D. Grambole

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Saxony, Germany

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Publications (123)148.63 Total impact

  • Lutz Nasdala, Dieter Grambole, Katja Ruschel
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    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of structural damage that is created in minerals upon corpuscular irradiation, has two apparently contrarious effects on their luminescence behaviour. First, irradiation may cause the generation of luminescent defect centres, which typically results in broad-band emissions. Such defect emissions are characteristic of low levels of radiation damage. Second, radiation damage depletes in general the luminescence of minerals, which is associated with broadenings and intensity losses of individual emission lines. Minerals that have suffered elevated levels of irradiation hence tend to be virtually non-luminescent. This review paper aims at giving an overview of the possible correlations of radiation damage and emission characteristics of minerals. After a brief, introductory summary of the damage-accumulation process and its causal corpuscular radiation, an array of examples is presented for how internal and/or external irradiation may change appreciably the emission of rock-forming and accessory minerals. As a detailed example for the complexity of changes of emissions upon damage accumulation, preliminary results of a case study of the photoluminescence (PL) of synthetic CePO4 irradiated with 8.8 MeV He ions are presented. Irradiation-induced spectral changes include (i) the initial creation, and subsequent depletion, of a broad-band, defect-related PL emission of orange colour, and (ii) gradual broadenings and intensity losses of PL lines related to electronic transitions of rare-earth elements, eventually leading to gradual loss of their splitting into multiple Stark levels (shown for the 4F3/2 → 4I9/2 transition of Nd3+).
    Mineralogy and Petrology 01/2013; 107(3). · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nominally undoped, hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals have been investigated before and after exposure to remote H-plasma. Defect characterization has been made by two complementary techniques of positron annihilation: positron lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening. The high-momentum parts of the annihilation photon momentum distribution have been calculated from first principles in order to assist in defect identification. The positron annihilation results are supplemented by Atomic Force Microscopy for characterization of the crystal surface. It was found that virgin ZnO crystal contains Zn-vacancies associated with hydrogen. H-plasma treatment causes a significant reduction in concentration of these complexes. Physical mechanism of this effect is discussed in the paper.
    Defect and Diffusion Forum 09/2012; 331:113.
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    ABSTRACT: Surface changes in ZnO single crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen were investigated in this work using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) combined with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. It was found that hexagonally shaped pyramids were formed on the surface of hydrogen-loaded crystals. The formation of these pyramids can be explained by hydrogen-induced plastic deformation realized by a slip in the [0001] direction. Such a picture is supported (i) by AFM where steps of a height comparable with the c-lattice parameter were found at the base of the pyramids, and (ii) by SPIS which revealed a defected subsurface layer, formed by the hydrogen-induced plastic deformation and exhibiting an enhanced concentration of open-volume defects in hydrogen-loaded crystals.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 12/2011; 262(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H+, He+ and Ar+ ions has been studied using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) method. A massive loss of hydrogen atoms upon irradiation has been noted, the results point to the saturation of hydrogen content at about 10 at.%. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons.
    Materials Chemistry and Physics. 05/2011; 127(s 1–2):342–346.
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic doped ZnO and ZnMgO films were deposited on SiO{sub 2} using radio frequency magnetron sputtering and ZnO-Zn{sub 3}As{sub 2} and ZnO-Zn{sub 3}As{sub 2}-MgO targets, respectively. It was found that thermal activation is required to activate the formation of p-type conductivity. Hall measurements showed that p-type films with a hole concentration of {approx}10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of {approx}8 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} were obtained at substrate temperatures of 400-500 deg. C The shallow acceptor formation mechanism was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, positron annihilation, low temperature photoluminescence, and nuclear reaction analysis. The authors suggest that the thermal annealing activates the formation of the As{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} shallow acceptor complex and removes the compensating hydrogen center.
    05/2011; 29(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of point defects in a fully stabilized ZrO2 + 9 mol.% Y2O3 single crystal with cubic structure was performed in this work. It was found that the crystal contains a high density of vacancy-like defects characterized by a lifetime of 175 ps. First principle theoretical calculations showed that this lifetime is comparable with lifetime of positrons trapped in zirconium vacancies associated with hydrogen. In particular, in the vicinity of the zirconium vacancy hydrogen forms an O-H bond with one of the nearest neighbour oxygen atoms. The calculated bond length is close to 1 Å. Using nuclear reaction analysis it was found that the hydrogen concentration in the crystal is 0.3 at.%. This amount of hydrogen is sufficient to form zirconium vacancy - hydrogen complexes capable of saturated positron trapping.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2011; 262(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Synthetic ZrSiO4 and (mildly to strongly radiation-damaged) natural zircon samples were irradiated with 8.8MeV 4He2+ ions (fluences in the range 1×1013–5×1016ions/cm2). For comparison, an additional irradiation experiment was done with 30MeV 16O6+ ions (fluence 1×1015ions/cm2). The light-ion irradiation resulted in the generation of new (synthetic ZrSiO4) or additional (mildly to strongly metamict natural samples) damage. The maximum extent of the damage is observed in a shallow depth range approximately 32–33μm (8.8MeV He) and ~12μm (30MeV O) below the sample surface, i.e. near the end of the ion trajectories. These depth values, and the observed damage distribution, correspond well to defect distribution patterns as predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. The irradiation damage is recognised from the notable broadening of Raman-active vibrational modes, lowered interference colours (i.e. decreased birefringence), and changes in the optical activity (i.e. luminescence emission). At very low damage levels, a broad-band yellow emission centre is generated whereas at elevated damage levels, this centre is suppressed and samples experience a general decrease in their emission intensity. Most remarkably, there is no indication of notable structural recovery in pre-damaged natural zircon as induced by the light-ion irradiation, which questions the relevance of alpha-assisted annealing of radiation damage in natural zircon. KeywordsZircon–Ion irradiation–Radiation damage–Raman spectroscopy–Luminescence
    Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 01/2011; 161(5):777-789. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ion-beam induced hydrogen migration has been studied in triple layer structures, a-Si/a-Si:H/a-Si and SiO2/a-Si:H/SiO2. Nuclear reaction analysis has been used for simultaneous irradiation with MeV ions and measurement of hydrogen distribution in the structures. It has been established that there is no hydrogen loss from SiO2/a-Si:H/SiO2 structures, but an asymmetric redistribution due to hydrogen penetration into the bottom SiO2 layer. Hydrogen loss has been observed from the a-Si/a-Si:H/a-Si structures. The inspection of the surface of these samples by means of atomic force microscope has shown that it proceeds by bubble formation and blistering at the inner interface. The observed ion-beam induced selective penetration of hydrogen into the underlying material can be used as a tool for preparation of microcavity and microchannel arrays.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 12/2010; 253(1):012055.
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    ABSTRACT: Nominally undoped, hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals have been investigated before and after exposure to remote H plasma. Structural characterizations have been made by various positron annihilation spectroscopies (continuous and pulsed slow positron beams, conventional lifetime). The content of bound hydrogen (H-b) before and after the remote H plasma treatment at the polished side of the crystals was determined at depths of 100 and 600 nm, respectively, using nuclear reaction analysis. At a depth of 100 nm, H-b increased from (11.8 ± 2.5) to (48.7 ± 7.6) × 1019 cm−3 after remote H plasma treatment, whereas at 600 nm no change in H-b was observed.
    Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials 08/2010; 207(11):2415 - 2425. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic-doped ZnMgO films were fabricated on SiO2 by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique at different substrate temperatures during growth. The yielded films were characterized by room temperature Hall measurement, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, nuclear reaction analysis and low-temperature photoluminescence. As-doped samples grown at low substrate temperature (350 °C) were n-type conducting (n ~ 1018 cm−3), with evidence showing that the hydrogen impurity was an important shallow donor associated with the observed n-type conduction. Conversion of n-type to p-type conduction being observed at the substrate temperature of ~400 °C was associated with the formation of the AsZn(VZn)2 shallow acceptor complex and the drastic reduction of the hydrogen content.
    Semiconductor Science and Technology 07/2010; 25(8):085009. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We applied proton microbeam particle-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) for mapping Ca, Zr, Ba and Yb, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for imaging the surface landscape of a dental composite which releases Ca2+ and F− for the protection of hard dental tissues. Three areas ∼250 × 250 µm2 located ∼0.5–2 mm apart on a smooth surface specimen were mapped with 3.1 MeV protons focused to a ∼3.0 µm spot and at ∼3.9 µm pixel size sampling. The maps evidenced particles with diameters of 3.2–32 µm (Ca), 20–60 µm (Zr), ≤ 4 µm (Ba) and 10–50 µm (Yb). Cross-section area histograms of Ca-rich particles fitted with 2–6 Poisson functions revealed a polydisperse size distribution and substantial differences from an area to another, possibly implying large local variations of Ca2+ released in the hard tissue near a dental filling of a few millimeters in diameter. Such imbalances may lead to low local Ca2+ protection of the dental tissue, favoring the onset of secondary caries. Similarly, AFM images showed high zone-dependent differences in the distributions of grains with apparent diameters of 1–4 µm, plausibly recognized as Ca- and Ba-containing particles. In a simple model based on demineralization data, lateral diffusion of Ca2+ between adjacent domains containing high- and low-area Ca-rich grains is described by exponential concentration gradients. These gradients may generate appreciable electromotive forces, which may enhance electrochemically the local tissue demineralization. Similar effects are to be expected in the protective action of F− ions released from microgranules of YbF3 and of Ba fluoroaluminosilicate glass. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    X-Ray Spectrometry 03/2010; 39(3):208 - 215. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films from pulsed discharges with frequencies in the range from 50kHz to 250kHz was investigated. Five different hydrocarbons (acetylene C2H2, isobutene C4H8, cyclopentene C5H8, toluene C7H8 and cycloheptatriene C7H8) were probed as film growth precursors. In addition, two types of pulse-generators with somewhat different waveforms were used to power the discharges in the so called mid-frequency range. The a-C:H films deposited in a parallel-plate reactor were characterised for their thickness/deposition rate, hardness and hydrogen content. The hydrogen concentration in the films varied between 19at.-% and 37at.-%. With the substrate temperature held constant, it is roughly in inverse proportion to the hardness. The film with the highest hardness of 25GPa was formed at a deposition rate of 0.8μm/h in the C2H2 discharge at the lowest investigated pressure of 2Pa. With increasing molecular mass of the precursor mostly weaker films were deposited. Relatively high values of both deposition rate and hardness were achieved using the precursor isobutene: a hardness of 21GPa combined with a deposition rate of 4.1μm/h. From the probed precursors, isobutene is also most advantageous for a-C:H deposition at higher pressures (up to 50Pa investigated). But, as an over-all trend, the a-C:H hardness decreases with increasing deposition rate.
    Vacuum 03/2010; 85(4):510-513. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract— The enrichment of fluorine on the surface of Antarctic meteorites is investigated by applying the nuclear reactions 19F(p, αγ)16O or 19F(p, p'γ)19F with the proton induced gamma emission (PIGE) technique, a class of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Results for the Antarctic meteorites ALHA77294, TIL 82409, LEW 86015, ALHA77003, and ALH 83108 are presented. Possible sources of terrestrial F are: volcanic exhalation, tephra layers (volcanic glass), continental soil dust, or sea spray. Material from blue-ice dust-band samples also shows concentrations of F that are significantly higher than the bulk concentrations of meteorites. Finally, a quick investigation for Antarctic meteorites by external PIGE is proposed, leading to a F-contamination index that supplements the qualitative ABC-weathering index.
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 01/2010; 38(5):759 - 765.
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    ABSTRACT: The anomalous wear-out phenomena of Eu-implanted metal-oxide-semiconductor devices were investigated. It will be shown that in contrast to other rare earth elements the electroluminescence (EL) intensity of Eu-implanted SiO <sub>2</sub> layers can rise under constant current injection before the known EL quenching will start. Under certain circumstances, this rise may amount up to two orders of magnitude. The EL behavior will be correlated with the microstructural and electrical properties of the devices. Transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were applied to trace the development of Eu/Eu oxide clusters and the diffusion of Eu to the interfaces of the gate oxide layer. The hydrogen profile within the SiO <sub>2</sub>– SiON interface region was determined by nuclear reaction analysis. Current-voltage characteristics, EL decay times, and the progression of the voltage and the EL spectrum with increasing charge injection were measured to study charge and trapping phenomena in the oxide layer to reveal details of the EL excitation mechanism. A first qualitative model for the anomalous life time behavior is proposed.
    Journal of Applied Physics 01/2010; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative study of hardness of thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and hydrogen-free amorphous silicon (a-Si) was carried out to reveal the role of hydrogen in the plastic properties of amorphous silicon. In addition, the effect of hydrogen on hardness was established by changing hydrogen concentration in the material using post-deposition processing of the samples. The hydrogen concentration in a-Si:H was decreased by thermal annealing. In a-Si hydrogen was introduced by plasma hydrogenation. The values of hardness of the as-prepared a-Si and a-Si:H films were determined by nanoindentation using depth profiling. Low-depth indentation was applied to evaluate the effect of post-hydrogenation. The results obtained show that the presence of hydrogen in the amorphous silicon network leads to the increase in hardness. The conducted experiments demonstrate that plasma hydrogenation can be used as an effective tool to increase the hardness of amorphous silicon. Hardness of a-Si:H of about 12.3–12.7GPa is as high as of crystalline silicon, suggesting a-Si:H can be a substitute for crystalline silicon in some MEMS.
    Applied Physics A 01/2010; 102(1):131-135. · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • Spectrochimica Acta Part B Atomic Spectroscopy 11/2009; 64:1198-1203. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ZnO nanostructures are of special interest for device applications. However, their structural characterization remains an ongoing challenge. This paper reviews recent efforts and latest achievements in this direction. Results comprise PAS in the form of Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) and Pulsed Low Energy Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLEPS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM (C-AFM), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and latest theoretical investigations of structure-related and positron properties of selected defects. The fundamental importance of a relationship between fabrication conditions, native defect formation, and resulting optical and electronic properties is demonstrated by getting either inferior (nanorods) or significantly improved (tetrapods) optical properties compared to single crystal samples, depending on the nanostructure fabrication method. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    physica status solidi (c) 10/2009; 6(11):2556 - 2560.
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    ABSTRACT: Micro-PIXE investigations on some Transylvanian chondritic meteorite fragments and on small Moon soil pieces from the LUNA-16 mission were performed at the Legnaro and Rossendorf proton microprobes. The most exciting finding of the study was the presence of Pt grains in the Moci meteorite. The results are compared to previously published data.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 06/2009; 267(13-14):2233-2235. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    R. Krickl, L. Nasdala, D. Grambole, R. Kaindl
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    ABSTRACT: Cordierite is a common metamorphic and magmatic mineral, which is used as petrologic tool for reconstructing the history of its host rock. Further applications include cordierite gemstones and the use of synthetic analogs in ceramics. Cordierite is stable over a wide temperature and pressure range and relatively resistant to chemical alteration; however, its properties can be significantly changed upon the impact of external irradiation. In the course of a comprehensive study, natural radiohaloes in cordierite (a widespread feature caused by the impact of alpha-particles originating from radioactive inclusions) as well as artificial analogs produced by implantation of 8.8 MeV He2+ ions were investigated using modern micro-techniques. Additional irradiation experiments were performed using O6+ ions, electrons and gamma-rays. Ion irradiation causes yellow colouration that is strongly pleochroic, and fades at higher doses. The possibility of radiation-treatment for enhancing the quality of gem-cordierite is discussed. While samples remain crystalline up to doses of 1016 He2+/cm2, the same material is fully amorphised when irradiated with the same dose of 30 MeV O6+ ions. These different observations may help to estimate the performance assessment of cordierite-ceramics in radiated environments. A very important result concerning the petrological use of cordierite is the radio-induced transformation of channel constituents: Inside the irradiated areas the vibrational bands of CO2 decrease in intensity, whereas two new bands appear at 2135 cm-1 (both IR- and Raman-active; cf. Nasdala et al., 2006) and 1550 cm-1 (only Raman-activ). They are assigned to stretching vibrations of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen, respectively, thus indicating a radio-chemical transformation 2CO2 --> 2CO + O2 in alpha-irradiated cordierite. This study yields the first spectroscopic evidence for the irradiation-induced formation of molecular oxygen in cordierite. Polarised vibrational spectra of oriented samples give evidence that not only CO2 but also CO and O2 are preferentially oriented parallel [100], most probably being located at the Ch
    Geopyhysical Research Abstracts. 04/2009; 11:EGU2009-2657-2.
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    ABSTRACT: A systematic study of various, nominally undoped ZnO single crystals, either hydrothermally grown (HTG) or melt grown (MG), has been performed. The crystal quality has been assessed by x-ray diffraction, and a comprehensive estimation of the detailed impurity and hydrogen contents by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis, respectively, has been made also. High precision positron lifetime experiments show that a single positron lifetime is observed in all crystals investigated, which clusters at 180–182 ps and 165–167 ps for HTG and MG crystals, respectively. Furthermore, hydrogen is detected in all crystals in a bound state with a high concentration (at least 0.3 at. %), whereas the concentrations of other impurities are very small. From ab initio calculations it is suggested that the existence of Zn-vacancy–hydrogen complexes is the most natural explanation for the given experimental facts at present. Furthermore, the distribution of H at a metal/ZnO interface of a MG crystal, and the H content of a HTG crystal upon annealing and time afterward has been monitored, as this is most probably related to the properties of electrical contacts made at ZnO and the instability in p-type conductivity observed at ZnO nanorods in literature. All experimental findings and presented theoretical considerations support the conclusion that various types of Zn-vacancy–hydrogen complexes exist in ZnO and need to be taken into account in future studies, especially for HTG materials.
    Physical Review B 03/2009; 79(11):115212. · 3.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

485 Citations
148.63 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2012
    • Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf
      • • Institute of Radiation Physics
      • • Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2007
    • Delft University of Technology
      Delft, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1999
    • Graz University of Technology
      • Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
      Graz, Styria, Austria
  • 1998
    • Universität des Saarlandes
      • Physikalische Chemie
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany
  • 1983–1998
    • Hungarian Academy of Sciences
      • MTA Institute of Nuclear Research
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary
  • 1993
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 1992
    • Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics
      • Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald
      Garching bei München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1984
    • Philippine Nuclear Research Institute
      Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines