Kim D Mooiman

Utrecht University, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

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Publications (7)18.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study is to establish the inhibitory effects of 14 commonly used complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) on the metabolism of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarine (MFC) and tolbutamide. CYP2C9 is important for the metabolism of numerous drugs and inhibition of this enzyme by CAM could result in elevated plasma levels of drugs that are CYP2C9 substrates. Especially for anticancer drugs, which have a narrow therapeutic window, small changes in their plasma levels could easily result in clinically relevant toxicities.Methods The effects of CAM on CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of MFC were assessed in Supersomes, using the fluorometric CYP2C9 inhibition assay. In human liver microsomes (HLM) the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of tolbutamide was determined, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).Key findingsThe results indicated milk thistle as the most potent CYP2C9 inhibitor. For milk thistle, silybin (main constituent of milk thistle) was mainly responsible for the inhibition of CY2C9.Conclusions Milk thistle and green tea were confirmed as potent inhibitors of CYP2C9-mediated metabolism of multiple substrates in vitro. Clinical studies with milk thistle are recommended to establish the clinical relevance of the demonstrated CYP2C9 inhibition.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Concomitant use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and anticancer drugs can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by inhibiting the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) (EC 1.14.13.157). Several in vitro studies determined whether CAM can inhibit CYP3A4, but these studies revealed contradictory results. A plausible explanation for these conflicting results is the use only of a single model CYP3A4 substrate in each study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the potential of selected CAM (β-carotene, Echinacea, garlic, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea extract, milk thistle, saw palmetto, valerian, vitamin B6, B12 and C) to inhibit CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of different substrates: 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC), midazolam and docetaxel. The effect of CAM on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of an anticancer drug has never been determined before in vitro, which makes this study unique. The oncolytic CYP3A4 substrate docetaxel was used to establish the predictive value of the model substrates for pharmacokinetic interactions between CAM and anticancer drugs in vitro, and to more closely predict these interactions in vivo. The inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin (BFC) by CAM was assessed in Supersomes, using the fluorometric CYP3A4 inhibition assay. In human liver microsomes (HLM) the inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of midazolam and docetaxel was determined, using liquid-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results confirmed grape seed and green tea as potent inhibitors and milk thistle as moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of BFC, midazolam and docetaxel. Clinical studies are required to determine the clinical relevance of the determined CYP3A4 inhibition by grape seed, green tea and milk thistle.
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has become more popular among cancer patients in the Western world, who often use Chinese herbs as adjuvant therapy to reduce the adverse effects of conventional chemotherapy. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between Chinese herbs and anticancer drugs can occur and have dramatic consequences for these patients. Currently, only a few possible PK interactions between Chinese herbs and conventional Western drugs have been documented. Since the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) contributes to most of the PK interactions with (anticancer) drugs, the effect of four Chinese herbs (Oldenlandia diffusa, Codonopsis tangshen, Rehmannia glutinosa and Astragalus propinquus) on the activity and expression of CYP3A4 was investigated in vitro. Ethanol and water-ethanol extracts of the four Chinese herbs were prepared from raw material. CYP3A4 inhibition was assessed by the use of Supersomes(TM) in a fluorescence assay. Furthermore, CYP3A4 induction was evaluated in a human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-mediated CYP3A4 reporter gene assay and a quantitative real time PCR assay, both in human colon adenocarcinoma-derived LS180 cells (LS180). Extracts of Oldenlandia diffusa, Codonopsis tangshen, Rehmannia glutinosa and Astragalus propinquus inhibited CYP3A4 in human CYP3A4 Supersomes(TM) (IC50 values: 17-83µg/mL). Oldenlandia diffusa and Rehmannia glutinosa significantly induced PXR-mediated CYP3A4 (p<0.001). Oldenlandia diffusa also significantly induced CYP3A4 mRNA levels (p<0.001 at 250µg/mL). Concomitant use of Oldenlandia diffusa and Rehmannia glutinosa could result in induction of CYP3A4, leading to a reduced efficacy of drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates and have a narrow therapeutic window. Because of the possible enhanced toxicity caused by CYP3A4 inhibition, clinical effects of CYP3A4 inhibition by Astragalus propinquus and Codonopsis tangshen must also be taken into account. In conclusion, herb-drug interactions between Chinese herbs and various CYP3A4 substrates can occur. Further research to investigate the clinical relevance of the interactions caused by Oldenlandia diffusa, Codonopsis tangshen, Rehmannia glutinosa and Astragalus propinquus is required.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 07/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As cancer is often treated with combination therapy, unexpected pharmacological effects can occur because of drug-drug interactions. Several drugs are able to cause up or down regulation of drug transporters or cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, in particular CYP3A4. Induction of CYP3A4 may result in decreased plasma levels and therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Since the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) is one of the major transcriptional regulators of CYP3A4, PXR antagonists can possibly prevent CYP3A4 induction. Currently, a limited number of PXR antagonists is available. Some of these antagonists belong to the so-called Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM), such as sulphoraphane and coumestrol. Therefore, the aim was to determine the potential of selected CAM (β-carotene, Echinacea purpurea, garlic, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, milk thistle, saw palmetto, valerian, vitamin B6, B12 and C) to inhibit of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 induction at the transcriptional level, using a reporter gene and RT-PCR assay in LS180 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, computational molecular docking and a LanthaScreen® TR-FRET PXR competitive binding assay were performed to explore whether the inhibiting CAM components interact with PXR. The results demonstrated that milk thistle is a strong inhibitor of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 induction. The components of milk thistle responsible for this effect were identified as silybin and isosilybin. Furthermore, computational molecular docking revealed a strong interaction between both silybin and isosilybin and PXR, which was confirmed in the TR-FRET PXR assay. In conclusion, silybin and isosilybin might be suitable candidates to design potent PXR antagonists in order to prevent drug-drug interactions via CYP3A4 in cancer patients.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 05/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) can affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs by interacting with the metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. To evaluate changes in the activity of CYP3A4 in patients, levels of 1-hydroxymidazolam in plasma are often determined with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, validated LC-MS/MS methods to determine in vitro CYP3A4 inhibition in human liver microsomes are scarce and not optimized for evaluating CYP3A4 inhibition by CAM. The latter is necessary because CAM are often complex mixtures of numerous compounds that can interfere with the selective measurement of 1-hydroxymidazolam. Therefore, the aim was to validate and optimize an LC-MS/MS method for the adequate determination of CYP3A4 inhibition by CAM in human liver microsomes. After incubation of human liver microsomes with midazolam, liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether was applied and dried samples were reconstituted in 50% methanol. These samples were injected onto a reversed-phase chromatography consisting of a Zorbax Extend-C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 5.0 µm particle size), connected to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization. The described LC-MS/MS method was validated over linear range of 1.0-500 nm for 1-hydroxymidazolam. The results revealed good inter-assay accuracy (≥85% and ≤115%) and within-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation ≤ 4.43%). Furthermore, the applicability of this assay for the determination of CYP3A4 inhibition in complex matrix mixtures was successfully demonstrated in an in vitro experiment in which CYP3A4 inhibition by known CAM (β-carotene, green tea, milk thistle and St. John's wort) was determined. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Biomedical Chromatography 05/2013; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) by cancer patients is increasing. Concomitant use of CAM and anticancer drugs could lead to serious safety issues in patients. CAM have the potential to cause pharmacokinetic interactions with anticancer drugs, leading to either increased or decreased plasma levels of anticancer drugs. This could result in unexpected toxicities or a reduced efficacy. Significant pharmacokinetic interactions have already been shown between St. John's Wort (SJW) and the anticancer drugs imatinib and irinotecan. Most pharmacokinetic CAM-drug interactions, involve drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, in particular CYP3A4. The effect of CAM on CYP3A4 activity and expression can be assessed in vitro. However, no data have been reported yet regarding the relevance of these in vitro data for the prediction of CAM-anticancer drug interactions in clinical practice. To address this issue, a literature research was performed to evaluate the relevance of in vitro data to predict clinical effects of CAM frequently used by cancer patients: SJW, milk thistle, garlic and Panax ginseng (P. ginseng). Furthermore, in clinical studies the sensitive CYP3A4 substrate probe midazolam is often used to determine pharmacokinetic interactions. Results of these clinical studies with midazolam are used to predict pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Therefore, this review also explored whether clinical trials with midazolam are useful to predict clinical pharmacokinetic CAM-anticancer drug interactions. In vitro data of SJW have shown CYP3A4 inhibition after short-term exposure and induction after long-term exposure. In clinical studies using midazolam or anticancer drugs (irinotecan and imatinib) as known CYP3A4 substrates in combination with SJW, decreased plasma levels of these drugs were observed, which was expected as a consequence of CYP3A4 induction. For garlic, no effect on CYP3A4 has been shown in vitro and also in clinical studies garlic did not affect the pharmacokinetics of both midazolam and docetaxel. Milk thistle and P. ginseng predominantly showed CYP3A4 inhibition in vitro. However, in clinical studies these CAM did not cause significant pharmacokinetic interactions with midazolam, irinotecan, docetaxel and imatinib. Most likely, factors as poor pharmaceutical availability, solubility and bioavailability contribute to the lack of significant clinical interactions. In conclusion, in vitro data are useful as a first indication for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions with CAM. However, the discrepancies between in vitro and clinical results for milk thistle and P. ginseng show that clinical studies are required for confirmation of potential interactions. At last, midazolam as a model substrate for CYP3A4, has convincingly shown to correctly predict clinical interactions between CAM and anticancer drugs.
    Cancer Treatment Reviews 02/2013; · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    The Oncologist 04/2012; 17(5):740-1; author reply 742-3. · 4.10 Impact Factor