[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that hsa-miR-126 (miR-126) is down-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and the restoration of miR-126 impairs tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival by targeting specific molecules. Here, we reported for the first time that miR-126 was involved in regulating the response of NSCLC cells to cancer chemotherapy. After transfected A549 cells with miR-126 mimic or inhibitor, we found that an elevated level of miR-126 was significantly associated with a decreased half maximal inhibitory concentration of adriamycin (ADM) and vincristine, an increased accumulation of ADM, down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and inactivation of the Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, enhanced expression of miR-126 suppressed the growth of A549 xenograft and inhibited the expression of VEGFA and MRP1. miR-126 could efficiently down-regulate VEGFA expression through the interaction with the VEGFA 3'-untranslated region, whereas restoration of VEGFA could partially attenuate the suppression of MRP1 by miR-126. However, LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, diminished this effect, suggesting that enhanced expression of miR-126 increased the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to anticancer agents through negative regulation of a VEGF/PI3K/Akt/MRP1 signaling pathway.