G. Khaliullin

Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (131)591.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Heisenberg interactions are ubiquitous in magnetic materials and have been prevailing in modeling and designing quantum magnets. Bond-directional interactions offer a novel alternative to Heisenberg exchange and provide the building blocks of the Kitaev model, which has a quantum spin liquid (QSL) as its exact ground state. Honeycomb iridates, A2IrO3 (A=Na,Li), offer potential realizations of the Kitaev model, and their reported magnetic behaviors may be interpreted within the Kitaev framework. However, the extent of their relevance to the Kitaev model remains unclear, as evidence for bond-directional interactions remains indirect or conjectural. Here, we present direct evidence for dominant bond-directional interactions in antiferromagnetic Na2IrO3 and show that they lead to strong magnetic frustration. Diffuse magnetic x-ray scattering reveals broken spin-rotational symmetry even above Neel temperature, with the three spin components exhibiting nano-scale correlations along distinct crystallographic directions. This spin-space and real-space entanglement directly manifests the bond-directional interactions, provides the missing link to Kitaev physics in honeycomb iridates, and establishes a new design strategy toward frustrated magnetism.
    Nature Physics 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/nphys3322 · 20.60 Impact Factor
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    Jiří Chaloupka · Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We have explored the hidden symmetries of a generic four-parameter nearest-neighbor spin model, allowed in honeycomb lattice compounds under trigonal compression. Our method utilizes a systematic algorithm to identify all dual transformations of the model that map the Hamiltonian on itself, changing the parameters and providing exact links between different points in its parameter space. We have found the complete set of points of hidden SU(2) symmetry at which seemingly highly anisotropic model can be mapped back on the Heisenberg model and inherits therefore its properties such as the presence of gapless Goldstone modes. The procedure used to search for the hidden symmetries is quite general and may be extended to other bond-anisotropic spin models and other lattices, such as the triangular, kagome, hyper-honeycomb, or harmonic-honeycomb lattices. We apply our findings to the honeycomb lattice iridates Na2IrO3 and Li2IrO3, and illustrate how they help to identify plausible values of the model parameters that are compatible with the available experimental data.
    Physical Review B 02/2015; 92(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.92.024413 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    Mats Horsdal · Giniyat Khaliullin · Timo Hyart · Bernd Rosenow
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    ABSTRACT: We show, how in principle, a coherent coupling between two superconductors of opposite parity can be realised in a three-layer oxide heterostructure. Due to strong intraionic spin-orbit coupling in the middle layer, singlet Cooper pairs are converted into triplet ones and vice versa. The result is a large enhancement of the triplet order parameter, as well as a Josephson current between the even and odd parity superconductors that persist well beyond the native triplet critical temperature.
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    ABSTRACT: We report a neutron scattering study of the magnetic order and dynamics of the bilayer perovskite Sr$_3$Fe$_2$O$_7$, which exhibits a temperature-driven metal-insulator transition at 340 K. We show that the Fe$^{4+}$ moments adopt incommensurate spiral order below $T_\text{N}=115$ K and provide a comprehensive description of the corresponding spin wave excitations. The observed magnetic order and excitation spectra can be well understood in terms of an effective spin Hamiltonian with interactions ranging up to third nearest-neighbor pairs. The results indicate that the helical magnetism in Sr$_3$Fe$_2$O$_7$ results from competition between ferromagnetic double-exchange and antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions whose strengths become comparable near the metal-insulator transition. They thus confirm a decades-old theoretical prediction and provide a firm experimental basis for models of magnetic correlations in strongly correlated metals.
    Physical Review Letters 09/2014; 113(14). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.147206 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    Jungho Kim · M Daghofer · A H Said · T Gog · J van den Brink · G Khaliullin · B J Kim
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    ABSTRACT: In condensed matter systems, out of a large number of interacting degrees of freedom emerge weakly coupled quasiparticles (QPs), in terms of which most physical properties are described. The lack of identification of such QPs is a major barrier for understanding myriad exotic properties of correlated electrons, such as unconventional superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behaviours. Here we report the observation of a composite particle in a quasi-two-dimensional spin-1/2 antiferromagnet Sr2IrO4-an exciton dressed with magnons-that propagates with the canonical characteristics of a QP: a finite QP residue and a lifetime longer than the hopping time scale. The dynamics of this charge-neutral excitation mirrors the fundamental process of the analogous one-hole propagation in the background of spins-1/2, and reveals the same intrinsic dynamics that is obscured for a single, charged-hole doped into two-dimensional cuprates.
    Nature Communications 07/2014; 5:4453. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5453 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    Alireza Akbari · Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We study the magnetic order and excitations in strong spin-orbit coupled, Van Vleck-type, $d^4$ Mott insulators on a square lattice. Extending the previous work, we include the tetragonal crystal field splitting and explore its effects on magnetic phase diagram and magnon spectra. Two different ordered phases, with in-plane and out-of-plane orientation of the staggered moments, are found for the higher and lower values of the crystal field splitting, respectively. The magnetic excitation spectra for paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases are calculated and discussed in the context of a candidate spin-orbit $d^4$ Mott insulator Ca$_2$RuO$_4$.
    Physical Review B 05/2014; 90(3). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.90.035137 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a high-field electron spin resonance study in the sub-THz frequency domain of a single crystal of ${\mathrm{Sr}}_{2}{\mathrm{IrO}}_{4}$ that has been recently proposed as a prototypical spin-orbital Mott insulator. In the antiferromagnetically ordered state with noncollinear spin structure that occurs in this material at ${T}_{\mathrm{N}}$ $$\approx${}$ 240 K we observe both the ``low'' frequency mode due to the precession of weak ferromagnetic moments arising from a spin canting, and the ``high'' frequency modes due to the precession of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) sublattices. Surprisingly, the energy gap for the AFM excitations appears to be very small, amounting to only 0.83 meV. This suggests a rather isotropic Heisenberg dynamics of interacting Ir${}^{4+}$ effective spins despite the spin-orbital entanglement in the ground state.
    Physical Review B 05/2014; 89(18). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.89.180401 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the quantum many-body instabilities of the $t -J_{\mathrm{K}} - J_{\mathrm{H}}$ Kitaev-Heisenberg Hamiltonian on the honeycomb lattice as a minimal model for a doped spin-orbit Mott insulator. This spin-$1/2$ model is believed to describe the magnetic properties of the layered transition-metal oxide Na$_2$IrO$_3$. We determine the ground-state of the system with finite charge-carrier density from the functional renormalization group (fRG) for correlated fermionic systems. To this end, we derive fRG flow-equations adapted to the lack of full spin-rotational invariance in the fermionic interactions, here represented by the highly frustrated and anisotropic Kitaev exchange term. Additionally employing a set of Ward identities for the Kitaev-Heisenberg model, the numerical solution of the flow equations suggests a rich phase diagram emerging upon doping charge carriers into the ground-state manifold ($\mathbb{Z}_2$ quantum spin liquids and magnetically ordered phases). We corroborate superconducting triplet $p$-wave instabilities driven by ferromagnetic exchange and various singlet pairing phases. For filling $\delta > 1/4$, the $p$-wave pairing gives rise to a topological state with protected Majorana edge-modes. For antiferromagnetic Kitaev and ferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange we obtain bond-order instabilities at van Hove filling supported by nesting and density-of-states enhancement, yielding dimerization patterns of the electronic degrees of freedom on the honeycomb lattice. Further, our flow equations are applicable to a wider class of model Hamiltonians.
    Physical Review B 03/2014; 90(4). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045135 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a high-field electron spin resonance study in the sub-THz frequency domain of a single crystal of Sr$_2$IrO$_4$ that has been recently proposed as a prototypical spin-orbital Mott insulator. In the antiferromagnetically (AFM) ordered state with noncollinear spin structure that occurs in this material at $T_{\rm N} \approx 240$ K we observe both the "low" frequency mode due to the precession of weak ferromagnetic moments arising from a spin canting, and the "high" frequency modes due to the precession of the AFM sublattices. Surprisingly, the energy gap for the out-of-plane AFM excitations appears to be very small, amounting to 0.83 meV only. This suggests a rather isotropic Heisenberg dynamics of interacting Ir$^{4+}$ effective spins despite the spin-orbital entanglement in the ground state.
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    Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: In Mott insulators with the t_{2g}^{4} electronic configuration such as of Re^{3+}, Ru^{4+}, Os^{4+}, and Ir^{5+} ions, spin-orbit coupling dictates a Van Vleck-type nonmagnetic ground state with an angular momentum J=0, and the magnetic response is governed by gapped singlet-triplet excitations. We derive the exchange interactions between these excitons and study their collective behavior on different lattices. In perovskites, a conventional Bose condensation of excitons into a magnetic state is found, while an unexpected one-dimensional behavior supporting spin-liquid states emerges in honeycomb lattices, due to the bond directional nature of exciton interactions in the case of 90° d-p-d bonding geometry.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2013; 111(19):197201. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.197201 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    Beom Hyun Kim · G. Khaliullin · B. I. Min
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the excitation spectra of $j_{eff}$=$\frac{1}{2}$ Mott insulator Na$_2$IrO$_3$. Taking into account a relativistic multiplet structure of Ir ions, we have calculated the optical conductivity $\sigma(\omega)$ and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra, which manifest different features from those of a canonical $j_{eff}$=$\frac{1}{2}$ system Sr$_2$IrO$_4$.Distinctly from the two-peak structure in Sr$_2$IrO$_4$, $\sigma(\omega)$ in Na$_2$IrO$_3$ has a broad single peak dominated by interband transitions from $j_{eff}$=$\frac{3}{2}$ to $\frac{1}{2}$. RIXS spectra exhibit the spin-orbit (SO) exciton that has a two-peak structure arising from the crystal-field effect, and the magnon peak at energies much lower than in Sr$_2$IrO$_4$. In addition, a small peak near the optical absorption edge is found in RIXS spectra, originating from the coupling between the electron-hole ($e$-$h$) excitation and the SO exciton. Our findings corroborate the validity of the relativistic electronic structure and importance of both itinerant and local features in Na$_2$IrO$_3$.
    Physical Review B 07/2013; 89(8). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.89.081109 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Jiří Chaloupka · George Jackeli · Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the phase diagram of spin-orbit Mott insulators on a honeycomb lattice, within the Kitaev-Heisenberg model extended to its full parameter space. Zigzag-type magnetic order is found to occupy a large part of the phase diagram of the model, and its physical origin is explained as due to interorbital t_{2g}-e_{g} hopping. The magnetic susceptibility, spin wave spectra, and zigzag order parameter are calculated and compared to the experimental data, obtaining thereby the spin coupling constants in Na_{2}IrO_{3} and Li_{2}IrO_{3}.
    Physical Review Letters 03/2013; 110(9):097204. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.097204 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using spectral ellipsometry, we have measured the dielectric function of a Na 0.82(2)CoO2 crystal that exhibits bulk antiferromagnetism with TN = 19.8 K. We identify two prominent transitions as a function of temperature. The first one at 280 K involves marked changes of the electronic and the lattice response that are indicative of charge ordering in the CoO2 layers. The second transition coincides with TN=19.8 K and reveals a sizeable spin-charge coupling. The data are discussed in terms of charge ordering and formation of magneto-polarons due to a charge-induced spin-state transition of adjacent Co3+ ions. Typeset using REVTEX 1 The recent discovery [1] of superconductivity at Tc ≃5 K in the hydrated cobaltate Na0.35CoO2 ∗ 1.3 H2O has engendered many proposals for unusual electronic correlations. A particularly interesting perspective is a spin-triplet pairing state, which has been proposed on the basis of model calculations [2,3] and NMR experiments [4,5]. In this context, the
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    Beom Hyun Kim · G Khaliullin · B I Min
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the microscopic model including spin-orbit coupling, on-site Coulomb and Hund's interactions, as well as crystal field effects, we investigate the magnetic and optical properties of Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. Taking into account all intermediate state multiplets generated by virtual hoppings of electrons, we calculate the isotropic, pseudodipolar, and Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya coupling constants, which describe the experiment quite well. The optical conductivity σ(ω) evaluated by the exact diagonalization method shows two peaks at ∼0.5 and ∼1.0  eV in agreement with experiment. The two-peak structure of σ(ω) arises from the unusual Fano-type overlap between the electron-hole continuum of the J_{eff}=1/2 band and the intrasite spin-orbit exciton observed recently in Sr_{2}IrO_{4}.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2012; 109(16):167205. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.167205 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, we observe in the bilayer iridate Sr_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7}, a spin-orbit coupling driven magnetic insulator with a small charge gap, a magnon gap of ≈92  meV for both acoustic and optical branches. This exceptionally large magnon gap exceeds the total magnon bandwidth of ≈70  meV and implies a marked departure from the Heisenberg model, in stark contrast to the case of the single-layer iridate Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. Analyzing the origin of these observations, we find that the giant magnon gap results from bond-directional pseudodipolar interactions that are strongly enhanced near the metal-insulator transition boundary. This suggests that novel magnetism, such as that inspired by the Kitaev model built on the pseudodipolar interactions, may emerge in small charge-gap iridates.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2012; 109(15):157402. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.157402 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    Jiří Chaloupka · George Jackeli · Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the phase diagram of spin-orbit Mott insulators on a honeycomb lattice, within the Kitaev-Heisenberg model extended to its full parameter space. Zigzag-type magnetic order is found to occupy a large part of the phase diagram of the model, and its physical origin is explained as due to interorbital t2g-eg hopping. Magnetic susceptibility and spin wave spectra are calculated and compared to the experimental data, obtaining thereby the spin coupling constants in Na2IrO3 and Li2IrO3.
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    Jiří Chaloupka · Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a minimal model describing magnetic behavior of Fe-based superconductors. The key ingredient of the model is a dynamical mixing of quasi-degenerate spin states of Fe2+ ion by intersite electron hoppings, resulting in an effective local spin Seff. The moments Seff tend to form singlet pairs, and may condense into a spin nematic phase due to the emergent biquadratic exchange couplings. The long-range ordered part m of Seff varies widely, 0<=m<=Seff, but magnon spectra are universal and scale with Seff, resolving the puzzle of large but fluctuating Fe-moments. Unusual temperature dependences of a local moment and spin susceptibility are also explained.
    Physical Review Letters 08/2012; 110(20). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.207205 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using resonant x-ray diffraction, we observe an easy c-axis collinear antiferromagnetic structure for the bilayer Sr3Ir2O7, a significant contrast to the single layer Sr2IrO4 with in-plane canted moments. Based on a microscopic model Hamiltonian, we show that the observed spin-flop transition as a function of number of IrO2 layers is due to strong competition among intra- and interlayer bond-directional pseudodipolar interactions of the spin-orbit entangled J(eff)=1/2 moments. With this we unravel the origin of anisotropic exchange interactions in a Mott insulator in the strong spin-orbit coupling regime, which holds the key to the various types of unconventional magnetism proposed in 5d transition metal oxides.
    Physical Review Letters 07/2012; 109(3):037204. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.037204 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The electron-phonon interaction is of central importance for the electrical and thermal properties of solids, and its influence on superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance and other many-body phenomena in correlated-electron materials is the subject of intense research at present. However, the non-local nature of the interactions between valence electrons and lattice ions, often compounded by a plethora of vibrational modes, presents formidable challenges for attempts to experimentally control and theoretically describe the physical properties of complex materials. Here we report a Raman scattering study of the lattice dynamics in superlattices of the high-temperature superconductor YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) and the colossal-magnetoresistance compound La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO(3) that suggests a new approach to this problem. We find that a rotational mode of the MnO(6) octahedra in La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO(3) experiences pronounced superconductivity-induced line-shape anomalies, which scale linearly with the thickness of the YBCO layers over a remarkably long range of several tens of nanometres. The transfer of the electron-phonon coupling between superlattice layers can be understood as a consequence of long-range Coulomb forces in conjunction with an orbital reconstruction at the interface. The superlattice geometry thus provides new opportunities for controlled modification of the electron-phonon interaction in complex materials.
    Nature Material 07/2012; 11(8):675-81. · 36.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The electron-phonon interaction is of central importance for the electrical and thermal properties of solids, and its influence on superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance, and other many-body phenomena in correlated-electron materials is currently the subject of intense research. However, the non-local nature of the interactions between valence electrons and lattice ions, often compounded by a plethora of vibrational modes, present formidable challenges for attempts to experimentally control and theoretically describe the physical properties of complex materials. Here we report a Raman scattering study of the lattice dynamics in superlattices of the high-temperature superconductor $\bf YBa_2 Cu_3 O_7$ and the colossal-magnetoresistance compound $\bf La_{2/3}Ca_{1/3}MnO_{3}$ that suggests a new approach to this problem. We find that a rotational mode of the MnO$_6$ octahedra in $\bf La_{2/3}Ca_{1/3}MnO_{3}$ experiences pronounced superconductivity-induced lineshape anomalies, which scale linearly with the thickness of the $\bf YBa_2 Cu_3 O_7$ layers over a remarkably long range of several tens of nanometers. The transfer of the electron-phonon coupling between superlattice layers can be understood as a consequence of long-range Coulomb forces in conjunction with an orbital reconstruction at the interface. The superlattice geometry thus provides new opportunities for controlled modification of the electron-phonon interaction in complex materials.
    Nature Material 06/2012; 11(8). DOI:10.1038/NMAT3378 · 36.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
591.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2005
    • Universiteit Twente
      • Department of Computational Materials Science (CMS)
      Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands
  • 1999
    • University of Groningen
      • Materials Science Group
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1997
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994–1997
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 1995
    • Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems
      Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany