Iris Chi

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (179)246.44 Total impact

  • Yura Lee, Iris Chi
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Based on the cognitive reserve theory, relationships among education, employment status, and cognition have been found in many studies. However, there are only few studies specifically investigating the influence of late-life verbal activities (reading, writing, and discussing) on cognition, comparing those who are yet impaired with cognition vs. who are already in the process of cognitive deterioration. This study aims to examine aforementioned predictors on cognition; categorized into normal, cognitively impaired not demented (CIND) and demented given by the expert consensus panel. Methods: The study employed a national sample of American older adults (70+) from the ‘Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study’. 702 respondents (Normal: 270, CIND: 190, Demented: 242) were included in the final analysis using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, race, employment status, depression, perceived health, and ApoE genotype. CIND was treated as a reference group. Results: Results showed that longer education years (OR=1.10, CI=1.02-1.17), current employment (OR=4.30, CI=1.55-11.94), and more engagement in verbal activities (OR=1.20, CI=1.11-1.31) increased the odds to be diagnosed with normal cognition than with CIND. On the other hand, education years and employment status were not significant predictor when comparing CIND vs. demented group. Only engagement in verbal activities decreased the odds (OR=0.70, CI=0.64-0.76) to be diagnosed with dementia than with CIND. Conclusions: Findings suggest that late-life verbal activities are important for both normal and cognitively impaired group to prevent any or further deterioration while education and employment status were only significant for normal vs. CIND group. Different approaches will be required for implementation purposes on two groups.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This study examined correlates of caregiving at the end of life provided by adult children to their older parents and the role of gender of adult children in family caregiving in rural China. Data came from five waves of the Longitudinal Study of Rural Elder's Well-Being in Anhui Province, China, over 12 years and from a post-mortality survey. Hierarchical linear modeling was used. Findings demonstrated that the birth order of adult children, prior geographic distance, and prior intergenerational support exchange were significantly associated with family caregiving at the end of life. Eldest children, compared to other siblings, provided the most end-of-life caregiving to their parents. Children cohabitating with older parents before death provided the most caregiving, compared to other siblings. Adult children who had previously exchanged instrumental support with older parents before death, especially sons, tended to provide the most caregiving, compared with that by others, at end of life.
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    ABSTRACT: We tested how health literacy (HL) was associated with sunlight exposure behavior.•Doctor recommendations were not sufficient to affect health behavior.•HL was directly and indirectly associated with sunlight exposure behavior.•Training individuals health literacy skills increase the chance of sunlight exposure.
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study examined the relationship between depression and pain, and the moderating effect of communication difficulty on this relationship, among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method: We used logistic regression to analyze secondary data regarding 12,402 Chinese older adults applying for long-term care service in Hong Kong in 2012. Results: Approximately 30% of participants were depressed and 37% experienced communication difficulty. Depression was associated with increased pain. Communication difficulty was found to moderate the relationship between depression and pain. Pain scores increased more when individuals who experienced communication difficulty reported being depressed, compared to those who did not experience communication difficulty. Conclusion: The moderating effect of communication difficulty may be explained by the interaction between depression and communication difficulty. Participants who were depressed and concurrently experienced communication difficulty may be more likely to catastrophize their pain and may tend to report or experience more pain. Health care professionals need to be aware of the different effects of communication difficulty on the pain experiences of older adults. Psychosocial intervention may be provided to minimize older adults' communication barriers to pain management.
    Aging and Mental Health 10/2014; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the relations among health literacy, perceived capacity for communication, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes self-care are unclear. This study tested this relation using structural equation modeling with a sample of 137 Chinese patients 65 years of age or older with type 2 diabetes. The model showed that health literacy, knowledge, communication capacity, and diabetes self-care formed complex relations. After adjusting for age, education, and Chinese cultural influence, health literacy affected diabetes self-care indirectly through perceived capacity for communication (standardized estimate coefficient = .641, p < .001) but not diabetes knowledge. To enhance self-care, interventions should be tailored to increase patient health literacy and perceived capacity for communication with health care providers. Training should be provided to patients to enhance their communication abilities.
    Journal of Health Communication 10/2014; 19 Suppl 2:161-72. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimThe aim of present study was to describe the prevalence of medication adherence, and to examine its risk factors among Chinese community-dwelling older adults with chronic diseases.Methods Secondary analysis was carried out on the data collected from 3167 Hong Kong adults aged ≥60 years who lived in their private home, had at least one type of chronic disease and had completed a screening instrument for long-term care services for the first time in 2006. The outcome variable was the self- or caregiver-reported medication adherence.ResultsAmong the respondents, 90.8% reported having good medication adherence in the past 7 days. More dependence on activities of daily living (P < 0.001), stroke (P = 0.003) or diabetes (P = 0.036), had medication review by physicians (P < 0.001) and received more informal care support (P = 0.005) were positively associated with medication adherence, whereas more cognitive impaired (P = 0.008), more negative mood (P = 0.071) and perceived poor health (P < 0.001) were negatively associated with medication adherence.Conclusions The prevalence of self-reported medication adherence was high in Hong Kong Chinese community-dwelling older adults. A number of modifiable factors associated with medication adherence were identified, which provides specific targets for interventions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014; ●●: ●●–●●.
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives.Although domestic helpers increasingly play a role in elder care in many societies, there is a lack of research on their influence on caregiver distress. This study aimed to examine the influence of domestic helpers on the relationship between stressors (the care needs of frail elders and spousal provision of care) and spousal caregivers' psychological distress.Method.This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected between 2007 and 2009 from 6,442 Hong Kong adults aged 60 or older who were applying for government-subsidized long-term care services and whose spouses were their primary caregivers. Among the spousal caregivers, 73.04% were women, 44.16% felt distressed, and 5.73% were assisted by domestic helpers. According to logistic regression analysis, spousal caregivers who provided personal care related to activities of daily living were more likely to be distressed if they were not assisted by domestic helpers.Discussion.The findings suggest that domestic help may moderate the effect of stressors on spousal caregivers. Domestic helpers provide support not just to frail older adults but also to spousal caregivers. Further studies are recommended to explore the precise effect of domestic help on family caregivers, care receivers, and the caregiving process.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 04/2014; · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Depression and pain often coexist in terminally ill patients, but few studies have examined their relationship among larger samples. Other psychosocial factors experienced by patients may become barriers to pain management and affect the relationship between depression and pain. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between depression and pain in terminally ill Chinese elders in Hong Kong and explore the moderating effect of psychosocial factors such as loneliness, communication, and being at ease interacting with others. Methods: A secondary data analysis was conducted on a large cohort of community-dwelling Chinese elders applying for long-term care service in Hong Kong between 2004 and 2009. A total of 312 elders who had a prognosis of less than 6 months were included. Results: Depression was associated positively and significantly with pain. However, loneliness moderated this relationship, and for participants who felt lonely, depression and pain were no longer significantly associated. Conclusions: Findings support the positive relationship between depression and pain in terminally ill elders. Feeling lonely may affect the tendency to report pain. To ensure optimal pain management for patients in palliative and end-of-life care, assessment and intervention should focus on the impact of psychosocial factors such as loneliness, and how they may affect elders' reporting of pain.
    Journal of palliative medicine 04/2014; · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Chinese interRAI Mental Health among people with psychiatric illness. Methods: Study participants were 157 individuals with psychiatric illness living in a psychiatric long-term care facility or half-way house in Hong Kong. The authors prepared the Chinese interRAI MH. A panel of bilingual healthcare professionals examined the quality of the translation. The reliability of the 6 scales embedded in the instrument was examined using Cronbach's alphas, intraclass correlations, and Kappa coefficients. Pearson's product moment correlations, Spearman's order correlations, and independent t-tests were used to determine the concurrent and construct validity of the scales. Results and Conclusions: Internal consistency values (α = .66 to .95) and test-retest reliability coefficients (ICC = .76 to .97; κ = .75 to 1.00) of the scales were found to be satisfactory. All 6 scales correlated significantly with the criterion measures. As expected, 3 scales relating to cognition, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living discriminated among individuals living in two types of residential setting. interRAI MH was found to be a valid and reliable tool for use by clinicians in Hong Kong.
    International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice 03/2014; · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Weight loss has been considered predictive of early mortality in nursing home residents. Lower body mass index, irrespective of weight loss, has also been considered detrimental for survival in community-dwelling older persons. We examined which of the 2 is more important for survival in nursing home residents and at what body mass index (BMI) cut-offs survival benefits are gained or lost. Prospective study. Nursing homes. One thousand six-hundred fourteen nursing home residents. Minimum Data Set at baseline and mortality status assessed at 6 months, 1, 2, 4, and 9 years later. Relationship between mortality and significant weight loss (≥5% over 30 days or ≥10% over 180 days), and BMI, was studied by Cox regression with both variables in the same model, adjusted for age, sex, medical conditions (cancer, renal failure, heart disease, dementia, hip fracture, diabetes mellitus), tube-feeding, 25% food left uneaten, swallowing problem, and the activities of daily living hierarchy scale. One thousand six-hundred fourteen residents (69.5% female) with mean age 83.7 ± 8.4 years and mean BMI 21.7 ± 4.8 were studied. Mortality rates were 6.3% (6-month), 14.3% (1-year), 27.1% (2-year), 47.3% (4-year), and 78.1% (9-year). Significant weight loss was not associated with higher mortality at all follow-up durations, whereas higher BMI was significantly protective: mortality reduction per 1 unit increase in BMI were 9% at 6 months, 10% at 1 year, 9% at 2 years, 7% at 4 years, and 5% at 9 years, all at P < .001. Having ≥25% of food left uneaten (51.2% of participants) had no relationship to survival at all follow-up durations. At 9 years, compared with those with BMI < 18.5kg/m(2), the normal weight (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2), Asia Pacific cut-off), overweight (BMI 23-25 kg/m(2), Asia Pacific cut-off) and obese (BMI > 25 kg/m(2), Asia Pacific cut-off) had significantly lower mortality (hazard ratio 0.65, 0.62, and 0.47, respectively, all P < .001). Significant weight loss as defined by the Minimum Data Set was not associated with short- or long-term survival in Chinese nursing home residents. BMI, however, is predictive of short- and long-term survival irrespective of weight loss in this population. Low BMI, detectable at a single point of time, may be another readily available alternative trigger point for possible interventions in reducing mortality risk. Obese residents had the lowest mortality compared with those with normal weight.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 02/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study aims to describe the prevalence of chewing problems and oral dryness when eating and examine their risk factors among Chinese community-dwelling older adults. Background Chewing problems and oral dryness are two common oral health complaints in older people. A number of factors associated with these two oral health problems in older people have been reported, but information regarding Chinese older adults is scarce. Materials and methodsSecondary analysis was conducted on the data collected from 3422 Hong Kong adults aged ≥60 who had completed a screening instrument for long-term care services for the first time. ResultsAmong the respondents, 15.3% reported having chewing problems and 3.5% reported having oral dryness when eating. More dependence on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, OR = 1.06, p < 0.001) was associated with a greater likelihood of chewing problems, while more negative mood (OR = 1.19, p < 0.001) was associated with a greater likelihood of oral dryness when eating, after adjusting for the effects of socio-demographic characteristics and medical conditions. Informal care support, poor nutrition status and difficulty in brushing teeth/dentures were positively and significantly associated with these two perceived oral health problems. Conclusions The prevalence of both chewing problems and oral dryness was low in Hong Kong older Chinese adults. IADL was related to chewing problems, while negative mood was related to oral dryness independently and significantly, which provide a knowledge base upon which to develop strategic programs of oral health promotion among older Chinese adults.
    Gerodontology 02/2014; · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Population aging and immigration are reshaping the demographic profile of the United States and support needs of older persons. In the recent decades, many Chinese older adults migrated to the United States to reunion with their children (immigrant family), or go back and forth between China and the U.S. (yo-yo family). Those older adults, together with those that live in China (non-immigrant family) always serve as either primary or secondary caregiver for their grandchildren. Previous studies have shown that older adults gained more financial support from their adult children by taking care of their children (grandchildren) in rural China. However, few studies have explored whether this baby sitting behavior affected older adults’ support receipt from their adult children in immigrant, yo-yo, and non-immigrant families. This study compared support receipt of older adults in these three types of families, and explored whether babysitting grandchildren affected support receipt among older adults in these three families. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Los Angeles and Beijing between 2010 and 2012. The immigrant family sample consisted of 237 Chinese elders who migrated to the US and lived in Los Angeles. 293 yo-yo elders generally stayed in Beijing, but visited their immigrant children occasionally. The non-immigrant family sample consisted of 257 older adults recruited from neighborhood committees and public areas in residential communities in Beijing. The dependent variable was three dimensions of support that older adults received from their adult children: instrumental (dichotomous), financial (dichotomous), and emotional support (interval). The independent variable was grandparent babysitting intensity in the past 12 months (interval). ANOVA and Chi-square test was first conducted to test whether there were group differences on grandchildren babysitting or receiving each dimension of support from adult children. Independent regressions were then carried out to explore the association between grandchild babysitting and each dimension of support received from adult children among older adults after controlling the socio-demographic variables. Results: The Chi-square test and ANOVA showed that there were significant differences between receiving instrumental support (x2 =71.09, p<.001), financial support (x 2 =8.33, p<.05), emotional support (F=24.36, p<.000) as well as grandchildren babysitting (F=4.78, p<.05) among older adults in these three types of families. More specifically, older adults in non-immigrant families received the most financial support, elders in yo-yo families received the most emotional support, and older adults in immigrant families provided most grandchildren babysitting and got the most instrumental support. The regression results showed that grandchildren babysitting were significantly associated with emotional support (β=0.16, p<.05) and financial support (OR=1.56, p<.05) for older adults in immigrant families, and with instrumental support (OR=1.67, p<.01) for elders in yo-yo immigrant families. Conclusion and implications: The findings confirm the reciprocity aspects of social exchange theory, but partially support “time-for-money” model that was found in previous literature. The results also indicate the rewarding aspect of grandchildren babysitting on receiving support from adult children in immigrant families. Future studies can examine whether babysitting behavior has rewarding effects on the physical and psychological well-being of older adults.
    The Society for Social Work and Research 2014 Annual Conference; 01/2014
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate why first-generation Chinese immigrants with diabetes have difficulty obtaining, processing and understanding diabetes related information despite the existence of translated materials and translators. This qualitative study employed purposive sampling. Six focus groups and two individual interviews were conducted. Each group discussion lasted approximately 90 min and was guided by semistructured and open-ended questions. Data were collected in two community health centres and one elderly retirement village in Los Angeles, California. 29 Chinese immigrants aged ≥45 years and diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least 1 year. Eight key themes were found to potentially affect Chinese immigrants' capacity to obtain, communicate, process and understand diabetes related health information and consequently alter their decision making in self-care. Among the themes, three major categories emerged: cultural factors, structural barriers, and personal barriers. Findings highlight the importance of cultural sensitivity when working with first-generation Chinese immigrants with diabetes. Implications for health professionals, local community centres and other potential service providers are discussed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(11):e005294. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of the Study: This study examined associations between the availability and types of supportive behavior provided by secondary caregivers and the psychological distress of primary spousal caregivers of cognitively intact and impaired elders. A sample of 8,087 assessments using the validated Chinese version of the Minimum Data Set-Home Care of individuals applying for government-subsidized long-term care services from 2006 to 2009 in Hong Kong were selected based on inclusion criteria. More than 70% of primary caregivers had secondary caregivers; the rate was slightly lower for those caring for moderately or severely cognitively impaired spouses. More than half of the primary spousal caregivers had secondary caregivers who provided both emotional and instrumental support. Emotional support provided by secondary caregivers had a negative association with primary caregivers' psychological distress when their care recipients were cognitively intact. When secondary caregivers provided both instrumental and emotional support, primary caregivers had a higher likelihood of psychological distress when care recipients had greater negative mood symptoms as compared to those who had less negative mood symptoms. This is the first study that examined the association between availability and types of supportive behavior provided by secondary caregivers and the psychological distress of primary spousal caregivers of cognitively intact and impaired elders. The findings suggest a need to provide services that enhance the provision of emotional support from both secondary and primary caregivers to cognitively intact elders and support primary spousal caregivers to seek appropriate help according to the mood of care recipients.
    The Gerontologist 12/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Chronic Care (CHLCC). This is a methodological study with a sample of 262 patients 65 years of age and older who had chronic illnesses. Pearson's correlation, independent sample t tests, and analyses of variance were used. The CHLCC showed a significant positive correlation with Chinese literacy levels (r = 0.80; p < .001) but was negatively correlated with age (r =-0.31; p <.001). Respondents who were male (t =4.34; p <.001) and who had reached Grade 12 or higher in school (F = 51.80; p <.001) had higher CHLCC scores than did their counterparts. Individuals with high levels of health literacy had fewer hospitalizations than did their counterparts (β =-0.31; incidence rate ratio = 0.73; p <.05). The CHLCC also displayed good internal reliability (Cronbach'sα =0.91) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.77; p <.01). The CHLCC is a valid and reliable measure for assessing health literacy among Chinese patients with chronic illness. The scale could be used by practitioners before implementing health promotion and education.
    Journal of Health Communication 12/2013; 18(sup1):205-222. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Yawen Li, Ling Xu, Iris Chi, Ping Guo
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of the Study: This study examined whether participating in productive activities was associated with better health outcomes among older adults in urban China, including analysis of potential gender differences. Using a sample of 10,016 urban Chinese adults aged 60 years or older from the 2006 Sample Survey of the Aged Population in Urban/Rural China, we regressed measures of self-rated health, functional health, and depression on productive activities (paid employment, helping with family, and volunteering), controlling for sociodemographic variables. Those who provided assistance to family members or volunteered had significantly lower levels of depression and better functional and self-rated health than their counterparts. Older adults with paid job, providing family assistance, or volunteering reported significantly lower levels of depression and better functional and self-rated health than those without those activities. However, only older men with paid employment reported significantly less depression, and the effect of family assistance on functional health also differed by gender. As research increasingly demonstrates the role of productive activities in maintaining health among older adults, our findings can help practitioners or policy makers strategically select or develop health programs to promote productive activities among older adults in urban China.
    The Gerontologist 09/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives.This study tested the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults and the mediating role of the grandparent-parent relationship in terms of grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health. METHODS: Data were derived from a random sample of 1,027 adults aged 60 and older who were interviewed in the rural Chaohu region in 2009. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital in terms of relations with the first child's family on self-rated health among respondents, as well as the mediating effect of the grandparent-parent relationship. RESULTS: The results showed the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital on self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults. The grandparent-parent relationship had a partial mediation effect on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of respondents.Discussion.Grandparent-grandchild family capital had a unique direct effect on the self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, enriching our theoretical understanding of sources of family capital and their impacts in a collectivist cultural context that emphasizes intergenerational interaction and exchange. The findings also highlighted the mediation effects of grandparent-parent relationships on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, supporting the "grandchild-as-linkage" hypothesis in understanding the social determination of self-rated health in China.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 06/2013; · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Hong Li, Iris Chi, Ling Xu
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    ABSTRACT: Guided by the socio-environmental theoretical framework, this study examined factors associated with life satisfaction experienced by older Chinese adults living in rural communities. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted by the China Research Center on Aging in 2000. This study included 10,084 rural older adults in mainland China. In this study 60.2 % of rural older adults were satisfied with their lives. Results from a multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that life satisfaction reported by rural older Chinese adults was significantly related to education, financial resources, self-rated health, financial support from children, satisfaction with children's support, house sitting for their children, visiting neighbors, and being invited to dinner by neighbors. Research and policy implications of these findings are also discussed.
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Relying on the concept of sociological ambivalence, this study investigated the sources of intergenerational ambivalence in rural China, a traditional society that undergoes dramatic demographic, economic, and social changes. METHODS: Data were derived from a survey of 1,162 older adults and their 4,396 children in rural Anhui province. Two-level mixed-effects model was carried out to predict ambivalent feelings reported by the older parents toward their adult children. RESULTS: The findings yielded both similar and distinctive predictors of intergenerational ambivalence among the Chinese elderly population compared with their Western counterparts. The Chinese elderly population reported greater ambivalence toward sons than toward daughters. Adult children's higher socioeconomic status, represented by a more prestigious job and an urban household registry status (hukou), was associated with reduced ambivalence among parents. Parents' monetary support to children and assistance with childcare, which is common in rural China due to the massive out-migration, were also associated with higher levels of ambivalent feelings. Discussion. We interpreted the findings in the larger social context of strong son preference, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and rigid rural-urban division in China due to the household registration system. Our findings demonstrate that individual feelings of ambivalence are culturally structured and are determined within complex social environment.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 05/2013; 68(3):420-430. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Depression has been reported as common among older rural Chinese adults, who often face limited access to healthcare services and resources. Empirical studies conducted in the West have shown beneficial effects of productive engagement on psychological well-being. However, the mechanisms by which engagement in productive activities leads to and results from improved mental health remain unclear. Method: Utilizing role enhancement and social resource theories, the present study investigated the relationship between productive role occupancy and depression among older Chinese adults in rural areas over 8 years. Using four waves of data from the Well-Being of Elderly in Anhui Province of China study, we employed bivariate latent different score analysis to examine the temporal sequence of productive role occupancy and depression among 1696 older adults. Results: Findings indicated that trajectories of productive role occupancy and depression rose across the four waves. There is evidence for self-feedback effects in productive role occupancy and depression. Depression had a significant effect on subsequent changes in productive role occupancy (β = -0.042, p = 0.000), whereas productive role occupancy had no significant effect on subsequent changes in depression. Conclusion: The mental well-being of participants worsened over time. Engaging in productive activities had no effect on mental health status, and rural older adults with poor mental health were less likely to engage in productive activities over time. Findings suggest that psychological well-being as a personal resource significantly affects how productively Chinese adults age in late life.
    Aging and Mental Health 02/2013; · 1.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
246.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2014
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • School of Social Work
      Urbana, IL, United States
    • University of Iowa
      • School of Social Work
      Iowa City, IA, United States
  • 2004–2014
    • University of Southern California
      • School of Social Work
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Brunel University
      • Division of Social Work
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • San Diego State University
      • School of Social Work
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1994–2013
    • The University of Hong Kong
      • • School of Nursing
      • • Sau Po Centre on Aging
      • • Department of Nursing Studies
      • • Department of Social Work and Social Administration
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2012
    • Claremont Graduate University
      Claremont, California, United States
  • 1994–2012
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • • The Nethersole School of Nursing
      • • Department of Social Work
      • • Department of Medicine and Therapeutics
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2009–2010
    • Peking University
      • Institute of Population Research
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2008
    • The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
      • Department of Rehabilitation Sciences
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • California State University, Fullerton
      • Department of Economics
      Fullerton, CA, United States
    • California State University, Dominguez Hills
      Carson, California, United States
    • Queen Mary Hospital
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2001–2002
    • University of Macau
      • Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
      Macao, Macau, Macao