Neal S Fedarko

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (92)422.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Summer training in aging research for medical students is a strategy for improving the pipeline of medical students into research careers in aging and clinical care of older adults. Johns Hopkins University has been offering medical students a summer experience of mentored research, research training, and clinical shadowing since 1994. Long-term outcomes of this program have not been described. We surveyed all 191 participants (60% female and 27% underrepresented minorities) and received a 65.8% (N=125) response rate. We also conducted Google and other online searches to supplement study findings. Thirty-seven percent of those who have completed training are now in academic medicine, and program participants have authored or co-authored 582 manuscripts. Among survey respondents, 95.1% reported that participation in the MSTAR program increased their sensitivity to needs of older adults. This program may help to build a commitment among medical students to choose careers in aging.
    Gerontology & Geriatrics Education 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chitotriosidase (ChT) is secreted by chronically activated macrophages in Gaucher's disease. We hypothesize that circulating levels of ChT are altered with normal aging, reflecting age-related chronic macrophage activation. Potential sources that might contribute to altered levels were assessed by measuring systemic levels of ChT are α-naphthyl acetate esterase, a macrophage lysosomal enzyme; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which stimulates neutrophilic granule release of ChT; interleukin-6 (IL-6); and neopterin, a macrophage activation marker. METHODS: Serum was obtained from 315 healthy participants whose age ranged from 18 to 92 years. Anthropometric measures included percent body fat and body mass index. ChT and α-naphthyl acetate esterase levels were measured by enzyme activity assays. GM-CSF, IL-6, and neopterin concentrations were measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum marker values were statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests. RESULTS: Six percent of the participants had undetectable ChT levels. A positive association with age was observed for ChT and IL-6, whereas a negative correlation with age was seen for α-naphthyl acetate esterase and GM-CSF. ChT values were not associated with α-naphthyl acetate esterase or GM-CSF levels. ChT was independently associated with IL-6 and neopterin levels, but statistical significance was attenuated when controlled for age. CONCLUSIONS: The data are consistent with increased serum ChT activity not arising from altered macrophage lysosomal enzyme trafficking or GM-CSF-stimulated release of neutrophil granule stores. The association of ChT with age remains significant after controlling for neopterin and IL-6 changes with age, suggesting that ChT levels reflect a macrophage state distinct from acute macrophage activation or inflammatory state.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 03/2013; · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is a leading cause of death in men however the factors that regulate its progression and eventual metastasis to bone remain unclear. Here we show that WISP1/CCN4 expression in prostate cancer tissues was up-regulated in early stages of the disease and, further, that it correlated with increased circulating levels of WISP1 in the sera of patients at early stages of the disease. WISP1 was also elevated in the mouse prostate cancer model TRAMP in the hypoplastic diseased tissue that develops prior to advanced carcinoma formation. When the ability of anti-WISP1 antibodies to reduce the spread of PC3-Luc cells to distant sites was tested it showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced the number and overall size of distant tumors developed after intracardiac (IC) injection of PC3-Luc cells in mice. The ability of antibodies against WISP1 to inhibit growth of PC3-Luc cancer cells in mice was also evaluated and showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced local tumor growth when examined in xenografts. To better understand the mechanism of action, the migration of PC3-Luc cells through membranes with or without a Matrigel™ barrier showed the cells were attracted to WISP1, and that this attraction was inhibited by treatment with anti-WISP1 antibodies. We also show the expression of WISP1 at the bone-tumor interface and in the stroma of early grade cancers suggested WISP1 expression is well placed to play roles in both fostering growth of the cancer and its spread to bone. In summary, the up-regulation of WISP1 in the early stages of cancer development coupled with its ability to inhibit spread and growth of prostate cancer cells makes it both a potential target and an accessible diagnostic marker for prostate cancer.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71709. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Alterations of the immune system play important roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary purpose of this study was to compare the plasma levels of neopterin, a marker of cellular immune activity, in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early (mild to moderate) AD, and cognitively normal controls. In addition, the correlation of plasma neopterin with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also examined. METHODS: Plasma samples from patients with mild-to-moderate AD (N = 34), aMCI (N = 27), and cognitively normal controls (N = 30) were obtained from the Johns Hopkins Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Plasma neopterin, IFN-γ, and IL-6 levels were measured using commercially available ELISAs. Multiple linear regression was performed to study differences in the baseline neopterin levels between normal, aMCI, and AD patients. Pearson correlation coefficients were estimated for neopterin and IFN-γ and IL-6 levels. All analyses were conducted using SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) and GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Window (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). RESULTS: AD subjects had significantly higher neopterin values compared with aMCI (β = 0.202, p = 0.004) and normal (β = 0.263, p = 0.0004) subjects. There was no statistically significant difference between normal and aMCI subjects. Significant associations between neopterin and IFN-γ (r = 0.41, p < 0.0001) and IL-6 (r = 0.35, p = 0.0006) levels were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that peripheral immune response may be stronger in later stages of AD pathophysiology, when dementia has developed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 04/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) changes in bone formation (osteocalcin) and bone resorption (cross-linked N-telopeptides of bone type I collagen [NTXs]) markers, as well as calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone, over the first 6 months of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy among a cohort of breast cancer patients compared with a group of unexposed women without a history of cancer; and (2) whether bone marker changes were associated with musculoskeletal pain. Eligible breast cancer patients (n = 49) and postmenopausal women without a history of cancer (n = 117) were recruited and followed for 6 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, a questionnaire was administered to assess pain and medication use, and a blood sample was drawn. Results showed that, among the breast cancer patients, calcium concentrations decreased significantly (-7.8% change; p = 0.013) and concentrations of NTXs increased significantly from baseline to 6 months (9.6% change; p = 0.012). Changes were not observed for women in the comparison group. Statistically significant differences in percent change between the breast cancer patients and the women in the comparison group were observed for calcium at 6 months (-7.8% versus 0.0%; p = 0.025), phosphorus at 6 months (-5.1% versus 16.7%; p = 0.003), NTXs at 6 months (9.6% versus -0.7%; p = 0.017), and osteocalcin at 6 months (11.5% versus -3.6%; p = 0.016). No statistically significant associations were observed between bone turnover marker changes and musculoskeletal pain among the breast cancer patients, although baseline NTXs were higher among women with onset or increase in pain compared with those reporting no pain (p = 0.08). Findings from this study suggest that AIs cause changes in bone turnover during the first 6 months of treatment; however, these changes are not associated with musculoskeletal pain. Breast cancer patients initiating AI therapy should be assessed and monitored for fracture risk using known clinical risk factors, including bone density, and managed appropriately.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 04/2012; 27(9):1959-66. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The renin-angiotensin (Ang) system regulates multiple physiological functions through Ang II type 1 and type 2 receptors. Prior studies suggest an intracellular pool of Ang II that may be released in an autocrine manner upon stretch to activate surface membrane Ang receptors. Alternatively, an intracellular renin-Ang system has been proposed, with a primary focus on nuclear Ang receptors. A mitochondrial Ang system has not been previously described. Here we report that functional Ang II type 2 receptors are present on mitochondrial inner membranes and are colocalized with endogenous Ang. We demonstrate that activation of the mitochondrial Ang system is coupled to mitochondrial nitric oxide production and can modulate respiration. In addition, we present evidence of age-related changes in mitochondrial Ang receptor expression, i.e., increased mitochondrial Ang II type 1 receptor and decreased type 2 receptor density that is reversed by chronic treatment with the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker losartan. The presence of a functional Ang system in human mitochondria provides a foundation for understanding the interaction between mitochondria and chronic disease states and reveals potential therapeutic targets for optimizing mitochondrial function and decreasing chronic disease burden with aging.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2011; 108(36):14849-54. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: neopterin is a monocyte/macrophage-derived immune activation marker and its levels increase with age. Frailty is an important clinical syndrome of old age. Previous studies have shown significant association between elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and frailty. The objective of this study was to evaluate IL-6-independent association of serum neopterin levels with prevalent frailty. this is a cross-sectional study in community-dwelling older adults recruited from residential and retirement communities in Baltimore, MD, USA. Frailty was determined using validated screening criteria. Serum neopterin and IL-6 levels were measured using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between log(neopterin) and log(IL-6). Odds ratios (ORs) for frailty were calculated using log(neopterin) and log(IL-6) as continuous measures and across tertiles of neopterin and IL-6 levels, adjusting for age, race, sex, education and body mass index. one hundred and thirty-three individuals with a mean age of 84 years (range 72-97) completed the study. Neopterin levels were significantly higher in frail older adults than those in non-frail controls [median: 8.94 versus 8.35 nM, respectively, P < 0.001 t-test on log(neopterin)]. Log(neopterin) was significantly associated with prevalent frailty, adjusting for log(IL-6). Participants in the top tertile of neopterin had OR of 3.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-10.6, P < 0.01] for frailty. As expected, participants in the top tertile of IL-6 had OR of 3.29 (95% CI = 1.21-7.86, P < 0.05) for frailty. Log(neopterin) correlated with log(IL-6) (correlation coefficient = 0.19, P < 0.05). Moreover, OR for participants in the top neopterin tertile remained significant after adjusting for IL-6 (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.15-13.72, P < 0.05). elevated neopterin levels had IL-6-independent association with prevalent frailty, suggesting potential monocyte/macrophage-mediated immune activation in the frail elderly.
    Age and Ageing 07/2011; 40(4):475-81. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mice homozygous for targeted deletion of the interleukin 10 gene (Il-10) have been partially characterized as a model for human frailty. These mice have increased serum interleukin (IL)-6 in midlife, skeletal muscle weakness, and an altered skeletal muscle gene expression profile compared to age and sex-matched C57BL/6 (B6) control mice. In order to further characterize for use as a frailty model, we evaluated the evolution of inflammatory pathway activation, endocrine change, and mortality in these mice. Serum was collected in groups of age- and sex-matched B6.129P2-Il10(tm1Cgn)/J (IL-10(tm/tm)) mice and B6 control mice at age 12, 24, 48, 72, and 90 weeks. Cytokines including IL-6, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (KC), IL-12, and IL-10 were measured using electro-chemiluminescent multiplex immunoassay and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured using solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A separate longitudinal cohort was monitored from age 35 weeks to approximately 100 weeks. Survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and detailed necropsy information was gathered in a subset of mice that died or were sacrificed. In IL-10(tm/tm) mice compared to B6 controls, serum IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, KC levels were significantly elevated across the age groups, serum mean IGF-1 levels were higher in the 48-week-old groups, and overall mortality rate was significantly higher. The quadratic relationship between IGF-1 and age was significantly different between the two strains of mice. Serum IL-6 was positively associated with IGF-1 but the effect was significantly larger in IL-10(tm/tm) mice. These findings provide additional rationale for the use of the IL-10(tm/tm) mouse as a model for frailty and for low-grade inflammatory pathway activation.
    Age 06/2011; 34(3):705-15. · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In immunocompetent persons, cytomegalovirus (CMV) is thought to persist primarily in monocytes and myeloid progenitor cells, establishing a chronic infection. In older adults, chronic CMV infection is typically diagnosed by a positive IgG serology. While many studies have shown CMV-specific T-cell expansion in CMV seropositive older individuals, significant heterogeneity has also been observed in this elderly population. In a study of 71 community-dwelling older adults, we assessed CMV viral DNA in peripheral monocytes by nested PCR and compared the relationships of detectable CMV DNA and IgG serology with serum levels of neopterin, a marker for monocyte/macrophage-mediated immune activation. The results showed that 52 (73.2%) participants were CMV seropositive, of whom 30 (57.5%) had detectable CMV DNA. CMV seropositive and seronegative participants did not differ in their neopterin levels, but individuals with detectable CMV DNA had higher neopterin than those without (10.6 ± 4.4 vs 8.0 ± 1.9 nM, respectively, p<.0001) adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates and interferon (IFN)-γ levels. In addition, there was no association between IgG titers and neopterin. These findings suggest that detection of CMV viral DNA in monocytes may be an informative tool to evaluate chronic CMV infection and its potential role in monocyte/macrophage-mediated immune activation in the elderly.
    Experimental gerontology 04/2011; 46(8):679-84. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    Neal S Fedarko
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    ABSTRACT: In developing and validating the concept of frailty as a geriatric syndrome, it has been necessary to distinguish the clinical expression of frailty from normal age-related changes and other age-related disease pathologies. A framework for excluding potentially confounding disease and a working clinical tool to diagnose frailty have been provided. The associations between frailty and other pathophysiologies has also been shown. However, investigating the underlying biologic basis for the geriatric syndrome of frailty by studying basic homeostatic pathways and mechanisms has not proceeded at the same rate. The following article provides an overview of the homeostatic pathways emphasized in research on aging and explains how this science may help to stimulate frailty research.
    Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 02/2011; 27(1):27-37. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2011; 7(4).
  • Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 11/2010; 58(11):2245-6. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neopterin, a GTP metabolite expressed by macrophages, is a marker of immune activation. We hypothesize that levels of this serum marker alter with donor age, reflecting increased chronic immune activation in normal aging. In addition to age, we assessed gender, race, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat (%fat) as potential covariates. Serum was obtained from 426 healthy participants whose age ranged from 18 to 87 years. Anthropometric measures included %fat and BMI. Neopterin concentrations were measured by competitive ELISA. The paired associations between neopterin and age, BMI, or %fat were analyzed by Spearman's correlation or by linear regression of log-transformed neopterin, whereas overall associations were modeled by multiple regression of log-transformed neopterin as a function of age, gender, race, BMI, %fat, and interaction terms. Across all participants, neopterin exhibited a positive association with age, BMI, and %fat. Multiple regression modeling of neopterin in women and men as a function of age, BMI, and race revealed that each covariate contributed significantly to neopterin values and that optimal modeling required an interaction term between race and BMI. The covariate %fat was highly correlated with BMI and could be substituted for BMI to yield similar regression coefficients. The association of age and gender with neopterin levels and their modification by race, BMI, or %fat reflect the biology underlying chronic immune activation and perhaps gender differences in disease incidence, morbidity, and mortality.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 08/2010; 65(8):858-65. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy, with an overall survival of 4-6 years. It is always preceded by a premalignant stage called monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). Importantly, at this time we lack reliable predictors to determine who will progress from MGUS to MM, and who will remain stable. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a key role in myelomagenesis (growth, survival and migration of malignant plasma cells). In the present review, we summarize and discuss our current understanding of the bone marrow microenvironment and its compartments in relation to myelomagenesis. Although it remains to be proven, we believe that an improved characterization of the cellular constituents, the extracellular matrix components and the soluble factors of the bone marrow could open up novel avenues to better understand underlying mechanisms of the transformation from MGUS to MM. Ultimately, this will lead to the development of early treatment of high-risk precursor disease aimed to delay/prevent MM.
    Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 05/2010; 10(4):465-80. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) level could be useful as a non-invasive biomarker in Alzheimer's disease research. We compared a multiplex electrochemiluminescence detection method with a well established ELISA method for plasma Aβ quantification. Compared to the ELISA method, the electrochemiluminescence detection method demonstrates a statistically significant, but modest correlation. The reasons for this may include the differences in the affinities of antibodies, and purity and source of Aβ peptides used as standards. However, the advantages of electrochemiluminescence detection technology include short processing time and small sample volume. This comparison demonstrates the need for a further study in optimizing this system.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 01/2010; 21(3):769-73. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Markers of early pancreatic cancer and its precursors are needed to improve the uniformly poor prognosis of this disease. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) catalyzes the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids and is overexpressed in most human solid tumors. We therefore evaluated serum FAS as a marker of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. FAS expression patterns in primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), and chronic pancreatitis tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Serum FAS levels were determined by ELISA in 102 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinomas, in 42 patients with IPMNs, in 27 patients with chronic pancreatitis, and in 39 healthy control subjects. FAS protein was overexpressed in the ductal epithelium of 343 of 399 primary pancreatic adenocarcinomas (86.0%) and 28 of 30 IPMNs (93.3%), and in the islet and ductal cells in 3 of 54 chronic pancreatitis tissues (5.6%), whereas normal ductal epithelium lacked FAS expression. Serum FAS levels were significantly higher in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (first quartile median, 22.0; 4.5 ng/mL), in patients with IPMNs (20.7; 9.4 ng/mL), and in patients with chronic pancreatitis (31.1; 11.9 ng/mL) than in healthy controls (0; 0 ng/mL). FAS levels declined postoperatively in 8 of 9 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and elevations of their preoperative serum FAS. In conclusion, serum FAS levels are elevated in patients with pancreatic cancer and IPMNs and are associated with neoplastic overexpression of FAS.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 10/2009; 18(9):2380-5. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) gene family includes bone sialoprotein (BSP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), and osteopontin (OPN). Previous studies have separately reported elevated expression of BSP, OPN, or DSPP in prostate tumor paraffin sections. We hypothesized that SIBLINGs may be informative serum markers for subjects with prostate cancer. Expression levels of SIBLINGs in biopsies of normal tissue and tumors from prostate were determined by cDNA array and by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies. Competitive ELISAs for measuring total BSP, DSPP, MEPE, and OPN were applied to a test group of 102 subjects with prostate cancer and 110 normal subjects and a validation group of 90 subjects. BSP, DMP1, DSPP, and OPN exhibited elevated mRNA expression and protein levels in biopsies. BSP, DSPP, and OPN were elevated in serum from prostate cancer subjects, with serum DSPP exhibiting the greatest difference, yielding an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve value of 0.98. Serum BSP and OPN levels were significantly elevated only in late stages, whereas DSPP was significantly elevated at all stages. Optimal serum value cutoff points derived for BSP, OPN, and DSPP were applied as a validation test to a new group of 90 subjects and DSPP yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Of the SIBLING gene family members, DSPP appears to be a strong candidate for use in serum assays for prostate cancer detection.
    Clinical Cancer Research 09/2009; 15(16):5199-207. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have been reported to be at risk for significant surgical bleeding secondary to abnormalities in platelet function. By reviewing the operative blood loss in OI patients undergoing femoral osteotomies and rodding, we hoped to identify risk factors for excessive bleeding. A retrospective review of 22 patients with 52 inserted femoral rods was conducted under Institutional Review Board approval. Information concerning patients and procedures was collected. Associations with mean blood loss were made for categorical variables using the unpaired t-test and for continuous variables using correlation. Multivariate linear regression was used to test the influence of potential risk factors for excessive bleeding. The mean blood loss was 197 cc (standard deviation [SD] 129 cc, range 10-500 cc). The adjusted mean blood loss (ratio of actual blood loss divided by the total predicted blood volume [Custer and Rau in "The Harriet Lane Handbook," 18th edn. Mosby-Elsevier, Philadelphia, p 382, 2009]) was 0.16 (SD 0.13, range 0.01-0.44). Six blood transfusions were required out of 42 cases for a transfusion rate of 14%. The mean blood loss in those patients who were transfused was 279 cc compared with 182 cc for those not transfused. There were no differences in the adjusted mean blood loss between acute fracture treatment versus elective reconstruction (P = 0.08), nor between primary rodding versus revision rodding (P = 0.66). Older patients tended to have lower adjusted mean blood loss, though this was not significant (P = 0.07). Increasing number of osteotomies tended to lead to increased adjusted mean blood loss (P = 0.05). There was no association between operative time and adjusted mean blood loss (P = 0.36). When adjusting for procedure characteristics, increasing age was associated with decreasing adjusted mean blood loss (P = 0.008). Predicting blood loss for femoral rodding in patients with OI is difficult, with no differences between revision and primary procedures or elective versus trauma cases. The blood loss in our patients undergoing femoral rodding was manageable, and the transfusion rate was reasonably low. Although massive blood loss has been described in patients with OI in the literature, we found that femoral rodding did not pose excessive risk of transfusion in our OI population.
    Journal of Children s Orthopaedics 08/2009; 3(4):301-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Frailty has been increasingly recognized as an important clinical syndrome in old age. The frailty syndrome is characterized by chronic inflammation, decreased functional and physiologic reserve, and increased vulnerability to stressors, leading to disability and mortality. However, molecular mechanisms that contribute to inflammation activation and regulation in frail older adults have not been investigated. To begin to address this, we conducted a pathway-specific gene array analysis of 367 inflammatory pathway genes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged CD14+ monocytes from 32 community-dwelling frail and age-, race-, and sex-paired nonfrail older adults (mean age 83 years, range 72–94). The results showed that ex vivo LPS-challenge induced average 2.0-fold or higher upregulated expression of 116 genes in frail participants and 85 genes in paired nonfrail controls. In addition, frail participants had 2-fold or higher upregulation in LPS-induced expression of 7 stress-responsive genes than nonfrail controls with validation by quantitative real time RT-PCR. These findings suggest upregulated expression of specific stress-responsive genes in monocyte-mediated inflammatory pathway in the syndrome of frailty with potential mechanistic and interventional implications.
    Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 03/2009; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome that predicts disability and mortality. Substantial evidence suggests inflammation marked by elevated IL-6 levels as a key pathophysiologic factor that contributes to frailty. CXCL-10, a potent pro-inflammatory chemokine, has increased levels with age and is implicated in several inflammatory conditions. To better understand molecular mechanisms of inflammation activation in frailty, we evaluated monocytic expression of CXCL-10 and other inflammatory pathway genes by pathway-specific gene array analysis and quantitative RT-PCR. Frailty status was determined by the validated criteria. Sixteen pairs of community-dwelling frail and age-, race-, and sex-matched non-frail participants (mean age 83 years, range 72–94) completed the study. Here we report that frail participants had higher CXCL-10 expression levels than matched non-frail controls (1.05 ± 0.88 versus 0.53 ± 0.39, p = 0.04). CXCL-10 expression correlated with IL-6 levels only in frail participants (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.52, p = 0.03). Furthermore, frailty-associated CXCL-10 upregulation was highly correlated with IL-6 elevation, both measured by frail-over-non-frail ratios (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest upregulated monocytic expression of CXCL-10 as an important molecular mechanism that contributes to inflammation activation in frail older adults. Therapeutic implications include potential development of CXCL-10-based interventional strategies for the prevention and treatment of frailty in older adults.
    Cytokine 01/2009; · 2.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
422.22 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2013
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1995–2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology
      • • Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • National Institute on Aging
      • Clinical Research Branch (CRB)
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Liège
      • Metastasis Research Laboratory
      Liège, WAL, Belgium
    • Georgia Health Sciences University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Augusta, GA, United States
  • 1990–2008
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Branch of Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2003
    • Università degli Studi dell'Aquila
      • Department of Experimental Medicine
      Aquila, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 2002
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • School of Dentistry
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Urbana, IL, United States