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Publications (5)2.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Storage and Delivery System (SDS) of the ITER Tritium Plant has to safely handle the fuel gases including tritium and deliver those gases to the Fuelling System (FS). Recently the ITER fuelling scenarios have been developed in more detail considering ramp-up, flat-top, and ramp-down. With this as input, an alternative analysis was performed for how SDS will support ITER inductive, hybrid, and non-inductive plasma operations. The fuelling rates from SDS to FS were evaluated. To supply gas to FS, SDS must draw gases from one or more sources. These sources could be SDS tanks, SDS hydride storage beds or the Isotope Separation System. Case studies were performed to evaluate the relative merits on various configurations. For inductive operations, it was found that tritium could be supplied with either 27 hydride beds and one tank or with 12 beds and four tanks. For deuterium supply the results were either 43 beds and one tank or 31 beds and four tanks. Also studied were options for distributing supporting gas inventories elsewhere in the Fuel Cycle or on larger hydride beds. Evaluation criteria included operability and safety.
    Fusion Engineering and Design 10/2014; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of ITER tritium Storage and Delivery System (SDS) is contracted to develop an optimal metal hydride bed that can be reveal the unprecedented fueling performance for the Tokamak. One function of the hydride bed is to keep safety requirements in terms of confinement of tritium. The hydride material for storing the deuterium and tritium fuelling gases is being made narrow with depleted uranium (DU) by its good performance. DU also has its own uncertainties, however, in applying it to realize the getter bed system having an all-round capability, especially in aspect of safety. This paper deals with from bed design target to the design variables in terms of comparison of risk-based multi-criteria using HAZOP (risk matrix) analysis. In analysis of the risks, important variables that denotes safety-effective, or cost-effective, or maintainability-effective, or manufacturability-effective are sometimes mutually interrelated with each other. As a conclusion the authors could recommend the way to concentrate and minimize the bed design variables with most meaningful risk-containing components that can be applied to increase the performance of hydride bed. It needs, however, that further study of comparison of risk analyses should be proceeded to complete the hydride bed design.
    Fusion Engineering and Design 10/2014; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Consecutive absorption/desorption cycles of the ZrCo-H2 system were studied to simulate the real ITER hydrogen getter system. ZrCo getter was used in this study instead of the depleted uranium (DU) getter material which was recently considered as the hydrogen getter in ITER. In a cyclic PCI measurement the high-pressure Sievert apparatus seems impractical to describe the equilibrium state of the ZrCo-H2 system in detail, especially for the desorption stage. This high-pressure Pressure-Composition Isotherm (PCI) apparatus, however, shows a cause-and-effect well, from the previous getter state to the following state in presenting hydriding/dehydriding performance. In case of the ZrCo-H2 system or in case of the DU-H2 system, having multiple getter bed battery, a similar affection by the previous getter status might be related and a similar aspect could be shown to should consider further in ITER design, for example a need for control logic, from PCI measurements using a high-pressure Sievert apparatus.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Disruptions on ITER present challenges to handle the intense heat flux, the large forces from halo currents, and the potential first wall damage from energetic runaway electrons. Injecting large quantities of material into the plasma during the disruption can reduce the plasma energy and increase its resistivity to mitigate these effects. Assessments of the amount of various mixtures and quantities of the material required have been made to provide collision mitigation of runaway-electron conversion, which is the most difficult challenge. The quantities of the material required (~0.5 MPa??m<sup>3</sup> for deuterium or helium gas) are large enough to have implications on the design and operation of the vacuum system and tokamak exhaust processing system.
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 04/2010; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ITER is a fusion tokamak, being fully designed for deuterium/tritium operation. The ITER Fuel Cycle consists of three major sections which are Vacuum, the Tritium Plant and Fuelling and Wall Conditioning. In general the Fuel Cycle supplies the fuel particles and impurities into the tokamak for stable plasma operation and processes all the exhaust gases from the Torus. The ITER Fuel Cycle must be capable of delivering, exhausting and purifying fuel particles (H 2 , D 2 and DT) at rates that are orders of magnitude higher than have been done previously in industrial applications with fluids containing tritium. The plasma will be fuelled in the forms of hydrogenic ice pellet injection and gas puffing. The Fuelling system also provides hydrogen and deuterium to the diagnostics and heating Neutral Beam injectors respectively. The ITER vacuum pumping systems are used for initial evacuation, continuous maintenance of the required conditions in the torus, plasma density control and neutral particle exhaust. The Tritium Plant supplies deuterium and tritium from external sources and treats all tritiated fluids from ITER operation through Tokamak Exhaust Processing, Isotope Separation and Storage and Delivery Systems to remove and recover deuterium and tritium for refuelling. The Fuel Cycle also provides tritium confinement systems for the Tokamak Complex and the Hot Cell Facility. Confinement of tritium is achieved through multiple passive barriers and the use of active systems such as the Detritiation systems. Another challenging aspect for the Fuel Cycle is tritium accountancy and tracking. To satisfy safety criteria it will be necessary to track and trend the inventory within the vacuum vessel and other major Fuel Cycle systems. In order to perform this inventory measurement, tritium must be moved to hydride storage beds and measured. The ITER research plan encompasses four operational phases: hydrogen (protium), hydrogen / helium, deuterium / trace tritium and full deuterium/tritium operations. The Fuel Cycle systems are not all required to be available at the beginning; however each of the operational phases requires an increasing number of the systems to be available with increasing duties as time progresses in each phase. An initial coherent strategy to commission each of these systems as they are needed has been developed.