K. Temst

Leuven Instituut voor Fertiliteit en Embryologie, Louvain, Flanders, Belgium

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Publications (236)550.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism is investigated in granular Sn–Co nanocomposites. The nanocomposites have been prepared by co-deposition of Sn atoms and Co clusters, the morphology and composition of which can be tuned by varying the deposition rate of Co clusters relative to Sn atoms. Flat isolated Sn islands are obtained at zero or low Co cluster flux, while granular nanocomposites are formed with increasing Co cluster flux, reaching Co concentrations up to 44 vol.%. Interfaces with a low electronic transparency between superconductor and ferromagnet are obtained by a combination of the granular nature of the nanocomposites and the formation of Sn–Co alloys at the Sn/Co interfaces. The structure and composition of the nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. Over the entire Co concentration range, the hybrids show a ferromagnetic response. The superconducting phase boundary and the Meissner response depend on the morphology and composition of the nanocomposites. In particular, the superconducting critical temperature decreases with increasing Co concentration, while the Meissner response varies from a reversible to a strongly hysteretic behaviour depending on the morphology of the samples with different Co content. The persistence of superconductivity at high Co concentrations is attributed to a suppression of the superconducting proximity effect in these nanocomposites, which is ascribed to the low interface transparency between the Sn and Co components that make up these hybrid systems.
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds 03/2015; 637:509–516. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2015.03.007 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structure, magnetic properties, and lattice dynamics of ordered Fe-Pt alloys with three stoichiometric compositions, Fe$_3$Pt, FePt and FePt$_3$, have been investigated using the density functional theory. Additionally, the existing experimental data have been complemented by new measurements of the Fe projected phonon density of states performed for the Fe$_3$Pt and FePt$_3$ thin films using the nuclear inelastic scattering technique. The calculated phonon dispersion relations and phonon density of states have been compared with the experimental data. The dispersion curves are very well reproduced by the calculations, although, the softening of the transversal acoustic mode TA$_1$ leads to some discrepancy between the theory and experiment in Fe$_3$Pt. A very goood agreement between the measured spectra and calculations performed for the tetragonal structure derived from the soft mode may signal that the tetragonal phase with the space group $P4/mbm$ plays an important role in the martensitic transformation observed in Fe$_3$Pt. For FePt$_3$, the antiferromagnetic order appearing with decreasing temperature has been also investigated. The studies showed that the phonon density of states of FePt$_3$ very weakly depends on the magnetic configuration.
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    Applied Physics Letters 01/2015; 106(1-1):012406. DOI:10.1063/1.4905556 · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Applied Physics Letters 01/2015; 106(1):012905. DOI:10.1063/1.4905343 · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetic and electric properties of impurities in semiconductors are strongly dependent on the lattice sites which they occupy. While the majority site can often be predicted based on chemical similarities with the host elements and is usually simple to confirm experimentally, minority sites are far more complicated to predict, detect and identify. We have carried out extensive beta(-) emission channeling studies on the lattice location of transition metal impurities in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors, namely Co and Mn in GaN and ZnO, making use of radioactive Co-61 and Mn-56 implanted at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. In addition to the majority occupation of cation (Ga, Zn) sites, we located significant fractions (of the order of 20%) of the Co and Mn impurities in anion (N, O) sites, which are virtually unaffected by thermal annealing up to 900 degrees C. Here, we present the beta(-) emission channeling experiments on Co-61-implanted GaN. We discuss these results in the context of our recent reports of minority anion substitution in Mn-implanted GaN Pereira et al. (2012) [19] and Mn/Co-implanted ZnO Pereira et al. (2011) [20], particularly in terms of the advantages of the emission channeling technique in such cases of multi-site occupancy.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 08/2014; 332:143-147. DOI:10.1016/j.nimb.2014.02.048 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The training effect for exchange bias in field-cooled Co/CoO bilayers films is investigated. Previous experiments on the same system have shown that, starting from the ascending branch of the first hysteresis loop, coherent magnetization rotation is the dominant reversal mechanism. This is confirmed by the performed numerical simulations, which also indicate that the training is predominantly caused by changes of the rotatable anisotropy parameters of uncompensated spins at the Co/CoO interface. Moreover, in contrast with what is commonly assumed, the exchange coupling between the rotatable spins and the ferromagnetic layer is stronger than the coupling between the ferromagnet and the spins responsible for the bias. Thus, uncompensated spins strongly coupled to the ferromagnet contribute to the coercivity rather than to the bias, whatever the strength of their magnetic anisotropy.
    Journal of Applied Physics 06/2014; 115(24):243903-243903-6. DOI:10.1063/1.4885157 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surface treatments using multiple Ar ion irradiation processes with a maximum energy and fluence of 200 keV and 1x1016 ions/cm2, respectively, have been performed on two different metallic glasses: Zr55Cu28Al10Ni7 and Ti40Zr10Cu38Pd12. Analogous irradiation procedures have been carried out at room temperature (RT) and at T = 620 K (around 0.9 Tg, where Tg denotes the glass transition). The structure, mechanical behavior, wettability and corrosion resistance of the irradiated alloys have been compared with the properties of the as-cast and annealed (T = 620 K) non-irradiated specimens. While ion irradiation at RT does not significantly alter the amorphous structure of the alloys, ion irradiation close to Tg promotes decomposition/nanocrystallization. Consequently, the hardness (H) and reduced Young’s modulus (Er) decrease after irradiation at RT but they both increase after irradiation at 620 K. While annealing close to Tg increases the hydrophobicity of the samples, irradiation induces virtually no changes in the contact angle when comparing with the as-cast state. Concerning the corrosion resistance, although not much effect is found after irradiation at RT, an improvement is observed after irradiation at 620 K, particularly for the Ti-based alloy. These results are of practical interest in order to engineer appropriate surface treatments based on ion irradiation, aimed at specific functional applications of bulk metallic glasses.
    Journal of Alloys and Compounds 05/2014; 610:118. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.04.219 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interdependence between training and magnetization reversal in granular Co-CoO exchange bias (EB) systems prepared by O ion implantation in Co thin films is demonstrated by polarized neutron reflectometry. While high-fluence O-implanted thin films show reduced relative training values and no asymmetry in magnetization reversal (all reversals take place by domain wall nucleation and motion), low-fluence O ion implantation results in an increased relative training and a magnetization reversal asymmetry between the first descending and the first ascending branches. Whereas the untrained decreasing field reversal occurs mainly by domain wall nucleation and motion, traces of a domain rotation contribution are evidenced in the increasing field reversal. This is explained by the evolution of the CoO structure and the contribution of the out-of-plane magnetization with ion implantation. The amount of incorporated O, which determines the threshold between both behaviors, is around 20 at.%. This reveals that the interdependence between training and magnetization reversal is insensitive to the morphology of the constituents (i.e., granular or layered), indicating that this is an intrinsic EB effect, which can be conveniently tailored by the interplay between the intrinsic properties of the investigated materials and ion implantation.
    Physical Review B 04/2014; 89(14):144407. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.89.144407 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The low-temperature magnetic behavior of granular Co-CoO exchange bias systems, prepared by oxygen ion implantation in Co thin films and subsequent annealing, is addressed. The thermal activation effects lead to an O migration which results in virtually pure Co areas embedded in a structurally relaxed and nearly stoichiometric CoO phase. This yields decreased training and exchange bias shifts, while the blocking temperature significantly increases, coming close to the Néel temperature of bulk CoO for samples implanted to a fluence above 1x1017 ions/cm2 (15% O). The dependence of the exchange bias shift on the pristine O-implanted content is analogous to that of the antiferromagnetic thickness in most ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic systems (i.e., an increase in the exchange bias shift up to a maximum followed by a decrease until a steady state is reached), suggesting that, after annealing, the enriched Co areas might be rather similar in size for samples implanted above 1x1017 ions/cm2, whereas the corresponding CoO counterparts become enlarged with pristine O content (i.e., effect of the antiferromagnet size). This study demonstrates that the magnetic properties of granular Co-CoO systems can be tailored by controllably modifying the local microstructure through annealing treatments.
    Journal of Applied Physics 03/2014; 115:133915. DOI:10.1063/1.4870713 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BiFeO3 and BaTiO3 were used to grow homogeneous composite thin films and multilayer heterostructures with 15 double layers by pulsed laser deposition. The perpendicular strain of the films was tuned by employing different substrate materials, i.e. SrTiO3(0 0 1), MgO(0 0 1) and MgAl2O4(0 0 1). Multiferroic properties have been measured in a temperature range from room temperature down to 2K. The composite films show a high ferroelectric saturation polarization of more than 70μCcm−2. The multilayers show the highest magnetization of 2.3 emu cm−3, due to interface magnetic moments and exchange coupling of the included weak ferromagnetic phases. The magnetoelectric coupling of the BaTiO3–BiFeO3 films was investigated by two methods. While the ferroelectric hysteresis loops in magnetic fields up to 8 T show only minor changes, a direct longitudinal AC method yields a magnetoelectric coefficient αME = ∂E/∂H of 20.75Vcm−1 Oe−1 with a low μ0HDC of 0.25 T for the 67% BaTiO3–33% BiFeO3 composite film at 300 K. This value is close to the highest reported in the literature
    Journal of Physics D Applied Physics 03/2014; 47:135303. DOI:10.1088/0022-3727/47/13/135303 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ZnO-Co nanocomposite thin films are synthesized by combination of pulsed laser deposition of ZnO and Co ion implantation. Both superparamagnetism and relaxor ferroelectricity, as well as magnetoelectric coupling in the nanocomposites have been demonstrated. The unexpected relaxor ferroelectricity is believed to be the result of the local lattice distortion induced by the incorporation of the Co nanoparticles. Magnetoelectric coupling can be attributed to the interaction between the electric dipole moments and the magnetic moments, which are both induced by the incorporation of Co. The introduced ZnO-Co nanocomposite thin films are different from conventional strain-mediated multiferroic composites.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 03/2014; 6(7). DOI:10.1021/am4053877 · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Composite multiferroics are a new class of material where magneto-electric coupling is achieved by creating an interface between a ferromagnetic and a ferroelectric compound. The challenge of understanding the chemical and magnetic properties of such interface is a key to achieve good magneto-electric coupling. The unique possibilities offered by isotope sensitive techniques are used to selectively investigate the interface's chemistry and magnetism in Fe/BaTiO3 and Fe/LiNbO3 systems during the application of an electric field. With a large enough electric field, a strong oxidation of Fe is triggered, which creates a magnetically dead interface. This leads to an irreversible decrease of the magneto-electric coupling properties. Material parameters are identified that determine under which electric field the interface may be modified. The results are confirmed on the two systems and are expected to be widespread in this new class of hybrid material.
    Advanced Functional Materials 01/2014; 24(1). DOI:10.1002/adfm.201301160 · 10.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the superconducting properties of Pb nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 8 to 20 nm, synthesized by Pb+ ion implantation in a crystalline Al matrix. A detailed structural characterization of the nanocomposites reveals the highly epitaxial relation between the Al crystalline matrix and the Pb nanoparticles. The Al/Pb nanocomposites display a single superconducting transition, with the critical temperature Tc increasing with the Pb content. The dependence of Tc on the Pb/Al volume ratio was compared with theoretical models of the superconducting proximity effect based on the bulk properties of Al and Pb. A very good correspondence with the strong-coupling proximity effect model was found, with an electron-phonon coupling constant in the Pb nanoparticles slightly reduced compared to bulk Pb. Our result differs from other studies on Pb nanoparticle based proximity systems where weak-coupling models were found to better describe the Tc dependence. We infer that the high interface quality resulting from the ion implantation synthesis method is a determining factor for the superconducting properties. Critical field and critical current measurements support the high quality of the nanocomposite superconducting films.
    Superconductor Science and Technology 01/2014; 27(1):5008-. DOI:10.1088/0953-2048/27/1/015008 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lattice site location of radioactive 27Mg implanted in AlN was determined by means of emission channeling. The majority of the 27Mg was found to substitute for Al, yet significant fractions (up to 33%) were also identified close to the octahedral interstitial site. The activation energy for interstitial Mg diffusion is estimated to be between 1.1 eV and 1.7 eV. Substitutional Mg is shown to occupy ideal Al sites within a 0.1 Å experimental uncertainty. We discuss the absence of significant displacements from ideal Al sites, in the context of the current debate, on Mg doped nitride semiconductors.
    Applied Physics Letters 12/2013; 103(26):262102. DOI:10.1063/1.4858389 · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new and facile approach is presented for generating quasi-regular patterns of transition metal-based nanoparticles on flat substrates exploiting polystyrene-block-poly2vinyl pyridine (PS-b-P2VP) micelles as intermediate templates. Direct loading of such micellar nanoreactors by polar transition metal salts in solution usually results in nanoparticle ensembles exhibiting only short range order accompanied by broad distributions of particle size and inter-particle distance. Here, we demonstrate that the use of P2VP homopolymers of appropriate length as molecular carriers to transport precursor salts into the micellar cores can significantly increase the degree of lateral order within the final nanoparticle arrays combined with a decrease in spreading in particle size. Thus, a significantly extended range of materials is now available which can be exploited to study fundamental properties at the transition from clusters to solids by means of well-organized, well-separated, size-selected metal and metal oxide nanostructures.
    12/2013; 2(4). DOI:10.1039/C3TC31333F
  • Physical Review B 10/2013; 88(15). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.88.159903 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ferromagnetic single crystalline [100], [110] and [111]-oriented expanded austenite is obtained by plasma nitriding of paramagnetic 316L austenitic stainless steel single crystals at either 300 or 400 ºC. After nitriding at 400 ºC, the [100] direction appears to constitute the magnetic easy axis due to the interplay between a large lattice expansion and the expected decomposition of the expanded austenite, which results in Fe and Ni-enriched areas. However, a complex combination of uniaxial (i.e., twofold) and biaxial (i.e., fourfold) in-plane magnetic anisotropies is encountered. It is suggested that the former is related to residual stress-induced effects while the later is associated to the in-plane projections of the cubic lattice symmetry. Increasing the processing temperature strengthens the biaxial in-plane anisotropy in detriment of the uniaxial contribution, in agreement with a more homogeneous structure of expanded austenite with lower residual stresses. In contrast to polycrystalline expanded austenite, single crystalline expanded austenite exhibits its magnetic easy axes along basic directions.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 09/2013; DOI:10.1021/am402773w · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As the intrinsic origin of the high-temperature ferromagnetism often observed in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors becomes increasingly debated, there is a growing need for comprehensive studies on the single-phase region of the phase diagram of these materials. Here we report on the magnetic and structural properties of Fe-doped ZnO prepared by ion implantation of ZnO single crystals. A detailed structural characterization shows that the Fe impurities substitute for Zn in ZnO in a wurtzite Zn1-xFexO phase which is coherent with the ZnO host. In addition, the density of beam-induced defects is progressively decreased by thermal annealing up to 900 ° C, from highly disordered after implantation to highly crystalline upon subsequent annealing. Based on a detailed analysis of the magnetometry data, we demonstrate that isolated Fe impurities occupying Zn-substitutional sites behave as localized paramagnetic moments down to 2 K, irrespective of the Fe concentration and the density of beam-induced defects. With increasing local concentration of Zn-substitutional Fe, strong nearest-cation-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions favor the antiparallel alignment of the Fe moments.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 09/2013; 25(41):416001. DOI:10.1088/0953-8984/25/41/416001 · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • New Journal of Physics 09/2013; 15(9):093047. DOI:10.1088/1367-2630/15/9/093047 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the β- emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.
    Applied Physics Letters 08/2013; 103(9):091905. DOI:10.1063/1.4820254 · 3.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
550.88 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2014
    • Leuven Instituut voor Fertiliteit en Embryologie
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
    • Technical University of Lisbon
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 1988–2013
    • University of Leuven
      • Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics (IKS)
      Louvain, Flemish, Belgium
  • 2011
    • Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar
      Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India
  • 2009
    • Paul Scherrer Institut
      • Swiss Light Source (SLS)
      Aargau, Switzerland
  • 1996
    • imec Belgium
      Louvain, Flemish, Belgium