Erik J Sirevaag

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

Are you Erik J Sirevaag?

Claim your profile

Publications (26)31.64 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electrical signal originating from the heart, the electrocardiogram (ECG), has been examined for its potential use as a biometric. Recent ECG studies have shown that an intersession authentication performance <;6% equal error rate (EER) can be achieved using training data from two days while testing with data from a third day. More recently, a mechanical measurement of cardiovascular activity, the laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) signal, was proposed by our group as a biometric trait. The intersession authentication performance of the LDV biometric system is comparable to that of the ECG biometric system. Combining both the electrical and mechanical aspects of the cardiovascular system, an overall improvement in authentication performance can be attained. In particular, the multibiometric system achieves ~2% EER. Moreover, in the identification mode, with a testing database containing 200 individuals, the rank-1 accuracy improves from ~80% for each individual biometric system, to ~92% for the multibiometric system. Although there are implementation issues that would need to be resolved before this combined method could be applied in the field, this report establishes the basis and utility of the method in principle, and it identifies effective signal analysis approaches.
    IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 01/2015; 10(1):16-27. DOI:10.1109/TIFS.2014.2361261 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The principal goal of this study was to assess the capability of the laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) method for assessing cardiovascular activity. A rebreathing task was used to provoke changes within individuals in cardiac and vascular performance. The rebreathing task is known to produce multiple effects, associated with changes in autonomic drive as well as alterations in blood gases. The rise in CO2 (hypercapnia), in particular, produces changes in the cerebral and systemic circulation. The results from a rebreathing task (involving rebreathing the same air in a rubber bag) are presented for 35 individuals. The LDV pulse was measured from a site overlying the carotid artery. For comparison and validation purposes, several conventional measures of cardiovascular function were also obtained, with an emphasis on the electrocardiogram (ECG), continuous blood pressure (BP) from the radial artery, and measures of myocardial performance using impedance cardiography (ICG). During periods of active rebreathing, ventilation increased. The conventional cardiovascular effects included increased mean arterial BP and systemic vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac stroke volume (SV) and pulse transit time (PTT). These effects were consistent with a pattern of -adrenergic stimulation. During the immediate post-rebreathing segments, in contrast, mean BP was largely unaffected but pulse BP increased, as did PTT and SV, whereas systemic vascular resistance decreased—a pattern consistent with -adrenergic effects in combination with the direct effects of hypercapnia on the vascular system. Measures of cardiovascular activity derived from the LDV pulse velocity and displacement waveforms revealed patterns of changes that mirrored the results obtained using conventional measures. In particular, the ratio of the maximum early peak in the LDV velocity pulse to the maximum amplitude of the LDV displacement pulse (in an early systolic interval) closely mirrored the conventional SV effects. Additionally, changes in an augmentation ratio (computed as the maximum amplitude of the LDV displacement pulse during systole / amplitude at the end of the incident wave) were very similar to changes in systemic vascular resistance. Heart rates measured from the ECG and LDV were nearly identical. These preliminary results suggest that measures derived using the non-contact LDV technique can provide surrogate measures for those obtained using impedance cardiography.
    Aivela, Ancona; 06/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Contracting muscles show complex dimensional changes that include lateral expansion. Because this expansion process is intrinsically vibrational, driven by repetitive actions of multiple motor units, it can be sensed and quantified using the method of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV). LDV has a number of advantages over more traditional mechanical methods based on microphones and accelerometers. The LDV mechanical myogram from a small hand muscle (the first dorsal interosseous) was studied under conditions of elastic loading applied to the tip of the abducted index finger. The LDV signal was shown to be related systematically to the level of force production, and to compare favorably with conventional methods for sensing the mechanical and electrical aspects of muscle contraction.
    The Review of scientific instruments 12/2013; 84(12):121706. DOI:10.1063/1.4845435 · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is an emerging biometric modality that has seen about 13 years of development in peer-reviewed literature, and as such deserves a systematic review and discussion of the associated methods and findings. In this paper, we review most of the techniques that have been applied to the use of the electrocardiogram for biometric recognition. In particular, we categorize the methodologies based on the features and the classification schemes. Finally, a comparative analysis of the authentication performance of a few of the ECG biometric systems is presented, using our inhouse database. The comparative study includes the cases where training and testing data come from the same and different sessions (days). The authentication results show that most of the algorithms that have been proposed for ECG-based biometrics perform well when the training and testing data come from the same session. However, when training and testing data come from different sessions, a performance degradation occurs. Multiple training sessions were incorporated to diminish the loss in performance. That notwithstanding, only a few of the proposed ECG recognition algorithms appear to be able to support performance improvement due to multiple training sessions. Only three of these algorithms produced equal error rates (EERs) in the single digits, including an EER of 5.5% using a method proposed by us.
    IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 12/2012; 7(6):1812-1824. DOI:10.1109/TIFS.2012.2215324 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • J. W. Rohrbaugh, E. J. Sirevaag
    International Journal of Psychophysiology 09/2012; 85(3):312. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.06.066 · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The method of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) is used to sense movements of the skin overlying the carotid artery. When pointed at the skin overlying the carotid artery, the mechanical movements of the skin disclose physiological activity relating to the blood pressure pulse over the cardiac cycle. In this paper, signal modeling is addressed, with close attention to the underlying physiology. Segments of the LDV signal corresponding to single heartbeats, called LDV pulses, are extracted. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used to capture the dynamics of the LDV pulses from beat to beat based on pulse morphology; under resting conditions these dynamics are primarily due to respiration-related effects. LDV pulses are classified according to state, by computing the optimal state path through the data using trained HMMs. HMM state dynamics are examined within the context of respiratory effort using strain gauges placed around the abdomen. This study presented here provides a graphical model approach to modeling the dependence of the LDV pulse on latent states.
    IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 12/2011; 59(3):744-53. DOI:10.1109/TBME.2011.2179297 · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Augmented cortical activity during repetitive grasping mitigates repetition-related decrease in cortical efficiency in young adults. It is unclear if similar processes occur with healthy aging. We recorded movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) during 150 repetitive handgrip contractions at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in healthy young (n = 10) and old (n = 10) adults. Repetitions were grouped into two Blocks (Block 1 and 2: repetitions 1-60 and 91-150, respectively) and analyzed separately to assess the effects of aging and block. EMG of the flexor digitorum superficialis and handgrip force were also recorded. No changes in EMG or MVC were observed across blocks for either group. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for MRCPs recorded from mesial (FCz, Cz, CPz) and motor (C1, C3, Cz) electrode sites, with younger adults demonstrating significant increases in MRCP amplitude. Focal MRCP activity in response to repetitive grasping resulted in minimal changes (i.e. Block 1 versus Block 2) in older adults. Central adaptive processes change across the lifespan, showing increasingly less focal activation in older adults during repetitive grasping. Our findings are consistent with previous paradigms demonstrating more diffuse cortical activation during motor tasks in older adults.
    Brain Topography 04/2011; 24(3-4):292-301. DOI:10.1007/s10548-011-0183-0 · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present the results of an analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) as a biometric using a novel short-time frequency method with robust feature selection. Our proposed method incorporates heartbeats from multiple days and fuses information. Single lead ECG signals from a comparatively large sample of 269 subjects that were sampled from the general population were collected on three separate occasions over a seven-month period. We studied the impact of long-term variability, health status, data fusion, the number of training and testing heartbeats, and database size on ECG biometric performance. The proposed method achieves 5.58% equal error rate (EER) in verification, 76.9% accuracy in rank-1 recognition, and 93.5% accuracy in rank-15 recognition when training and testing heartbeats are from different days. If training and testing heartbeats are collected on the same day, we achieve 0.37% EER and 99% recognition accuracy for decisions based on a single heartbeat.
    Information Forensics and Security (WIFS), 2010 IEEE International Workshop on; 01/2011
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel approach for remotely sensing mechanical cardiovascular activity for use as a biometric marker is proposed. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) is employed to sense vibrations on the surface of the skin above the carotid artery related to arterial wall movements associated with the central blood pressure pulse. Carotid LDV signals are recorded using noncontact methods and the resulting unobtrusiveness is a major benefit of this technique. Several recognition methods are proposed that use the temporal and/or spectral information in the signal to assess biometric performance both on an intrasession basis, and on an intersession basis where LDV measurements were acquired from the same subjects after delays ranging from one week to six months. A waveform decomposition method that utilizes principal component analysis is used to model the signal in the time domain. Authentication testing for this approach produces an equal-error rate of 0.5% for intrasession testing. However, performance degrades substantially for intersession testing, requiring a more robust approach to modeling. Improved performance is obtained using techniques based on time-frequency decomposition, incorporating a method for extracting informative components. Biometric fusion methods including data fusion and information fusion are applied to train models using data from multiple sessions. As currently implemented, this approach yields an intersession equal-error rate of 6.3%.
    IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 10/2010; DOI:10.1109/TIFS.2010.2051542 · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Early effects of a resistance training program include neural adaptations at multiple levels of the neuraxis, but direct evidence of central changes is lacking. Plasticity exhibited by multiple supraspinal centers following training may alter slow negative electroencephalographic activity, referred to as movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP). The purpose of this study was to determine whether MRCPs are altered in response to resistance training. Eleven healthy participants (24.6 +/- 3.5 years) performed 3 weeks of explosive unilateral leg extensor resistance training. MRCP were assessed during 60 self-paced leg extensions against a constant nominal load before and after training. Resistance training was effective (P < 0.001) in increasing leg extensor peak force (+22%), rate of force production (+32%) as well as muscle activity (iEMG; +47%, P < 0.05). These changes were accompanied by several MRCP effects. Following training, MRCP amplitude was attenuated at several scalp sites overlying motor-related cortical areas (P < 0.05), and the onset of MRCP at the vertex was 28% (561 ms) earlier. In conclusion, the 3-week training protocol in the present study elicited significant strength gains which were accompanied by neural adaptations at the level of the cortex. We interpret our findings of attenuated cortical demand for submaximal voluntary movement as evidence for enhanced neural economy as a result of resistance training.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 03/2010; 109(5):923-33. DOI:10.1007/s00421-010-1432-8 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is used to sense movements of the skin overlying the carotid artery. Fluctuations in carotid artery diameter due to variations in the underlying blood pressure are sensed at the surface of the skin. Portions of the LDV signal corresponding to single heartbeats, called the LDV pulses, are extracted. This paper introduces the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) to model the dynamics of the LDV pulse from beat to beat based on pulse morphology, which under resting conditions are primarily due to breathing effects. LDV pulses are classified according to state, by computing the optimal state path through the data using trained HMMs. HMM state dynamics are compared to simultaneous recordings of strain gauges placed on the abdomen. The work presented here provides a robust statistical approach to modeling the dependence of the LDV pulse on latent states.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 01/2010; 2010:5273-6. DOI:10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5626310
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel approach using mechanical physiological activity as a biometric marker is described. Laser Doppler Vibrometry is used to sense activity in the region of the carotid artery, related to arterial wall movements associated with the central blood pressure pulse. The non-contact basis of the LDV method has several potential benefits in terms of the associated non-intrusiveness. Several methods are proposed that use the temporal and/or spectral information in the signal to assess biometric performance both on an intra-session basis, and on an intersession basis involving testing repeated after delays of 1 week to 6 months. A waveform decomposition method that utilizes principal component analysis is used to model the signal in the time domain. Authentication testing for this approach produces an equal-error rate of 0.5% for intra-session testing. However, performance degrades substantially for inter-session testing, requiring a more robust approach to modeling. Improved performance is obtained using techniques based on time-frequency decomposition, incorporating a method for extracting informative components. Biometric fusion methods including data fusion and information fusion are applied in multi-session data training model. As currently implemented, this approach yields an inter-session equal-error rate of 9%.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 01/2010; 5:449-460. DOI:10.1117/12.818283 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding the variability of the cardiac-related signals caused by physical exercise is an interesting and important problem. To our knowledge, there is no paper evaluating the biometric consistency of the cardiovascular based signals during the physical exercise, or the extent to which the signals can recover after that. A novel method of remotely sensing mechanical activity related to the carotid pulse with Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been developed. Encouraging results are obtained on the evaluation of the LDV cardiovascular signal as a biometric marker. A new protocol is set up to produce changes in heart rate by physical exercise. Spectral based approaches are applied following the success in general biometric authentication. An equal error rate of 2.8% for inter-state tests indicates that the LDV pulse signal is quite stable even after moderate physical exercise. The performance degrades during exercise, especially when the heart rate reaches 55% of the age-adjusted theoretical maximum heart rate. When the test individuals start resting, the performance improves as the heart rate recovered within seconds. We can say that the short-term variability caused by heart rate fluctuations and respiration changes recover with enough stability in a short time for biometric consistency.
    Biometrics, Identity and Security (BIdS), 2009 International Conference on; 10/2009
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Male and female never-smokers stratified on parental history of smoking were tested for possible differences in susceptibility to the hedonic effects of nicotine. We recruited nicotine-exposed never-smokers with two never-smoking biological parents (PH-) or two ever-smoking biological parents (PH+). After completing a baseline assessment battery focusing on conditions or behaviors associated with smoking, participants were tested for subjective and hedonic effects in response to administration of three different nicotine doses (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg) via nasal spray. Physiological and biochemical reactivity also was monitored. PH+ were significantly more likely to report having experienced a "buzz" upon early smoking experimentation and to have histories of alcohol abuse and alcoholism; they also scored higher on disordered eating. In response to nicotine dosing, PH+ reported an increase in depressed mood, compared with a minimal response in PH-, in keeping with our expectation that nicotine would have more pronounced effects in PH+. Regardless of parental history, women reported experiencing greater anxiety in response to the highest nicotine dose, compared with men. Further exploration in larger samples, using more stringent selection criteria, a wider range of measures, and a less aversive dosing method, may provide a full test of the possible utility of the parental history model for illuminating biobehavioral mechanisms underlying response to nicotine. Also important would be broadening the scope of inquiry to include comparisons with ever-smokers to determine what protected PH+ from becoming smokers, despite the presence of factors that might be expected to decrease resilience and increase susceptibility.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 08/2009; 11(9):1055-66. DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntp099 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small movements of the skin overlying the carotid artery, arising from pressure pulse changes in the carotid during the cardiac cycle, can be detected using the method of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV). Based on the premise that there is a high degree of individuality in cardiovascular function, the pulse-related movements were modeled for biometric use. Short time variations in the signal due to physiological factors are described and these variations are shown to be informative for identity verification and recognition. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are used to exploit the dependence between the pulse signals over successive cardiac cycles. The resulting biometric classification performance confirms that the LDV signal contains information that is unique to the individual.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 05/2009; DOI:10.1117/12.818558 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We propose a new biometric approach based on cardiovascular signals recorded using laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) with a robust feature selection method. A novel feature selection method provides robustness against physiological variability of a given individual. LDV signals were collected from 191 individuals under controlled conditions during three sessions, each at intervals of one week to six months. The methods described here are based on a time-frequency decomposition of the LDV signal in which the log-power of the decomposition values are used as features. In identity verification tasks, equal error rates in the single digits can be achieved with testing periods as short as 4 s.
    Biometrics Symposium, 2008. BSYM '08; 10/2008
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rapid evaluation of complex visual environments is critical for an organism's adaptation and survival. Previous studies have shown that emotionally significant visual scenes, both pleasant and unpleasant, elicit a larger late positive wave in the event-related brain potential (ERP) than emotionally neutral pictures. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether neuroelectric responses elicited by complex pictures discriminate between specific, biologically relevant contents of the visual scene and to determine how early in the picture processing this discrimination occurs. Subjects (n = 264) viewed 55 color slides differing in both scene content and emotional significance. No categorical judgments or responses were required. Consistent with previous studies, we found that emotionally arousing pictures, regardless of their content, produce a larger late positive wave than neutral pictures. However, when pictures were further categorized by content, anterior ERP components in a time window between 200 and 600 ms following stimulus onset showed a high selectivity for pictures with erotic content compared to other pictures regardless of their emotional valence (pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant) or emotional arousal. The divergence of ERPs elicited by erotic and non-erotic contents started at 185 ms post-stimulus in the fronto-central midline region, with a later onset in parietal regions. This rapid, selective, and content-specific processing of erotic materials and its dissociation from other pictures (including emotionally positive pictures) suggests the existence of a specialized neural network for prioritized processing of a distinct category of biologically relevant stimuli with high adaptive and evolutionary significance.
    Brain Research 07/2006; 1093(1):167-77. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.03.108 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relationship between lifetime alcohol consumption and postural control was investigated in 35 subjects with no clinically-detectable neurologic abnormalities, using computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) procedures. The estimated total number of lifetime alcoholic drinks was positively correlated with anteroposterior sway spectral power within the 2-4 Hz and 4-6 Hz frequency bands, in three Sensory Organization Test (SOT) conditions: eyes closed with stable support surface (SOT 2), eyes open with sway-referenced support (SOT 4), and eyes closed with sway-referenced support (SOT 5). All correlations remained significant after controlling for subject age, and were increased after excluding nine drug-abusing subjects. In contrast to the strong findings for frequency-based measures, no correlation was observed using conventional amplitude-based sway measures. These results suggest that 1) alcohol consumption compromises postural control in an exposure-dependent manner, and 2) sway frequency analysis reveals pathological processes not manifested in conventional CDP measures of sway amplitude.
    Journal of Vestibular Research 02/2002; 12(1):53-64. · 1.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of alcoholism etiology often focus on genetic or psy-chosocial approaches, but not both. Greater understanding of the etiology of alcohol, tobacco and other addictions will come from integration of these research traditions. A research approach is outlined to test three models for the etiology of addictions — behavioral undercontrol, pharmacologic vulnerability, negative affect regulation — addressing key questions including (i) mediators of genetic effects, (ii) genotype-environment correlation effects, (iii) genotype x environment interaction effects, (iv) the developmental unfolding of genetic and environmental effects, (v) subtyping including identification of distinct trajectories of substance involvement, (vi) identification of individual genes that contribute to risk, and (vii) the consequences of excessive use. By using coordinated research designs, including prospective assessment of adolescent twins and their siblings and parents; of adult substance dependent and control twins and their MZ and DZ cotwins, the spouses of these pairs, and their adolescent offspring; and of regular families; by selecting for gene-mapping approaches sibships screened for extreme concordance or discordance on quantitative indices of substance use; and by using experimental (drug challenge) as well as survey approaches, a number of key questions concerning addiction etiology can be addressed. We discuss complementary strengths and weaknesses of different sampling strategies, as well as methods to implement such an integrated approach illustrated for the study of alcoholism etiology. A coordinated program of twin and family studies will allow a comprehensive dissection of the interplay of genetic and environmental risk-factors in the etiology of alcoholism and other addictions.
    Twin Research 05/2001; DOI:10.1375/twin.4.2.103

Publication Stats

284 Citations
31.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2014
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2001–2006
    • Washington School of Psychiatry
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States