H S Kim

National Fusion Research Institute, Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea

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Publications (800)1643.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A series of deuterium permeation experiments were carried out using a nickel membrane in an elevated temperature range of 450–850 °C for application to nuclear fusion and nuclear hydrogen technologies. A complete set of permeability, diffusivity, and solubility data for deuterium in nickel was successfully determined. The results of this study were compared with results previously reported by other authors. The results for deuterium were also compared with the results for hydrogen to estimate the isotope effect. The results for and a discussion of deuterium permeation and the isotope effects in nickel are presented.
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 08/2014; 39(24):12789–12794. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optical and magnetic properties of Ni doped ZnO planetary ball milled nanopowder synthesized by co-precipitation, Ceramics International, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ceramint.2014.07.148 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting galley proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study examined the effects of a 6-week intermittent exercise training, at different intensities, on body composition, functional walking and aerobic endurance in overweight children. Forty-eight overweight children (age: 10.4 ± 0.9 years) were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. Lower and higher intensity intermittent exercise groups (LIIE and HIIE) performed intermittent running three times a week. LIIE performed more intervals at a lower intensity [16 intervals at 100% of individual maximal aerobic speed (MAS), 8 minutes in total], and HIIE performed fewer intervals at a higher intensity (12 intervals at 120% of MAS, 6 minutes in total). Each interval consisted of a 15-second run at the required speed, followed by a 15-second passive recovery. After 6 weeks, HIIE had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher percentage reduction in sum of skinfolds (i.e. calf and triceps), and significantly (p < 0.05) fewer steps during the functional obstacle performance, as compared with LIIE and control group. Significant improvement (p < 0.05) was found in intermittent aerobic endurance for HIIE as compared to the control group. Higher intensity intermittent training is an effective and time-efficient intervention for improving body composition, functional walking and aerobic endurance in overweight children.
    European Journal of Sport Science 07/2014; · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys have been known to show superior formability under a Newtonian viscous mode in a supercooled liquid region (SLR). Crystalline phases generated by a high-temperature forming process have a negative effect on the formability of the BMG alloys by the rapid increase of viscosity for an amorphous matrix. A constitutive model considering dynamic crystallization and a viscous flow for high-temperature deformation behavior of the Ti-based BMG was used for n estimation of the formability, and was verified to apply to the forming process in an SLR. The experimental formability of the Ti-based BMG has been found to be in good agreement with the finite element analyses results based on the constitutive model, and thus enable one to apply to the other forming processes conducted in an SLR.
    Materials and Manufacturing Processes 07/2014; 29(7). · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The risk and prognosis of ovarian cancer have not been well established in women with endometriosis. Thus, we investigated the impact of endometriosis on the risk and prognosis for ovarian cancer, and evaluated clinicopathologic characteristics of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in comparison with non-EAOC.Methods:After we searched an electronic search to identify relevant studies published online between January 1990 and December 2012, we found 20 case-control and 15 cohort studies including 444 255 patients from 1 625 potentially relevant studies. In the meta-analysis, ovarian cancer risk by endometriosis and clinicopathologic characteristics were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) or standard incidence ratio (SIR), and prognosis was investigated using hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was evaluated using Higgins I(2) to select fixed-effect (I(2) 50%) or random effects models (I(2)>50%), and found no publication bias using funnel plots with Egger's test (P>0.05). Furthermore, we performed subgroup analyses based on study design, assessment of endometriosis, histology, disease status, quality of study and adjustment for potential confounding factors to minimise bias.Results:Endometriosis increased ovarian cancer risk in case-control or two-arm cohort studies (RR, 1.265; 95% CI, 1.214-1.318) and single-arm cohort studies (SIR, 1.797; 95% CI, 1.276-2.531), which were similar in subgroup analyses. Although progression-free survival was not different between EAOC and non-EAOC (HR, 1.023; 95% CI, 0.712-1.470), EAOC was associated with better overall survival than non-EAOC in crude analyses (HR, 0.778; 95% CI, 0.655-0.925). However, progression-free survival and overall survival were not different between the two groups in subgroup analyses. Stage I-II disease, grade 1 disease and nulliparity were more common in EAOC (RRs, 1.959, 1.319 and 1.327; 95% CIs, 1.367-2.807, 1.149-1.514 and 1.245-1.415), whereas probability of optimal debulking surgery was not different between the two groups (RR, 1.403; 95% CI, 0.915-2.152). Furthermore, endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas were more common in EAOC (RRs, 1.759 and 2.606; 95% CIs, 1.551-1.995 and 2.225-3.053), whereas serous carcinoma was less frequent in EAOC than in non-EAOC (RR, 0.733; 95% CI, 0.617-0.871), and there was no difference in the risk of mucinous carcinoma between the two groups (RR, 0.805; 95% CI, 0.584-1.109). These clinicopathologic characteristics were also similar in subgroup analyses.Conclusions:Endometriosis is strongly associated with the increased risk of ovarian cancer, and EAOC shows favourable characteristics including early-stage disease, low-grade disease and a specific histology such as endometrioid or clear cell carcinoma. However, endometriosis may not affect disease progression after the onset of ovarian cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 11 February 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.29 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We conducted this study to compare tumor measurement by computed tomography (CT) and tumor response assessment between Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.0 and RECIST 1.1 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients with metastatic CRC who received first-line chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2012 and compared CT tumor measurement using two RECIST versions. Results: A total of 58 patients who had target lesions according to RECIST 1.0 were included in the study. The number of target lesions recorded by RECIST 1.1 was significantly lower than that by RECIST 1.0, with a decrease experienced in 48 patients (82.7%). Six patients had no target lesions because of the new criteria of RECIST 1.1 for lymph node size. Out of 95 lymph nodes from 58 patients, only 40% were defined as target lesions according to RECIST 1.1. The overall response rate of first-line chemotherapy according to RECIST 1.0 and 1.1 was 41.5 and 40.4%, respectively. The best tumor responses showed almost perfect agreement between RECIST 1.1 and RECIST 1.0 (ĸ = 0.913). Three patients showed disagreement of the best responses between the two RECIST versions. Conclusion: RECIST 1.1 showed a highly concordant response assessment with RECIST 1.0 in metastatic CRC and its clinical impact on therapeutic decisions was minimal. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Oncology 01/2014; 86(2):117-121. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel scheme for the focusing of high-energy leptons in future linear colliders was proposed in 2001 [P. Raimondi and A. Seryi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3779 (2001)]. This scheme has many advantageous properties over previously studied focusing schemes, including being significantly shorter for a given energy and having a significantly better energy bandwidth. Experimental results from the ATF2 accelerator at KEK are presented that validate the operating principle of such a scheme by demonstrating the demagnification of a 1.3 GeV electron beam down to below 65 nm in height using an energy-scaled version of the compact focusing optics designed for the ILC collider.
    Physical Review Letters 01/2014; 112:034802. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superconducting tokamaks like KSTAR, EAST and ITER need elaborate magnetic controls mainly due to either the demanding experiment schedule or tighter hardware limitations caused by the superconducting coils. In order to reduce the operation runtime requirements, two types of plasma simulators for the KSTAR plasma control system (PCS) have been developed for improving axisymmetric magnetic controls. The first one is an open-loop type, which can reproduce the control done in an old shot by loading the corresponding diagnostics data and PCS setup. The other one, a closed-loop simulator based on a linear nonrigid plasma model, is designed to simulate dynamic responses of the plasma equilibrium and plasma current (Ip) due to changes of the axisymmetric poloidal field (PF) coil currents, poloidal beta, and internal inductance. The closed-loop simulator is the one that actually can test and enable alteration of the feedback control setup for the next shot. The simulators have been used routinely in 2012 plasma campaign, and the experimental performances of the axisymmetric shape control algorithm are enhanced. Quality of the real-time EFIT has been enhanced by utilizations of the open-loop type. Using the closed-loop type, the decoupling scheme of the plasma current control and axisymmetric shape controls are verified through both the simulations and experiments. By combining with the relay feedback tuning algorithm, the improved controls helped to maintain the shape suitable for longer H-mode (10–16 s) with the number of required commissioning shots largely reduced.
    Fusion Engineering and Design. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the influence of precipitates on the mechanical properties and plastic anisotropy of an age hardenable aluminum alloy during uniaxial loading was investigated using crystal plasticity modeling. The kinetics model of Myhr et al. was used to obtain the solute and precipitate features after different cycles of aging treatment. The amounts of solute, precipitate size and volume fraction, and dislocation density varying during deformation, were used to calculate the slip system strength. An explicit term was obtained based on the elastic inclusion model for the directional dependency of internal stress developed by non-shearable rod shape precipitates. Also, a dislocation evolution model was modified to assess the anisotropic influence of non-shearable precipitate on work hardening, and the effects of solute content on the rate of dynamic recovery. It was found that the model results were in good agreement with experimental uniaxial flow stress obtained under different aging conditions. The application of the model to single crystal revealed that the precipitates can reduce crystallography anisotropy, which in part was attributed to the precipitate induced anisotropy.
    Computational Materials Science. 01/2014; 83:78–85.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The infant mortality rate is a sensitive and commonly used indicator of the socio-economic status of a population. Generally, studies investigating the relationship between infant mortality and socio-economic status have focused on full-term infants in Western populations. This study examined the effects of education level and employment status on full-term and preterm infant mortality in Korea. Data were collected from the National Birth Registration Database and merged with data from the National Death Certification Database. Study design Prospective cohort study. Methods In total, 1,316,184 singleton births registered in Korea's National Birth Registration Database between January 2004 and December 2006 were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results Paternal and maternal education levels were inversely related to infant mortality in preterm and full-term infants following multivariate adjusted logistic models. Parental employment status was not associated with infant mortality in full-term infants, but was associated with infant mortality in preterm infants, after adjusting for place of birth, gender, marital status, paternal age, maternal age and parity. Conclusions Low paternal and maternal education levels were found to be associated with infant mortality in both full-term and preterm infants. Low parental employment status was found to be associated with infant mortality in preterm infants but not in full-term infants. In order to reduce inequalities in infant mortality, public health interventions should focus on providing equal access to education.
    Public health 01/2014; · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Ann Oncol. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Frequency modulation reflectometer has been developed to measure the plasma density profile of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. Three reflectometers are operating in extraordinary polarization mode in the frequency range of Q band (33.6-54 GHz), V band (48-72 GHz), and W band (72-108 GHz) to measure the density up to 7 × 10(19) m(-3) when the toroidal magnetic field is 2 T on axis. The antenna is installed inside of the vacuum vessel. A new vacuum window is developed by using 50 μm thick mica film and 0.1 mm thick gold gasket. The filter bank of low pass filter, notch filter, and Faraday isolator is used to reject the electron cyclotron heating high power at attenuation of 60 dB. The full frequency band is swept in 20 μs. The mixer output is directly digitized with sampling rate of 100 MSamples/s. The phase is obtained by using wavelet transform. The whole hardware and software system is described in detail and the measured density profile is presented as a result.
    The Review of scientific instruments 08/2013; 84(8):084702. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    Nuclear Fusion 01/2013; 53(10):104005. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new analogue circuit design methodology using independently optimised self-cascode (SC) structures is proposed. Based on the concept of the dual-workfunction-gate structures, which are equivalent to SC structures, transconductance and output resistance optimised SC MOSFETs were used in the differential input and output stages, respectively. An operational amplifier (opamp) with the proposed design methodology using standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology was designed to provide better performance. The measured DC gain of the fabricated opamp with independently-optimised SC MOSFETs was approximately 12 dB higher than that of the conventional opamp.
    Electronics Letters 01/2013; 49(9):591-592. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The impact of intraoperative rupture on prognosis is controversial in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to determine its impact and to evaluate factors to increase its risk. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library till May 2011, and 9 eligible studies including 2382 patients were evaluated. All patients were classified into three groups: no rupture; intraoperative rupture; preoperative involvement. RESULTS: Preoperative involvement decreased progression-free survival when compared with intraoperative rupture (PFS; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.14), which also showed poorer PFS than no rupture (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.74-3.33). Although preoperative involvement reduced PFS when compared with intraoperative rupture (HR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.11-6.20), there was no difference in it between intraoperative rupture and no rupture in patients who underwent complete surgical staging operation and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy if needed (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.45-4.95). Furthermore, adhesion to adjacent tissues, grade 2 or 3 disease were more common (ORs, 2.01 and 2.47; 95% CIs, 1.20-3.37 and 1.12-5.46), whereas mucinous tumor was less frequent (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37-0.72) in intraoperative rupture than in no rupture. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative rupture may not decrease PFS when compared with no rupture in patients with early-stage EOC who underwent complete surgical staging operation and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Furthermore, more adhesion to adjacent tissues and grade 2 or 3 disease, and less mucinous tumor are expected to increase the risk of intraoperative rupture.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 12/2012; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Despite better overall survival in node-negative advanced gastric cancer (AGC), a significant proportion of patients develop recurrence and they may benefit from adjuvant therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors and recurrence pattern of node-negative AGC. METHODS: A total of 424 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy for node-negative AGC between 2003 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with tumor involvement of adjacent organs (T4b), gastric cancer recurrence, tumor in the remnant stomach, less than 15 harvested lymph nodes, and those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. RESULTS: Invasion to deeper layers, undifferentiated histology, signet ring cell type compared with tubular adenocarcinoma, and tumor size larger than 6.3 cm correlated with poorer prognosis in univariate analysis. In multivariate one, however, only differentiation and depth of invasion, especially the presence of serosa involvement were significant. The 5-year survival rates of the four groups classified by differentiation and depth of invasion [T2/3 (differentiated type), T2/3 (undifferentiated type), T4a (differentiated type), and T4a (undifferentiated type)] were 98%, 92%, 80%, and 72%, respectively (P < 0.01). In terms of recurrence pattern, Lauren's type and depth of invasion were significant. Recurrence with peritoneal seeding was associated with the diffuse type and invasion into the subserosa or serosa, while hematogenous metastasis was related to the intestinal type and invasion to the proper muscle or subserosa layer. CONCLUSIONS: Differentiation and serosa involvement should be considered to stratify patients with node-negative AGC for adjuvant treatment.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 11/2012; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery (NCS) has not been well-established in FIGO stage IB1 to IIA cervical cancer when compared with primary surgical treatment (PST). Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of NCS in patients with FIGO stage IB1 to IIA cervical cancer when compared with PST. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library between January 1987 and September 2010. Since there was a relative lack of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we included 5 RCTs and 4 observational studies involving 1784 patients among 523 potentially relevant studies. RESULTS: NCS was related with lower rates of large tumor size (≥4 cm) (ORs, 0.22 and 0.10; 95% CI, 0.13-0.39 and 0.02-0.37) and lymph node metastasis (ORs, 0.61 and 0.38; 95% CI, 0.37-0.99 and 0.20-0.73) than PST in all studies and RCTs. Furthermore, NCS reduced the need of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in all studies (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33-0.98), and distant metastasis in all studies and RCTs (ORs, 0.61 and 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89 and 0.38-0.97). However, overall and loco-regional recurrences and progression-free survival were not different between the 2 treatments. On the other hand, NCS was associated with poorer overall survival in observational studies when compared with PST (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.12-2.53). CONCLUSIONS: Although NCS reduced the need of adjuvant RT by decreasing tumor size and lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis, it failed to improve survival when compared with PST in patients with FIGO stage IB1 to IIA cervical cancer.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 10/2012; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The latest results of confinement and edge-localized mode (ELM) characteristics of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) H-mode plasmas are reported. The estimation of fast ion contribution to the total stored energy, calculated by both the NUBEAM and ASTRA simulations, and of the effective total heating power is used to derive the thermal energy confinement time (τE,thermal), which is compared with a multi-machine database. The measured power threshold for the L–H transition (Pthr) as a function of density shows a roll-over with minimum value at . KSTAR H-mode plasmas exhibit three distinctive types of ELMs: large type-I ELMs, intermediate ELMs and a mixed (type-I and small ELM peaks) ELM regime. Power scans show that the frequency of the large ELMs increases with increasing heating power, a feature of type-I ELMs. The quality of confinement is higher for type-I and mixed ELMy H-mode (H98(y,2) ~ 0.9–1) than for the intermediate ELM regime (H98(y,2) ~ 0.7). Type-I ELMs have precursor-like signals from the magnetics measurement, while the other two ELM types do not. The low-field side (LFS) profile of electron temperature (Te), from the ECE measurement, and the pedestal profile of the toroidal velocity (Vt), from charge-exchange spectroscopy, show a continuous build up on the LFS during the inter-ELM period. However, the pedestal ion temperature (Ti) remains unchanged for most of the inter-ELM period until it rapidly rises in the last stage of the ELM cycle (≥70–80%). The estimated electron pedestal collisionality for a type-I ELMy regime is . The confinement and ELM characteristics for the ELM suppression discharges by the application of an n = 1 magnetic perturbation (MP) have also been investigated for each of the identified stages during the MP application. A second L–H transition during the L-mode phase after the end of first H-mode stage occurs for some discharges when the divertor configuration is restored by the plasma control system. Characteristics of this late H-mode are compared with those for the main H-mode.
    Nuclear Fusion 10/2012; 52(11):114001. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sawtooth precursor oscillations (SPOs) are studied in neutral beam heated plasmas on DIII-D and KSTAR. The characteristics of the SPO (5-20 kHz, m/n=1/1) are investigated using magnetic sensors along with electron cyclotron emission (ECE) and soft x-ray diagnostics. In addition, the Type I edge localized mode (ELM) precursors (8-40 kHz, n=2,3) are detected before the ELM burst in neutral beam heated plasmas. The characteristics of the ELM precursors are investigated by using magnetic sensor data. In this work, the experimental investigations of the SPOs and ELM precursors in DIII-D and KSTAR plasmas will be presented.
    10/2012;

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,643.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • National Fusion Research Institute
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2010–2014
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Antō, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Dankook University
      Eidō, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 1997–2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Family Medicine
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
      • • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Jilin Agricultural University
      Hsin-ching, Jilin Sheng, China
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Princeton University
      • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • Konkuk University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1991–2012
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • College of Dentistry
      • • College of Natural Sciences
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2011
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Suwon
      Suigen, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2002–2011
    • Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute-KERI
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Korea Basic Science Institute KBSI
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998–2011
    • Chonbuk National University
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
    • Youngdong University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
    • Kyungnam University
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • International St. Mary's Hospitals
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
  • 1997–2009
    • Yonsei University
      • • Division of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science
      • • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      • • College of Nursing
      • • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1996–2009
    • Ajou University
      • • Department of Diagnostic Radiology
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Nephrology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Cheil General Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1993–2009
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Keimyung University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Kosin University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Bundang Jesaeng Hospital
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2007–2008
    • National Institute of Animal Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • RURAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION
      Seikan-ri, South Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Yeungnam University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2008
    • Korea Maritime and Ocean University
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2001–2008
    • Hyundai Heavy Industries
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Asan Medical Center
      • Department of Vascular Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Seonam University
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Georgetown University
      • Lung Biology Laboratory
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
    • Wonju Severance Christian Hospital
      Genshū, Gangwon, South Korea
    • Korea University
      • College of Nursing
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2000–2008
    • Pusan National University
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Jeonju National University of Education
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • Kyorin University
      Mitaka, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999–2008
    • Inje University
      Kŭmhae, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1998–2008
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Ophthalmology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Architectural Engineering
      • • School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering (AMSE)
      • • School of Pharmacy
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2007
    • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 1999–2007
    • Chungnam National University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2006
    • Daewoo Engineering and Construction
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Ulsan
      • Department of Radiology
      Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2001–2006
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2006
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 1996–2006
    • Chonnam National University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Gastroenterology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Palo Alto, CA, United States
  • 1998–2003
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–2003
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Computer System Engineering
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • The University of Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1993–2003
    • Hanyang University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Major in Internal Medicine
      • • Division of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
      Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2001–2002
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2002
    • University of Strathclyde
      • Institute of Photonics
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Hallym University
      • College of Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999–2002
    • Soonchunhyang University
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 1992–2002
    • Chungbuk National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Tyundyu, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2000–2001
    • Chosun University
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Chonnam National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998–2001
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 1995–2001
    • Okayama University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      • • Anticancer Research Laboratory
      • • Natural Product Biosynthesis Research Unit
      • • Biopotency Evaluation Laboratory
      Ansan, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 1998–2000
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1997–2000
    • Wonkwang University
      Riri, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 1996–1997
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 1994–1997
    • University of Mississippi Medical Center
      • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Jackson, MS, United States