J. A. Lynch

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (49)190.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To develop and validate a new and improved software method to rapidly determine femur-tibia angle (FTA).
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2014; 22(10):1668-74. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the association of MRI-assessed worsening of tibiofemoral cartilage damage, meniscal damage, meniscal extrusion, separately and together, with progression of radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN).
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2014; 22(10):1743-7. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 04/2014; 22:S212. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Lateral tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) is overall less common than medial tibiofemoral OA, but it is more prevalent in women. This may be explained by sex differences in hip and pelvic geometry. The aim of this study is to explore sex differences in hip and pelvic geometry and determine if such parameters are associated with the presence of compartment-specific knee OA. Methods This case-control study reports on 1,328 hips/knees from 664 participants and is an ancillary to the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST). Of the 1,328 knees, 219 had lateral OA, 260 medial OA, and 849 no OA. Hip and pelvic measurements were taken from full-limb radiographs on the ipsilateral side of the knee of interest. After adjusting for covariates, means were compared between sexes and also between knees with medial and lateral OA versus no OA using separate regression models. Results Women were shown to have a reduced femoral offset (mean 40.9mm vs. 45.9mm; p=0.001) and more valgus neck-shaft angle (mean 128.4° vs. 125.9°; p<0.001) compared to men. Compared to those with no OA, knees with lateral OA were associated with a reduced femoral offset (p=0.012), increased height of hip centre (p=0.003), more valgus neck-shaft angle (p=0.042), and increased abductor angle (p=0.031). Knees with medial OA were associated with a more varus neck-shaft angle (p=0.043) and a decreased abductor angle (p=0.003). Conclusion These data suggest anatomical variations at the hip and pelvis are associated with compartment-specific knee OA and may help to explain sex differences in patterns of knee OA.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the association of metabolic risk factors with severity and 2-year progression of early degenerative cartilage changes at the knee, measured with T2 relaxation times in middle-aged subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Methods Cartilage segmentation and T2 map generation were performed in knee 3T magnetic resonance images from 403 subjects ages 45–60 years without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). The influence of risk factors on baseline T2 and longitudinal progression of T2 was analyzed using linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, and other OA risk factors. ResultsFour metabolic risk factors, i.e., high abdominal circumference (P < 0.001), hypertension (P = 0.041), high fat consumption (P = 0.023), and self-reported diabetes mellitus (P = 0.010), were individually associated with higher baseline T2. When the 4 metabolic risk factors were considered in a multivariate regression model, higher T2 remained significantly associated with abdominal circumference (P < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.026), and there was a trend for high fat consumption (P = 0.096). For the individual risk factors, only diabetes mellitus remained associated with higher baseline T2 after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for BMI, baseline T2 increased in a dose-response manner with the number of metabolic risk factors present (P = 0.032 for linear trend), and subjects with ≥3 metabolic factors (versus <3) had significantly higher baseline T2 (mean difference 1.2 msec [95% confidence interval 0.3, 2.1]; P = 0.011). Metabolic risk factors were not significantly associated with increases in T2 during followup. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are associated with higher T2, suggesting that increased cartilage degeneration may be caused by modifiable metabolic disorders.
    Arthritis Care & Research. 12/2013; 65(12).
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze the longitudinal association between physical activity levels and early degenerative cartilage changes in the knee, measured using T2 relaxation times over a period of 4 years in individuals without clinical or radiographic evidence of OA. Cartilage T2 was measured at baseline and after 2 and 4 years in 205 subjects aged 45-60 years from the Osteoarthritis Initiative incidence and normal cohorts with no knee pain (WOMAC score of zero), and a Kellgren-Lawrence score of < 2 at baseline, Physical activity was scored using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire, which was obtained yearly over 4 years. The relationship between physical activity and T2 was studied using a mixed model linear regression, including random effects, and adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. T2 values for all PASE tertiles progressed over the 4-year period. T2 progression was increased in the highest tertile of physical activity compared to the mid-tertile at the medial tibia (P=0.041), patella (P=0.019), and average T2 of all knee compartments combined (P=0.033). Subjects with the lowest 15% PASE scores showed significantly higher T2 progression compared to the mid-level physical activity group at the lateral femur (P=0.025), lateral tibia (P=0.043), medial femur (P=0.044), tibiofemoral compartment (P=0.017), patellofemoral compartment (P=0.016), lateral compartments (P=0.003), and average of all compartments (P=0.043). High and very low PASE scores were associated with greater progression of cartilage T2 measurements in asymptomatic, middle-aged individuals, suggesting accelerated cartilage matrix biochemical degeneration over time.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 07/2013; · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • C. Ratzlaff, J.A. Lynch, B. Lu, J. Duryea
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 04/2013; 21:S173-S174. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of signal changes in Hoffa's fat pad (HFP) assessed on non-contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting synovitis, and the association of pain with signal changes in HFP on non-CE MRI and peripatellar synovial thickness on CE MRI. Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is an observational study of individuals who have or are at high risk for knee OA. All subjects with available non-CE and CE MRIs were included. Signal changes in HFP were scored from 0 to 3 in two regions using non-CE MRI. Synovial thickness was scored from 0 to 2 on CE MRI in five peripatellar regions. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of HFP signal changes were calculated considering synovial thickness on CE MRI as the reference standard. We used logistic regression to assess the associations of HFP changes (non-CE MRI) and synovial thickness (CE MRI) with pain from walking up or down stairs, after adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 393 subjects were included. Sensitivity of infrapatellar and intercondylar signal changes in HFP was high (71% and 88%), but specificity was low (55% and 30%). No significant associations were found between HFP changes on non-CE MRI and pain. Grade 2 synovial thickness assessed on CE MRI was significantly associated with pain after adjustments for potential confounders. Conclusion Signal changes in HFP detected on non-CE MRI are a sensitive but non-specific surrogate for the assessment of synovitis. CE MRI identifies associations with pain better than non-CE MRI.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 03/2013; 21(3):413–418. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the association of prevalent cartilage damage and cartilage loss over time with incident bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the same subregion of the tibiofemoral compartments as detected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is an observational study of individuals with or at risk for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects whose baseline and 30-month follow-up MRIs were read for findings of OA were included. MRI was performed with a 1.0 T extremity system. Tibiofemoral compartments were divided into 10 subregions. Cartilage morphology was scored from 0 to 6 and BMLs were scored from 0 to 3. Prevalent cartilage damage and cartilage loss over time were considered predictors of incident BMLs. Associations were assessed using logistic regression, with adjustments for potential confounders. Results Medially, incident BMLs were associated with baseline cartilage damage (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 5.1]), incident cartilage loss (7.3 [95% CI 5.0, 10.7]) and progression of cartilage loss (7.6 [95% CI 5.1, 11.3]) Laterally, incident BMLs were associated with baseline cartilage damage (4.1 [95% CI 2.6, 6.3]), incident cartilage loss (6.0 [95% CI 3.1, 11.8]), and progression of cartilage loss (11.9 [95% CI 6.2, 23.0]). Conclusion Prevalent cartilage damage and cartilage loss over time are strongly associated with incident BMLs in the same subregion, supporting the significance of the close interrelation of the osteochondral unit in the progression of knee OA.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 02/2013; 21(2):306–313. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are a common magnetic resonance (MR) feature in patients with osteoarthritis, however their pathological basis remains poorly understood and has not been evaluated in vivo. Our aim was to evaluate the trabecular structure associated with the presence and size of BMLs present in the same regions of interest (ROI) using quantitative MR-based trabecular morphometry. DESIGN: 158 participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) were imaged with a coronal 3D fast imaging with steady state precession (FISP) sequence for trabecular morphometry in the same session as the OAI 3 T MR knee evaluation. The proximal medial tibial subchondral bone in the central weight-bearing ROI on these knee 3D FISP images were quantitatively evaluated for apparent bone volume fraction, trabecular number, spacing, and thickness. BMLs were also evaluated in the subchondral bone immediately adjacent to the articular cartilage. BML volume was also evaluated within the same trabecular morphometry ROI and semi-quantitatively classified as none, small, or large. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine if mean apparent bone volume fraction, trabecular number, spacing, or thickness differed by BML score. RESULTS: Compared to knees with ROIs containing no BMLs, knees with small or large BMLs had statistically higher apparent bone volume fraction (P < 0.01), trabecular number (P < 0.01), and thickness (P = 0.02), and lower trabecular spacing (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to knees with ROIs containing no BMLs, knees with ROIs containing small or large BMLs had higher apparent bone volume fraction, trabecular number and thickness, but lower trabecular spacing. These findings may represent areas of locally increased bone remodeling or compression.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 08/2012; 20(12):1519-1526. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to increase sensitivity to detect longitudinal change, recording of within-grade changes was introduced for cartilage morphology and bone marrow lesion (BML) assessment in semiquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to examine the validity provided by within-grade scoring. The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) study is a longitudinal study of subjects with or at risk of knee OA. Baseline and 30 months MRIs were read according to the modified Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) system including within-grade changes for cartilage and BMLs. We tested the validity of within-grade changes by whether the 30-month changes in cartilage and BML assessment were predicted by baseline ipsi-compartmental meniscal damage and malalignment, factors known to affect cartilage loss and BMLs, using ordinal logistic regression. 1867 Knees (from 1411 participants) were included. Severe medial meniscal damage predicted partial grade (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.2, 8.7) but not ≥full grade (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8, 2.2) worsening of cartilage loss and predicted both, partial grade (aOR 9.6, 95% CI 3.6, 25.1) and ≥full grade (aOR 5.1, 95% CI 3.2, 8.2) worsening of BMLs. Severe, but not moderate, malalignment predicted ipsi-compartmental within-grade (medial cartilage damage: aOR 5.5, 95% CI 2.6, 11.6; medial worsening of BMLs: aOR 4.9, 95% CI 2.0, 12.3) but not full grade worsening of BMLs and cartilage damage. Within-grade changes in semiquantitative MRI assessment of cartilage and BMLs are valid and their use may increase the sensitivity of semiquantitative readings in detecting longitudinal changes in these structures.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 07/2012; 20(11):1391-8. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare unbiased estimates of short- vs long-term cartilage loss in osteoarthritic knees. METHOD: 441 knees [216 Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade 2, 225 KL grade 3] from participants of the Osteoarthritis Initiative were studied over a 4-year period. Femorotibial cartilage thickness was determined using 3 T double echo steady state magnetic resonance imaging, the readers being blinded to time points. Because common measurement time points bias correlations, short-term change (year-1 to year-2: Y1 → Y2) was compared with long-term change (baseline to year-4: BL → Y4), and initial (BL → Y1) with subsequent (Y2 → Y4) observation periods. RESULTS: The mean femorotibial cartilage thickness change (standardized response mean) was -1.2%/-0.8% (-0.42/-0.28) over 1 (BL → Y1/Y1 → Y2), -2.1%/-2.5% (-0.56/-0.55) over 2 (BL → Y2/Y2 → Y4), -3.3% (-0.63) over 3 (Y1 → Y4), and -4.5% (-0.78) over 4 years. Spearman correlations were 0.33 for Y1 → Y2 vs BL → Y4, and 0.17 for BL → Y1 vs Y2 → Y4 change. Percent agreement between knees showing progression during Y1 → Y2 vs BL → Y4 was 59%, and 64% for BL → Y1 vs Y2 → Y4. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.66 for using Y1 → Y2 to predict BL → Y4, and 0.59 for using BL → Y1 to predict Y2 → Y4 change. CONCLUSION: Weak to moderate correlations and agreement were observed between individual short- vs long-term cartilage loss, and between initial and subsequent observation periods. Hence, longer observation periods are recommended to achieve robust results on cartilage loss in individual knees. At cohort and subcohort level (e.g., KLG3 vs KLG2 knees), the mean cartilage loss increased almost linearly with the length of the observation period and was constant throughout the study.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 07/2012; 20(11):1250-1257. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the mean and heterogeneity of magnetic resonance (MR) knee cartilage T(2) relaxation time measurements at baseline are associated with morphologic degeneration of cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow tissues over 3 years in subjects with risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects with risk factors for OA (n=289) with an age range of 45-55 years were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) database. 3.0 Tesla MR images were analyzed using morphological gradings of cartilage, bone marrow and menisci whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging scores (WORMS scoring). A T(2) mapping sequence was used to assess the mean and heterogeneity of cartilage T(2) (gray level co-occurrence matrix texture analysis). Regression models were used to assess the relationship between baseline T(2) parameters and changes in morphologic knee WORMS scores over 3 years. The prevalence of knee abnormalities in the cartilage (P<0.0005), meniscus (P<0.00001), and bone marrow significantly (P<0.00001) increased from baseline to 3 years in all compartments combined. The baseline mean and heterogeneity of cartilage T(2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated with morphologic joint degeneration in the cartilage, meniscus and bone marrow over 3 years. The prevalence of knee abnormalities significantly increased over 3 years; increased cartilage T(2) at baseline predicted longitudinal morphologic degeneration in the cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow over 3 years in subjects with risk factors for OA.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 04/2012; 20(7):727-35. · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 09/2011; 19. · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 09/2011; 19. · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 09/2011; 19. · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 09/2011; 19. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether intra- and periarticular cyst-like lesions of the knee are associated with incident knee pain and incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). The Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study is a cohort of individuals who have or are at high risk for knee OA. Using a nested case-control study design, we investigated the associations of cyst-like lesions (Baker's, meniscal and proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) cysts, and prepatellar and anserine bursitides) with (1) incident pain at 15- or 30-month follow-up and (2) incident radiographic OA at 30-month follow-up. Baseline cyst-like lesions were scored semiquantitatively using the Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS). Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation between these lesions and the outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors (i.e., cartilage loss, meniscal damage, bone marrow lesions, synovitis and joint effusion, which were also scored using WORMS). Incident knee pain study included 157 cases and 336 controls. Prevalence of meniscal and PTFJ cysts in the case group was twice that in the control group [9 (6%) vs 9 (3%) and 9 (6%) vs 10 (3%), respectively]. Incident radiographic OA study included 149 cases and 298 controls. Prevalence of grade 2 Baker's cysts and PTFJ cysts in the case group was approximately four times that in the control group [16(11%) vs 9 (3%) and 6 (4%) vs 3 (1%), respectively]. However, none of the cyst-like lesions was associated with incident pain or radiographic OA after fully adjusted logistic regression analyses and correction of P-values for multiple comparisons. None of the analyzed lesions was an independent predictor of incident knee pain or radiographic OA. Intra- and periarticular cyst-like lesions are likely to be a secondary phenomenon seen in painful or OA-affected knees, rather than a primary trigger for incident knee pain or radiographic OA.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 11/2010; 18(11):1386-92. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare two semiquantitative scoring systems for assessing the prevalence and severity of morphologic cartilage lesions, meniscal damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) from Magnetic Resonance Imagings (MRIs) of knees with osteoarthritis (OA). From participants in the OA Initiative (OAI), a sample of 115 knees with radiographic OA at high risk of cartilage loss, were selected based on risk factors for progression. Knee MRIs were read separately using both Whole Organ MR Scoring (WORMS) and Boston-Leeds OA Knee Scoring (BLOKS), and a subset was fed back to readers for reliability. Baseline readings were used for comparison of the two methods for inter-reader reliability as well as agreement on presence/absence and severity of MRI features at both the compartment level and finer anatomical subregion levels. Both methods had high inter-reader agreement for all features studied (kappa for WORMS 0.69-1.0 and for BLOKS 0.65-1.0). Although the methods agreed well on presence and severity of morphological cartilage lesions (inter-method kappas from 0.66 to 0.95), BLOKS was more sensitive for full thickness defects. The two methods gave equivalent results for extent (kappa 0.74-0.80) and number (Spearman's Rho=0.85) of BMLs, and little extra information was obtained using the more complex BLOKS BML scoring. Similar results were also obtained for the common types of meniscal damage and extrusion (inter-method kappa 0.85-0.94), but the inclusion in BLOKS of meniscal signal abnormality and uncommon types of tear may be an advantage if these prove clinically meaningful. Both WORMS and BLOKS had high reliability. The two methods gave similar results in this sample for prevalence and severity of cartilage loss, BMLs and meniscal damage. Selecting between, or combining, the two methods should be based on factors such as reader effort, appropriateness for the goals of a study, and longitudinal performance.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 11/2010; 18(11):1393-401. · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 10/2010; 18. · 4.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

433 Citations
190.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      • • Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Hospital for the Heart
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2008–2012
    • Boston University
      • Department of Radiology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      • Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Boston Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States