G. Khaliullin

Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (122)534.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report a neutron scattering study of the magnetic order and dynamics of the bilayer perovskite Sr$_3$Fe$_2$O$_7$, which exhibits a temperature-driven metal-insulator transition at 340 K. We show that the Fe$^{4+}$ moments adopt incommensurate spiral order below $T_\text{N}=115$ K and provide a comprehensive description of the corresponding spin wave excitations. The observed magnetic order and excitation spectra can be well understood in terms of an effective spin Hamiltonian with interactions ranging up to third nearest-neighbor pairs. The results indicate that the helical magnetism in Sr$_3$Fe$_2$O$_7$ results from competition between ferromagnetic double-exchange and antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions whose strengths become comparable near the metal-insulator transition. They thus confirm a decades-old theoretical prediction and provide a firm experimental basis for models of magnetic correlations in strongly correlated metals.
    Physical review letters. 09/2014; 113(14).
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    ABSTRACT: We study the quantum many-body instabilities of the $t -J_{\mathrm{K}} - J_{\mathrm{H}}$ Kitaev-Heisenberg Hamiltonian on the honeycomb lattice as a minimal model for a doped spin-orbit Mott insulator. This spin-$1/2$ model is believed to describe the magnetic properties of the layered transition-metal oxide Na$_2$IrO$_3$. We determine the ground-state of the system with finite charge-carrier density from the functional renormalization group (fRG) for correlated fermionic systems. To this end, we derive fRG flow-equations adapted to the lack of full spin-rotational invariance in the fermionic interactions, here represented by the highly frustrated and anisotropic Kitaev exchange term. Additionally employing a set of Ward identities for the Kitaev-Heisenberg model, the numerical solution of the flow equations suggests a rich phase diagram emerging upon doping charge carriers into the ground-state manifold ($\mathbb{Z}_2$ quantum spin liquids and magnetically ordered phases). We corroborate superconducting triplet $p$-wave instabilities driven by ferromagnetic exchange and various singlet pairing phases. For filling $\delta > 1/4$, the $p$-wave pairing gives rise to a topological state with protected Majorana edge-modes. For antiferromagnetic Kitaev and ferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange we obtain bond-order instabilities at van Hove filling supported by nesting and density-of-states enhancement, yielding dimerization patterns of the electronic degrees of freedom on the honeycomb lattice. Further, our flow equations are applicable to a wider class of model Hamiltonians.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In condensed matter systems, out of a large number of interacting degrees of freedom emerge weakly coupled quasiparticles (QPs), in terms of which most physical properties are described. The lack of identification of such QPs is a major barrier for understanding myriad exotic properties of correlated electrons, such as unconventional superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behaviours. Here we report the observation of a composite particle in a quasi-two-dimensional spin-1/2 antiferromagnet Sr2IrO4-an exciton dressed with magnons-that propagates with the canonical characteristics of a QP: a finite QP residue and a lifetime longer than the hopping time scale. The dynamics of this charge-neutral excitation mirrors the fundamental process of the analogous one-hole propagation in the background of spins-1/2, and reveals the same intrinsic dynamics that is obscured for a single, charged-hole doped into two-dimensional cuprates.
    Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:4453. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a high-field electron spin resonance study in the sub-THz frequency domain of a single crystal of Sr$_2$IrO$_4$ that has been recently proposed as a prototypical spin-orbital Mott insulator. In the antiferromagnetically (AFM) ordered state with noncollinear spin structure that occurs in this material at $T_{\rm N} \approx 240$ K we observe both the "low" frequency mode due to the precession of weak ferromagnetic moments arising from a spin canting, and the "high" frequency modes due to the precession of the AFM sublattices. Surprisingly, the energy gap for the out-of-plane AFM excitations appears to be very small, amounting to 0.83 meV only. This suggests a rather isotropic Heisenberg dynamics of interacting Ir$^{4+}$ effective spins despite the spin-orbital entanglement in the ground state.
    12/2013;
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    Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: In Mott insulators with the t_{2g}^{4} electronic configuration such as of Re^{3+}, Ru^{4+}, Os^{4+}, and Ir^{5+} ions, spin-orbit coupling dictates a Van Vleck-type nonmagnetic ground state with an angular momentum J=0, and the magnetic response is governed by gapped singlet-triplet excitations. We derive the exchange interactions between these excitons and study their collective behavior on different lattices. In perovskites, a conventional Bose condensation of excitons into a magnetic state is found, while an unexpected one-dimensional behavior supporting spin-liquid states emerges in honeycomb lattices, due to the bond directional nature of exciton interactions in the case of 90° d-p-d bonding geometry.
    Physical Review Letters 11/2013; 111(19):197201. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    Beom Hyun Kim, G. Khaliullin, B. I. Min
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated the excitation spectra of $j_{eff}$=$\frac{1}{2}$ Mott insulator Na$_2$IrO$_3$. Taking into account a relativistic multiplet structure of Ir ions, we have calculated the optical conductivity $\sigma(\omega)$ and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra, which manifest different features from those of a canonical $j_{eff}$=$\frac{1}{2}$ system Sr$_2$IrO$_4$.Distinctly from the two-peak structure in Sr$_2$IrO$_4$, $\sigma(\omega)$ in Na$_2$IrO$_3$ has a broad single peak dominated by interband transitions from $j_{eff}$=$\frac{3}{2}$ to $\frac{1}{2}$. RIXS spectra exhibit the spin-orbit (SO) exciton that has a two-peak structure arising from the crystal-field effect, and the magnon peak at energies much lower than in Sr$_2$IrO$_4$. In addition, a small peak near the optical absorption edge is found in RIXS spectra, originating from the coupling between the electron-hole ($e$-$h$) excitation and the SO exciton. Our findings corroborate the validity of the relativistic electronic structure and importance of both itinerant and local features in Na$_2$IrO$_3$.
    07/2013; 89(8).
  • Jiří Chaloupka, George Jackeli, Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the phase diagram of spin-orbit Mott insulators on a honeycomb lattice, within the Kitaev-Heisenberg model extended to its full parameter space. Zigzag-type magnetic order is found to occupy a large part of the phase diagram of the model, and its physical origin is explained as due to interorbital t_{2g}-e_{g} hopping. The magnetic susceptibility, spin wave spectra, and zigzag order parameter are calculated and compared to the experimental data, obtaining thereby the spin coupling constants in Na_{2}IrO_{3} and Li_{2}IrO_{3}.
    Physical Review Letters 03/2013; 110(9):097204. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    Beom Hyun Kim, G Khaliullin, B I Min
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the microscopic model including spin-orbit coupling, on-site Coulomb and Hund's interactions, as well as crystal field effects, we investigate the magnetic and optical properties of Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. Taking into account all intermediate state multiplets generated by virtual hoppings of electrons, we calculate the isotropic, pseudodipolar, and Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya coupling constants, which describe the experiment quite well. The optical conductivity σ(ω) evaluated by the exact diagonalization method shows two peaks at ∼0.5 and ∼1.0  eV in agreement with experiment. The two-peak structure of σ(ω) arises from the unusual Fano-type overlap between the electron-hole continuum of the J_{eff}=1/2 band and the intrasite spin-orbit exciton observed recently in Sr_{2}IrO_{4}.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2012; 109(16):167205. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, we observe in the bilayer iridate Sr_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7}, a spin-orbit coupling driven magnetic insulator with a small charge gap, a magnon gap of ≈92  meV for both acoustic and optical branches. This exceptionally large magnon gap exceeds the total magnon bandwidth of ≈70  meV and implies a marked departure from the Heisenberg model, in stark contrast to the case of the single-layer iridate Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. Analyzing the origin of these observations, we find that the giant magnon gap results from bond-directional pseudodipolar interactions that are strongly enhanced near the metal-insulator transition boundary. This suggests that novel magnetism, such as that inspired by the Kitaev model built on the pseudodipolar interactions, may emerge in small charge-gap iridates.
    Physical Review Letters 10/2012; 109(15):157402. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    Jiří Chaloupka, George Jackeli, Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the phase diagram of spin-orbit Mott insulators on a honeycomb lattice, within the Kitaev-Heisenberg model extended to its full parameter space. Zigzag-type magnetic order is found to occupy a large part of the phase diagram of the model, and its physical origin is explained as due to interorbital t2g-eg hopping. Magnetic susceptibility and spin wave spectra are calculated and compared to the experimental data, obtaining thereby the spin coupling constants in Na2IrO3 and Li2IrO3.
    09/2012;
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    Jiří Chaloupka, Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a minimal model describing magnetic behavior of Fe-based superconductors. The key ingredient of the model is a dynamical mixing of quasi-degenerate spin states of Fe2+ ion by intersite electron hoppings, resulting in an effective local spin Seff. The moments Seff tend to form singlet pairs, and may condense into a spin nematic phase due to the emergent biquadratic exchange couplings. The long-range ordered part m of Seff varies widely, 0<=m<=Seff, but magnon spectra are universal and scale with Seff, resolving the puzzle of large but fluctuating Fe-moments. Unusual temperature dependences of a local moment and spin susceptibility are also explained.
    Physical Review Letters 08/2012; 110(20). · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using resonant x-ray diffraction, we observe an easy c-axis collinear antiferromagnetic structure for the bilayer Sr3Ir2O7, a significant contrast to the single layer Sr2IrO4 with in-plane canted moments. Based on a microscopic model Hamiltonian, we show that the observed spin-flop transition as a function of number of IrO2 layers is due to strong competition among intra- and interlayer bond-directional pseudodipolar interactions of the spin-orbit entangled J(eff)=1/2 moments. With this we unravel the origin of anisotropic exchange interactions in a Mott insulator in the strong spin-orbit coupling regime, which holds the key to the various types of unconventional magnetism proposed in 5d transition metal oxides.
    Physical Review Letters 07/2012; 109(3):037204. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The electron-phonon interaction is of central importance for the electrical and thermal properties of solids, and its influence on superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance and other many-body phenomena in correlated-electron materials is the subject of intense research at present. However, the non-local nature of the interactions between valence electrons and lattice ions, often compounded by a plethora of vibrational modes, presents formidable challenges for attempts to experimentally control and theoretically describe the physical properties of complex materials. Here we report a Raman scattering study of the lattice dynamics in superlattices of the high-temperature superconductor YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) (YBCO) and the colossal-magnetoresistance compound La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO(3) that suggests a new approach to this problem. We find that a rotational mode of the MnO(6) octahedra in La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO(3) experiences pronounced superconductivity-induced line-shape anomalies, which scale linearly with the thickness of the YBCO layers over a remarkably long range of several tens of nanometres. The transfer of the electron-phonon coupling between superlattice layers can be understood as a consequence of long-range Coulomb forces in conjunction with an orbital reconstruction at the interface. The superlattice geometry thus provides new opportunities for controlled modification of the electron-phonon interaction in complex materials.
    Nature Material 07/2012; 11(8):675-81. · 35.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The electron-phonon interaction is of central importance for the electrical and thermal properties of solids, and its influence on superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance, and other many-body phenomena in correlated-electron materials is currently the subject of intense research. However, the non-local nature of the interactions between valence electrons and lattice ions, often compounded by a plethora of vibrational modes, present formidable challenges for attempts to experimentally control and theoretically describe the physical properties of complex materials. Here we report a Raman scattering study of the lattice dynamics in superlattices of the high-temperature superconductor $\bf YBa_2 Cu_3 O_7$ and the colossal-magnetoresistance compound $\bf La_{2/3}Ca_{1/3}MnO_{3}$ that suggests a new approach to this problem. We find that a rotational mode of the MnO$_6$ octahedra in $\bf La_{2/3}Ca_{1/3}MnO_{3}$ experiences pronounced superconductivity-induced lineshape anomalies, which scale linearly with the thickness of the $\bf YBa_2 Cu_3 O_7$ layers over a remarkably long range of several tens of nanometers. The transfer of the electron-phonon coupling between superlattice layers can be understood as a consequence of long-range Coulomb forces in conjunction with an orbital reconstruction at the interface. The superlattice geometry thus provides new opportunities for controlled modification of the electron-phonon interaction in complex materials.
    Nature Material 06/2012; 11(8). · 35.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering to reveal the nature of magnetic interactions in Sr2IrO4, a 5d transition-metal oxide with a spin-orbit entangled ground state and J(eff)=1/2 magnetic moments. The magnon dispersion in Sr2IrO4 is well-described by an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with an effective spin one-half on a square lattice, which renders the low-energy effective physics of Sr2IrO4 much akin to that in superconducting cuprates. This point is further supported by the observation of exciton modes in Sr2IrO4, whose dispersion is strongly renormalized by magnons, which can be understood by analogy to hole propagation in the background of antiferromagnetically ordered spins in the cuprates.
    Physical Review Letters 04/2012; 108(17):177003. · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show that electron's spin and orbital degrees of freedom can fractionalize in 1D antiferromagnets: although the orbital excitations are inherently coupled to spinons in antiferromagnetic Mott insulators, in 1D they separate into a pure orbiton and a single spinon. This is similar to the spin-charge separation in 1D but corresponds to an exotic regime where spinons are faster than holons [1]. The resulting large dispersion of the pure orbiton can be detected in e.g. quasi-1D cuprates [2]. [1] K. Wohlfeld, M. Daghofer, S. Nishimoto, G. Khaliullin, and J. van den Brink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 147201 (2011). [2] J. Schlappa et al., to be published (2011).
    02/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently found that the charge inhomogeneities provide significant broadening in the Cu-O bond stretching phonon of La2-xSrxCuO4, and the line shape of the phonon at zone boundary is well reproduced by the simple model which takes charge inhomogeneous effect into account [1]. The question is, now, how large intrinsic line width of the phonon at q=(0.25 0 0), where the giant phonon softening and broadening exist [2], is apart from the charge inhomogeneous effect on the line width. In this talk, we will show the doping dependence of the intrinsic line width of the phonon from x=0.05 to x=0.30. Interestingly, the intrinsic line width as a function of doping follows the superconducting transition temperature. We will discuss relationship between the phonon and the superconductivity in La2-xSrxCuO4. [4pt] [1] S. R. Park at al., accepted for publication in PRB (2011).[0pt] [2] D. Reznik et al., Nature 440, 1170 (2006).
    02/2012;
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    Andrzej M. Oles, Giniyat Khaliullin
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce a microscopic model for electron doped manganites that explains the mechanism of the observed transition from $G$-type antiferromagnetic ($G$-AF) to $C$-type antiferromagnetic ($C$-AF) order under increasing doping by double exchange mechanism. The model unravels the crucial role played by $e_g$ orbital degrees of freedom and explains the observed metal-to-insulator transition by a dimensional crossover at the magnetic phase transition. The specific heat and the spin canting angle found for the $G$-AF phase agree with the experimental findings. As a surprising outcome of the theory we find that spin canting is suppressed in the $C$-AF phase, in agreement with the experiment, due to the Fermi surface topology.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 12/2011; 84(21). · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purely local experimental probes of many copper oxide superconductors show that their electronic states are inhomogeneous in real space. For example, scanning tunneling spectroscopic imaging shows strong variations in real space, and according to nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies, the charge distribution in the bulk varies on the nanoscale. However, the analysis of the experimental results utilizing spatially averaged probes often ignores this fact. We have performed a detailed investigation of the doping dependence of the energy and linewidth of the zone-boundary Cu-O bond-stretching vibration in La2-xSrxCuO4 by inelastic neutron scattering. Both our results as well as previously reported angle-dependent momentum widths of the electronic spectral function detected by angle-resolved photoemission can be reproduced by including the same distribution of local environments extracted from the NQR analysis.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 12/2011; 84. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We map the problem of the orbital excitation (orbiton) in a 2D antiferromagnetic and ferroorbital ground state onto a problem of a hole in 2D antiferromagnet. The orbiton turns out to be coupled to magnons and can only be mobile on a strongly renormalized scale by dressing with magnetic excitations. We show that this leads to a dispersion relation reflecting the two-site unit cell of the antiferromagnetic background, in contrast to the predictions based on a mean-field approximation and linear orbital-wave theory.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 11/2011; 391(1).

Publication Stats

2k Citations
534.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2010–2013
    • Masaryk University
      • Department of Condensed Matter Physics
      Brno, South Moravian Region, Czech Republic
  • 2000–2009
    • Tohoku University
      • Institute for Materials Research
      Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken, Japan
  • 2007
    • University of Arkansas
      • Department of Physics
      Fayetteville, AR, United States
  • 2006
    • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
      • Institute of Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics
      Karlsruhe, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1997
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia