Omur Ozel

University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States

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Publications (34)21.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We consider a binary energy harvesting communication channel with a finite-sized battery at the transmitter. In this model, the channel input is constrained by the available energy at each channel use, which is driven by an external energy harvesting process, the size of the battery, and the previous channel inputs. We consider an abstraction where energy is harvested in binary units and stored in a battery with the capacity of a single unit, and the channel inputs are binary. Viewing the available energy in the battery as a state, this is a state-dependent channel with input-dependent states, memory in the states, and causal state information available at the transmitter only. We find an equivalent representation for this channel based on the timings of the symbols, and determine the capacity of the resulting equivalent timing channel via an auxiliary random variable. We give achievable rates based on certain selections of this auxiliary random variable which resemble lattice coding for the timing channel. We develop upper bounds for the capacity by using a genie-aided method, and also by quantifying the leakage of the state information to the receiver. We show that the proposed achievable rates are asymptotically capacity achieving for small energy harvesting rates. We extend the results to the case of ternary channel inputs. Our achievable rates give the capacity of the binary channel within 0.03 bits/channel use, the ternary channel within 0.05 bits/channel use, and outperform basic Shannon strategies that only consider instantaneous battery states, for all parameter values.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We consider data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter that has hybrid energy storage with a perfect super-capacitor (SC) and an inefficient battery. The SC has finite storage space while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter can choose to store the harvested energy in the SC or in the battery. The energy is drained from the SC and the battery simultaneously. In this setting, we consider throughput optimal offline energy allocation problem over a point-to-point channel. In contrast to previous works, the hybrid energy storage model with finite and unlimited storage capacities imposes a generalized set of constraints on the transmission policy. As such, we show that the solution generalizes that for a single battery and is found by a sequential application of the directional water-filling algorithm. Next, we consider offline throughput maximization in the presence of an additive time-linear processing cost in the transmitter's circuitry. In this case, the transmitter has to additionally decide on the portions of the processing cost to be drained from the SC and the battery. Despite this additional complexity, we show that the solution is obtained by a sequential application of a directional glue pouring algorithm, parallel to the costless processing case. Finally, we provide numerical illustrations for optimal policies and performance comparisons with some heuristic online policies.
    IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 06/2014; 62(12):3232-3245. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determine the capacity of a discrete memoryless communication channel with an energy harvesting transmitter and its battery state information available at the transmitter and the receiver. This capacity is an upper bound for the problem where side information is available only at the transmitter. Since channel output feedback does not increase the capacity in this case, we equivalently study the resulting finite-state Markov channel with feedback. We express the capacity in terms of directed information. Additionally, we provide sufficient conditions under which the capacity expression is further simplified to include the stationary distribution of the battery state. We also obtain a single-letter expression for the capacity with battery state information at both sides and an infinite-sized battery. Lastly, we consider achievable schemes when side information is available only at the transmitter for the case of an arbitrary finite-sized battery. We numerically evaluate the capacity and achievable rates with and without receiver side information.
    2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a binary energy harvesting channel (BEHC) where the encoder has unit energy storage capacity. We first show that an encoding scheme based on block indexing is asymptotically optimal for small energy harvesting rates. We then present a novel upper bounding technique, which upper bounds the rate by lower-bounding the rate of information leakage to the receiver regarding the energy harvesting process. Finally, we propose a timing based hybrid encoding scheme that achieves rates within 0.03 bits/channel use of the upper bound; hence determining the capacity to within 0.03 bits/channel use.
    2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We consider data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter with non-negligible processing circuitry power and a hybrid energy storage unit composed of an ideal super-capacitor (SC) and an inefficient battery. The SC has finite space for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter stores the harvested energy either in the SC or in the battery and the energy is drained from the SC and the battery simultaneously. In this setting, we address the offline throughput maximization problem over a point-to-point channel. We show that the solution is obtained by a sequential application of the directional glue-pouring algorithm.
    2013 Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a distributed mechanism for improving the overall energy efficiency of a wireless network where users can control their uplink transmit power targeted to the multiple access points in the network. This mechanism lets the network achieve a trade-off between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency through the use of suitably designed utility functions. A user's utility is a function of throughput and average transmission power. Throughput is assumed to be a sigmoidal function of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. Each user, being selfish and rational, acts to maximise its utility in response to signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio by adjusting its power. The resulting mechanism is a distributed power control scheme that can incline towards energy-efficient or spectrally efficient operating points depending on the choice of utility function. Existence and uniqueness of Nash equilibrium points in this game are shown via convergence of the distributed power iterations. It is shown that, in the best-response strategy, each user selects a single access point. An extension of this result for a multicarrier system is considered, and the corresponding power levels used for various priorities between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency are characterised. Finally, several numerical studies are presented to illustrate the analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. 10/2013; 24(6).
  • Omur Ozel, Jing Yang, Sennur Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: We consider an energy harvesting transmitter sending messages to two users over parallel and fading Gaussian broadcast channels. Energy required for communication arrives (is harvested) at the transmitter and a finite-capacity battery stores it before being consumed for transmission. Under off-line knowledge of energy arrival and channel fading variations, we obtain the trade-off between the performances of the users by characterizing the maximum departure region in a given interval. We first analyze the transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter over parallel broadcast channels. We show that the optimal total transmit power policy that achieves the boundary of the maximum departure region is the same as the optimal policy for the non-fading broadcast channel, which does not depend on the priorities of the users, and therefore is the same as the optimal policy for the non-fading scalar single-user channel. The optimal total transmit power can be found by a directional water-filling algorithm. The optimal splitting of the power among the parallel channels is performed in each epoch separately. Next, we consider fading broadcast channels and obtain the transmission policies that achieve the boundary of the maximum departure region. The optimal total transmit power allocation policy is found using a specific directional water-filling algorithm for fading broadcast channels. The optimal power allocation depends on the priorities of the users unlike in the case of parallel broadcast channels. Finally, we provide numerical illustrations of the optimal policies and maximum departure regions for both parallel and fading broadcast channels.
    Computer Communications 07/2013; 36(12):1360-1372. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We consider data transmission with an energy harvesting transmitter which has a hybrid energy storage unit composed of a perfectly efficient super-capacitor (SC) and an inefficient battery. The SC has finite space for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter can choose to store the harvested energy in the SC or in the battery. The energy is drained from the SC and the battery simultaneously. In this setting, we consider the offline throughput maximization problem by a deadline over a point-to-point channel. In contrast to previous works, the hybrid energy storage model with finite and unlimited storage capacities imposes a generalized set of constraints on the transmission policy. As such, we show that the solution generalizes that for a single battery and is obtained by applying directional water-filling algorithm multiple times.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the capacity of an energy harvesting communication channel with a finite-sized battery. As an abstraction of this problem, we consider a system where energy arrives at the encoder in multiples of a fixed quantity, and the physical layer is modeled accordingly as a finite discrete alphabet channel based on this fixed quantity. Further, for tractability, we consider the case of binary energy arrivals into a unit-capacity battery over a noiseless binary channel. Viewing the available energy as state, this is a state-dependent channel with causal state information available only at the transmitter. Further, the state is correlated over time and the channel inputs modify the future states. We show that this channel is equivalent to an additive geometric-noise timing channel with causal information of the noise available at the transmitter.We provide a single-letter capacity expression involving an auxiliary random variable, and evaluate this expression with certain auxiliary random variable selection, which resembles noise concentration and lattice-type coding in the timing channel. We evaluate the achievable rates by the proposed auxiliary selection and extend our results to noiseless ternary channels.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In energy harvesting communications, users transmit messages using energy harvested from nature during the course of communication. With an optimum transmit policy, the performance of the system depends only on the energy arrival profiles. In this paper, we introduce the concept of energy cooperation, where a user wirelessly transmits a portion of its energy to another energy harvesting user. This enables shaping and optimization of the energy arrivals at the energy-receiving node, and improves the overall system performance, despite the loss incurred in energy transfer. We consider several basic multi-user network structures with energy harvesting and wireless energy transfer capabilities: relay channel, two-way channel and multiple access channel. We determine energy management policies that maximize the system throughput within a given duration using a Lagrangian formulation and the resulting KKT optimality conditions. We develop a two-dimensional directional water-filling algorithm which optimally controls the flow of harvested energy in two dimensions: in time (from past to future) and among users (from energy-transferring to energy-receiving) and show that a generalized version of this algorithm achieves the boundary of the capacity region of the two-way channel.
    IEEE Transactions on Communications 03/2013; · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Omur Ozel, Sennur Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: In energy harvesting communication systems, an exogenous recharge process supplies energy necessary for data transmission and the arriving energy can be buffered in a battery before consumption. We determine the information-theoretic capacity of the classical additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with an energy harvesting transmitter with an unlimited sized battery. As the energy arrives randomly and can be saved in the battery, codewords must obey cumulative stochastic energy constraints. We show that the capacity of the AWGN channel with such stochastic channel input constraints is equal to the capacity with an average power constraint equal to the average recharge rate. We provide two capacity achieving schemes: save-and-transmit and best-effort-transmit. In the save-and-transmit scheme, the transmitter collects energy in a saving phase of proper duration that guarantees that there will be no energy shortages during the transmission of code symbols. In the best-effort-transmit scheme, the transmission starts right away without an initial saving period, and the transmitter sends a code symbol if there is sufficient energy in the battery, and a zero symbol otherwise. Finally, we consider a system in which the average recharge rate is time varying in a larger time scale and derive the optimal offline power policy that maximizes the average throughput, by using majorization theory.
    IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 10/2012; 58(10):6471-6483. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    Omur Ozel, Jing Yang, Sennur Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the minimization of the transmission completion time with a battery limited energy harvesting transmitter in an M-user AWGN broadcast channel where the transmitter is able to harvest energy from the nature, using a finite storage capacity rechargeable battery. The harvested energy is modeled to arrive (be harvested) at the transmitter during the course of transmissions at arbitrary time instants. The transmitter has fixed number of packets for each receiver. Due to the finite battery capacity, energy may overflow without being utilized for data transmission. We derive the optimal offline transmission policy that minimizes the time by which all of the data packets are delivered to their respective destinations. We analyze the structural properties of the optimal transmission policy using a dual problem. We find the optimal total transmit power sequence by a directional water-filling algorithm. We prove that there exist M-1 cut-off power levels such that user i is allocated the power between the i-1st and the ith cut-off power levels subject to the availability of the allocated total power level. Based on these properties, we propose an algorithm that gives the globally optimal offline policy. The proposed algorithm uses directional water-filling repetitively. Finally, we illustrate the optimal policy and compare its performance with several suboptimal policies under different settings.
    IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 06/2012; 11(6):2193-2203. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    O. Ozel, E. Ekrem, S. Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: We study the Gaussian wiretap channel with an energy harvesting transmitter which does not have a battery to save energy. In the absence of a battery, the necessary transmission energy is maintained by an i.i.d. energy arrival process. We observe that this channel is an instance of the state-dependent wiretap channel with state available only to the transmitter causally, where the state is the available energy at the transmitter. We prove that the entire capacity-equivocation region can be obtained by single-letter Shannon strategies and its boundary is achieved by input distributions with support set of Lebesgue measure zero.
    Information Theory Workshop (ITW), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
  • O. Ozel, Sennur Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: In energy harvesting communication systems, the energy required for message transmission is maintained by an exogenous energy arrival process independent of the message. This links the problem of communication with an energy harvesting transmitter to the problem of communication over state-dependent channels. In particular, if the transmitter has no battery, the available energy can be viewed as a state and the resulting channel is a state-dependent channel with causal state information at the transmitter only. In general, information transmission blurs the state information that the receiver can get from the received signal. In this paper, we explore the trade-off between the information rate R and the entropy reduction of the energy arrival process Δ at the receiver side over an AWGN channel with an energy harvesting transmitter. If the transmitter has no battery, the trade-off points are achieved by Shannon strategies and we show that the optimal input distributions are discrete. Next, we consider the state amplification problem for an energy harvesting transmitter with an unlimited battery. We show that the optimal trade-off region in this extreme case is expressed explicitly in a simple form and its boundary is achieved by a combination of best-effort-transmit and random binning schemes with an i.i.d. Gaussian codebook of average power equal to the average recharge rate. Finally, we propose an uncoded state amplification scheme that splits the energy between message transmission and entropy reduction and study its performance in a numerical example.
    Information Theory Proceedings (ISIT), 2012 IEEE International Symposium on; 01/2012
  • O. Ozel, E. Ekrem, S. Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the Gaussian wiretap channel with an amplitude constraint, i.e., a peak power constraint, on the channel input. We show that the entire rate-equivocation region of the Gaussian wiretap channel with an amplitude constraint is obtained by discrete input distributions with finite support. We prove this result by considering the existing single-letter description of the rate-equivocation region, and showing that discrete distributions with finite support exhaust this region. Our result highlights an important difference between the peak power constraint and the average power constraint cases: Although, in the average power constraint case, both the secrecy capacity and the capacity can be achieved simultaneously, our results show that in the peak power constraint case, in general, there is a tradeoff between the secrecy capacity and the capacity, in the sense that, both may not be achieved simultaneously.
    Information Theory Workshop (ITW), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
  • O. Ozel, S. Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the two-user additive Gaussian multiple access channel (MAC) where the transmitters communicate by using energy harvested from nature. Energy arrivals of the users are i.i.d. in time, and for any given time, they are distributed according to a joint distribution. Energy arrivals cause time-variations for the amplitude constraints of the users. We first consider the static amplitude constrained Gaussian MAC and prove that the boundary of the capacity region is achieved by discrete input distributions of finite support. When both of the transmitters are equipped with no battery, Shannon strategies applied by users provide an inner bound for the capacity region. We prove that the boundary of this inner bound is achieved by input distributions with support set of zero Lebesgue measure.
    Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
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    Omur Ozel, Sennur Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the classical AWGN channel where the channel input is constrained to an amplitude constraint that stochastically varies at each channel use, independent of the message. This is an abstraction of an energy harvesting transmitter where the code symbol energy at each channel use is determined by an exogenous energy arrival process and there is no battery for energy storage. At each channel use, an independent realization of the amplitude constraint process is observed by the transmitter causally. This scenario is a state-dependent channel with perfect causal state information at the transmitter. We derive the capacity of this channel using Shannon's coding scheme with causal state information. We prove that the code symbols must be selected from a finite set in the capacity achieving scheme, as in the case of Smith. We numerically study the binary on-off energy arrivals where the amplitude constraint is either zero or a non-zero constant.
    Circuits, Systems and Computers, 1977. Conference Record. 1977 11th Asilomar Conference on 12/2011;
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    Omur Ozel, Sennur Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of the rate-equivocation region of a general wiretap channel involves two auxiliary random variables: U, for rate splitting and V, for channel prefixing. Evaluation of regions involving auxiliary random variables is generally difficult. In this paper, we explore specific classes of wiretap channels for which the expression and evaluation of the rate-equivocation region are simpler. In particular, we show that when the main channel is more capable than the eavesdropping channel, V=X is optimal and the boundary of the rate-equivocation region can be achieved by varying U alone. Conversely, we show under a mild condition that if the main receiver is not more capable, then V=X is strictly suboptimal. Next, we focus on the class of cyclic shift symmetric wiretap channels. We explicitly determine the optimal selections of rate splitting U and channel prefixing V that achieve the boundary of the rate-equivocation region. We show that optimal U and V are determined via cyclic shifts of the solution of an auxiliary optimization problem that involves only one auxiliary random variable. In addition, we provide a sufficient condition for cyclic shift symmetric wiretap channels to have U=\phi as an optimal selection. Finally, we apply our results to the binary-input cyclic shift symmetric wiretap channels. We solve the corresponding constrained optimization problem by inspecting each point of the I(X;Y)-I(X;Z) function. We thoroughly characterize the rate-equivocation regions of the BSC-BEC and BEC-BSC wiretap channels. In particular, we find that U=\phi is optimal and the boundary of the rate-equivocation region is achieved by varying V alone for the BSC-BEC wiretap channel.
    IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 10/2011; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    O. Ozel, S. Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: Csiszár and Körner's characterization of the rate-equivocation region of a general wiretap channel involves two auxiliary random variables: U, which represents rate splitting and V, which represents channel prefixing. For some channels, one or both of these auxiliary random variables are unnecessary, simplifying the expression and evaluation of the rate-equivocation region. In this paper, we provide new conditions under which channel prefixing or rate splitting does not improve the rate-equivocation region. In particular, we show that when the main channel is more capable than the eavesdropping channel, channel prefixing is unnecessary; the entire rate-equivocation region can be achieved by rate splitting alone. Conversely, we show under a mild assumption that if the main receiver is not more capable, then channel prefixing is strictly necessary. Moreover, we show that if the main channel is more capable but not less noisy, then rate splitting is strictly necessary. Next, we focus on the set of cyclic shift symmetric channels. We prove that for these channels, if in addition I(X; Y) - I(X;Z) is maximized at the uniform distribution, then rate splitting is unnecessary. Our results apply to BSC-BEC and BEC-BSC wiretap channels. We identify the conditions on the parameters of the BSC and BEC under which channel prefixing and/or rate splitting are unnecessary.
    Information Theory Proceedings (ISIT), 2011 IEEE International Symposium on; 09/2011
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    Jing Yang, O. Ozel, S. Ulukus
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we investigate the transmission completion time minimization problem in a two-user additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) broadcast channel, where the transmitter is able to harvest energy from the nature. The harvested energy is modeled to arrive at the transmitters randomly. In this paper, under a deterministic system setting, we assume that the energy harvesting times and harvested energy amounts are known before the transmission starts. The transmitter has a fixed number of packets to be delivered to each receiver. Our goal is to minimize the time by which all of the packets for both users are delivered to their respective destinations. To this end, we optimize the transmit powers and transmission rates intended for both users. We first analyze the structural properties of the optimal transmission policy. We prove that the optimal total transmit power has the same structure as the optimal single-user transmit power. We also prove that there exists a cut-off power level for the stronger user. If the optimal total transmit power is lower than this level, all transmit power is allocated to the stronger user, and when the optimal total transmit power is larger than this level, all transmit power above this level is allocated to the weaker user. Based on these structural properties of the optimal policy, we propose an algorithm that yields the globally optimal off-line scheduling policy.
    Communications (ICC), 2011 IEEE International Conference on; 07/2011

Publication Stats

282 Citations
21.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
      Maryland, United States
  • 2010
    • Ankara University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
  • 2009–2010
    • Middle East Technical University
      • Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
      Engüri, Ankara, Turkey