration of 9.25 h (starting at 10:55GMT and ending at 20:10 GMT). They were observed for 48 days. Other nucleation events were identified as those produced by the emissions from the industrial areas located at a distance of 35 km. They were observed for 42 days. Both nucleation events were strongly linked to the marine air mass origin.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11/2011; 11:11185-11206. · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    Jose A. Adame, Antonio Lozano, Juan Contreras, Benito A. de la Morena
    Advanced Air Pollution, 08/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-511-2
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    ABSTRACT: The synergetic use of meteorological information, remote sensing both ground-based active (lidar) and passive (sun-photometry) techniques together with backtrajectory analysis and in-situ measurements is devoted to the characterization of dust intrusions. A case study of air masses advected from the Saharan region to the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula, located relatively close and far away from the dust sources, respectively, was considered for this purpose. The observations were performed over three Spanish geographically strategic stations within the dust-influenced area along a common dust plume pathway monitored from 11 to 19 of March 2008. A 4-day long dust event (13–16 March) over the Santa Cruz de Tenerife Observatory (SCO), and a linked short 1-day dust episode (14 March) in the Southern Iberian Peninsula over the Atmospheric Sounding Station “El Arenosillo” (ARN) and the Granada station (GRA) were detected. Meteorological conditions favoured the dust plume transport over the area under study. Backtrajectory analysis clearly revealed the Saharan region as the source of the dust intrusion. Under the Saharan air masses influence, AERONET Aerosol Optical Depth at 500 nm (AOD500) ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 and Angstrom Exponent at 440/675 nm wavelength pair (AE440/675) was lower than 0.5, indicating a high loading and predominance of coarse particles during those dusty events. Lidar observations characterized their vertical layering structure, identifying different aerosol contributions depending on altitude. In particular, the 3-km height dust layer transported from the Saharan region and observed over SCO site was later on detected at ARN and GRA stations. No significant differences were found in the lidar (extinction-to-backscatter) ratio (LR) estimation for that dust plume over all stations when a suitable aerosol scenario for lidar data retrieval is selected. Lidar-retrieved LR values of 60–70 sr were obtained during the main dust episodes. These similar LR values found in all the stations suggest that dust properties were kept nearly unchanged in the course of its medium-range transport. In addition, the potential impact on surface of that Saharan dust intrusion over the Iberian Peninsula was evaluated by means of ground-level in-situ measurements for particle deposition assessment together with backtrajectory analysis. However, no connection between those dust plumes and the particle sedimentation registered at ground level is found. Differences on particle deposition processes observed in both Southern Iberian Peninsula sites are due to the particular dust transport pattern occurred over each station. Discrepancies between columnar-integrated and ground-level in-situ measurements show a clear dependence on height of the dust particle size distribution. Then, further vertical size-resolved observations are needed for evaluation of the impact on surface of the Saharan dust arrival to the Iberian Peninsula.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 04/2011; 11:3067–3091. · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study is focused on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at rural and coastal environment in Southwestern Spain. Particle number size distributions were measured in the size range (14–673) nm using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, Model 3936-TSI), from 15 July 2004 to 31 July 2006 at El Arenosillo Station. Mean total concentration was 8660 cm−3 and mean concentrations for the nucleation, Aitken and accumulation modes particles were 2830 cm−3, 4110 cm−3 and 1720 cm−3, respectively. Mean geometric diameters of the four modes particles, which characterized the mean size distribution per month, were about 16 nm, 42 nm, 103 nm and 237 nm. Two kinds of episodes produced a maximum of the total concentration around noon: the new particle formation and the regional recirculation such as the sea-land breeze. Two types of nucleation events (called N$1 and N2) were observed. Events N1 were an example of the influence of regional sources and Events N2 showed the weight of local industries over the rural and coastal background levels. The 60% of nucleation events were related to NE and NW wind sectors (N1 and N2 respectively), a ΔT higher than 12 °C, a wind speed higher than 2.3 m s−1 and a total surface area for the accumulation mode particles below of 11 190 μ m2 cm−3. The influence of the sea-land breeze processes has been analyzed, observing increases of up to 50%, 110% and 90% of the particle concentration for the nucleation, Aitken and accumulation modes. Annual evolution of monthly averages allowed to conclude that the increase or decrease of 1 cm−3 of the concentration for nucleation mode particles was related to opposite trend of 0.5 cm−3 of the concentration for accumulation mode. This anti-correlation produced a weak seasonal evolution of the total particle concentration.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 01/2011; · 5.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

509 Citations
117.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • National Institute of Aerospace
      Hampton, Virginia, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial
      • El Arenosillo Atmospheric Sounding Station (ESAt)
      Torrejon de Ardos, Madrid, Spain
  • 2005–2010
    • Universidad de Extremadura
      • Department of Physics
      Ara Pacis Augustalis, Extremadura, Spain
  • 2003
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1997
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia