Joseph L. Rose

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Maryland, United States

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Publications (121)67.8 Total impact

  • Jason H. Philtron, Joseph L. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonic guided waves are finding increased use in a variety of Nondestructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring applications due to their efficiency in defect detection using a sensor at a single location to inspect a large area of a structure and an ability to inspect hidden and coated areas for example. With a thorough understanding of guided wave mechanics, researchers can predict which guided wave modes will have a high probability of success in a particular nondestructive evaluation application. For example, in a sample problem presented here to access bond integrity, researchers may choose to use a guided wave mode which has high in-plane displacement, stress, or other feature at the interface. However, since material properties used for modeling work may not be precise for the development of dispersion curves, in many cases guided wave mode and frequency selection should be adjusted for increased inspection efficiency in the field. In this work, a phased array comb transducer is used to sweep over phase velocity - frequency space to tune mode excitation for improved defect characterization performance. A thin polycarbonate layer bonded to a thick metal plate is considered with a contaminated surface prior to bonding. Physicallybased features are used to correlate wave signals with defect detection. Features assessed include arrival time and the frequency of maximum amplitude. A pseudo C-scan plot is presented which can be used to simplify data analysis. Excellent results are obtained.
    02/2014;
  • Joseph L. Rose, Cliff J. Lissenden
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    ABSTRACT: A few sample problems are presented that demonstrate the importance of mode and frequency selection when using ultrasonic guided waves for nondestructive evaluation.
    01/2014; 1581(1).
  • Yang Liu, Cliff J. Lissenden, Joseph L. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: Presently, good understanding of second harmonic generation in a weakly nonlinear plate has been obtained, yet the limited number of primary excitations constrains the use of second harmonics in field measurements. The cumulative characteristics of third harmonic generation in a cubic nonlinear plate has been investigated. The power flux analysis shows that primary wave fields are capable of generating a cumulative third harmonic that is of the same nature. Further synchronism analysis shows that the primary shear-horizontal modes are holo-internal-resonant with third harmonic fields, which will be advantageous in experimental measurements. A nonlinear finite element simulation confirms that the primary SH1 mode generates a cumulative sh3 third harmonic mode.
    01/2014; 1581(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Guided wave was widely studied for plate and pipe due to the great application area. Guided wave has advantage on long distance inspection for an inaccessible area and apart from transducer. Quite often shrink fit structures were found in nuclear power facilities. In this paper, two pipes were designed with perfect shrink fit condition for Stainless Steel 316. The displacement distribution was calculated with boundary condition. The interface wave propagation pattern was analyzed by the numerical modeling. The experimental results show a possibility of weld delamination and defect detection.
    01/2014; 1581(1).
  • Yang Liu, Cliff J. Lissenden, Joseph L. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: A mathematical framework to analyze the cumulative behavior of higher order harmonic generation due to the interaction of two collimated waves in a weakly nonlinear hollow circular cylinder is formulated in this article. A total number of (N + 1)(N + 2)/2 − 3 nonlinear boundary problems are formulated due to the Nth order mode interactions in a cylinder with Kth order nonlinearity (N ≤ K). The cumulative criteria for the second order harmonics (second harmonics, sum and difference harmonics) due to the quadratic interactions of two waves are examined based on the nonlinear forcing terms in curvilinear coordinates. These criteria are formulated by a synchronism condition, the circumferential orders of the primary modes, as well as the nature of the primary and the secondary wave fields, i.e., torsional or longitudinal. A generalized analysis that provides insight into the cumulative nature of the Nth order harmonics by Nth order interaction of two collimated waves is conducted by considering a cylinder with strain energy function written as Murnaghan's power series. The nature of the cumulative Nth order harmonics can be determined by the parity of the number of times the primary waves interact, and their circumferential orders.
    Journal of Applied Physics 01/2014; 115(21):214901-214901-11. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A plate ray perspective for elastic wave propagation in hollow circular cylinders is presented in order to excite a predominant flexural mode, which in turn generates higher order harmonics due to nonlinear material behavior. The scattering angles are determined for the internally resonant higher order harmonics due to the interactions of two collimated waves. Primary waves that can generate strongly cumulative higher order harmonics are identified for mode self interactions and mutual interactions. A helical inter-digital transducer has been designed for the excitation of a single dominant flexural mode. Numerical evaluations that demonstrate cumulative second harmonic generation are undertaken for both torsional and longitudinal flexural waves. Quadratic sum and difference harmonic generation is observed for the mutual interaction between two primary torsional flexural wave modes.
    Journal of Applied Physics 01/2014; 115(21):214902-214902-10. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Jaya P. Koduru, Joseph L. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonic guided wave tomography utilizes an array of permanently mounted transducers to detect and image defects like corrosion, cracks and delamination in structures. It is critical for successful tomography imaging to avoid the influences from external environmental conditions like water loading and changes in temperature. Water loading is particularly challenging as it affects the guided wave propagation in the structure. However, by taking advantage of the physical properties of guided waves it is possible to reduce its effect on the tomography images. Modal points on the dispersion curves can be found that have low out-of-plane displacement in their wave structure and hence no leakage into the liquid on the structure. In this paper, the omnidirectional excitation of desired guided wave modes with annular array transducers is discussed. Guided wave tomography of a steel plate like structure with a corrosion defect is studied under water loading conditions. The influence of water loading is overcome by exciting symmetric guided wave modes (S1) in the structure. Utilizing guided wave mode control it is shown that the defects in the structure can be easily discriminated from any artifacts in the images due to the liquid layer.
    Smart Materials and Structures 12/2013; 22(12):5021-. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonic guided waves are fast emerging as a reliable tool for continuous structural health monitoring. Their multi-modal nature along with their long range propagation characteristics offer several possibilities for interrogating structures. Transducers commonly used to generate guided waves in structures excite multiple modes at any frequency; their complex scattering and reflection from defects and boundaries often complicates the extraction of useful information. Often it is desirable to control the guided wave modes propagating in a structure to take advantage of their unique properties for different applications. Earlier attempts at guided wave mode control involved developing fixed wavelength linear and annular array transducers. Their only disadvantage is that the transducer is limited to a particular wavelength and a change in wavelength necessitates a change in the transducer. In this paper, we propose the development of an annular array transducer that can generate mode controlled omnidirectional guided waves by independently controlling the amplitude and phase of the array elements. A simplified actuator model that approximates the transducer loading on the structure to a constant pressure load under the array elements is assumed and an optimization problem is set up to compute the excitation voltage and phase of the elements. A five element annular array transducer is designed utilizing 1–3 type piezocomposite materials. The theoretical computations are experimentally verified on an aluminum plate like structure by exciting A0 and S0 guided wave modes.
    Smart Materials and Structures 11/2013; 22(12):125022. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonic guided wave inspection of structures containing adhesively bonded joints requires an understanding of the interaction of guided waves with geometric and material discontinuities or transitions in the waveguide. Such interactions result in mode conversion with energy being partitioned among the reflected and transmitted modes. The step transition between an aluminum layer and an aluminum-adhesive-aluminum multi-layer waveguide is analyzed as a model structure. Dispersion analysis enables assessment of (i) synchronism through dispersion curve overlap and (ii) wavestructure correlation. Mode-pairs in the multi-layer waveguide are defined relative to a prescribed mode in a single layer as being synchronized and having nearly perfect wavestructure matching. Only a limited number of mode-pairs exist, and each has a unique frequency range. A hybrid model based on semi-analytical finite elements and the normal mode expansion is implemented to assess mode conversion at a step transition in a waveguide. The model results indicate that synchronism and wavestructure matching is associated with energy transfer through the step transition, and that the energy of an incident wave mode in a single layer is transmitted almost entirely to the associated mode-pair, where one exists. This analysis guides the selection of incident modes that convert into transmitted modes and improve adhesive joint inspection with ultrasonic guided waves.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 05/2013; 133(5):2624-33. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nonlinear forcing terms for the wave equation in general curvilinear coordinates are derived based on an isotropic homogeneous weakly nonlinear elastic material. The expressions for the nonlinear part of the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress are specialized for axisymmetric torsional and longitudinal fundamental waves in a circular cylinder. The matrix characteristics of the nonlinear forcing terms and secondary mode wave structures are manipulated to analyze the higher harmonic generation due to the guided wave mode self-interactions and mutual interactions. It is proved that both torsional and longitudinal secondary wave fields can be cumulative by a specific type of guided wave mode interactions. A method for the selection of preferred fundamental excitations that generate strong cumulative higher harmonics is formulated, and described in detail for second harmonic generation. Nonlinear finite element simulations demonstrate second harmonic generation by T(0,3) and L(0,4) modes at the internal resonance points. A linear increase of the normalized modal amplitude ratio A2/A1 (2) over the propagation distance is observed for both cases, which indicates that mode L(0,5) is effectively generated as a cumulative second harmonic. Counter numerical examples demonstrate that synchronism and sufficient power flux from the fundamental mode to the secondary mode must occur for the secondary wave field to be strongly cumulative.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 05/2013; 133(5):2541-53. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interface between an anisotropic composite material and a metallic material is inspected non-destructively for disbonded regions using ultrasonic guided waves. The material properties of the composite and metal have been tailored to demonstrate their effect on inspectability. The material properties have been designed to be either favorable or unfavorable to the existence of propagating Stoneley waves. Stoneley waves can exist because the layer thicknesses are large enough compared to the wavelength to be considered half-spaces. The existence of Stoneley waves between generally anisotropic materials depends on the elastic constants and densities in a complicated way. The range of material properties that allow Stoneley waves is small; however, when the vertically polarized shear wave speeds are similar in the two materials, the existence of Stoneley waves is generally possible. If the conditions do not strictly allow Stoneley waves, other interface waves can still exist such as leaky waves. Disbonds are inserted into the materials before bonding and are inspected using interface waves. Sensitivity to disbonds is determined and thus inspectability is demonstrated for cases that are favorable and unfavorable to Stoneley waves. Both numerical and physical experimental results are shown.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 05/2013; 133(5):3545. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The third order harmonic generation (third harmonics as well as cubic sum and difference harmonics) due to the cubic interaction of two collimated elastic waves in a homogeneous, isotropic, weakly nonlinear plate is investigated by using a fourth order expansion of strain energy density to formulate the nonlinear boundary problems. Waves with both shear horizontal (SH) and Rayleigh Lamb (RL) nature are considered as primary or tertiary wave fields. The non-zero power flux condition is evaluated using characteristic parity matrices of the cubic nonlinear forcing terms and third order harmonic mode shapes. Results indicate that waves with either SH or RL nature receive power flux from a specific pattern of primary mode interaction. Further analytical evaluation of the synchronism condition enables identification of primary SH and RL modes that are able to generate cumulative third harmonics. The primary SH modes are shown to be holo-internal-resonant with third harmonic SH fields. This simply means that all points on the primary dispersion curves are internally resonant with third harmonics, which is not the case for second harmonics. Such flexibility will be advantageous for laboratory and field measurements.
    Journal of Applied Physics 01/2013; 114(11):114908-114908-10. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Cody Borigo, Joseph L Rose, Fei Yan
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    ABSTRACT: Transducer arrays can be utilized in ultrasonic guided wave applications to achieve preferential excitation of particular points on a dispersion curve. These arrays are designed according to the principles of wave interference and the influence of the wavelength excitation spectrum. This paper develops the relationships between the peak wavelength in the excitation spectra and the element spacing of linear comb and annular arrays. The excitation spectra are developed by applying Fourier and Hankel transforms to the spatial loading distribution functions of the comb and annular arrays, respectively. Although the peak wavelength of excitation of a comb array is typically assumed to be equal to the element spacing, it is shown that this can be an inaccurate assumption for annular arrays. The ratio of element spacing to the peak wavelength in the excitation spectrum is termed the spacing compensation factor, and is dependent on the number of array elements and the inner radius. It is determined that the compensation factor is negligible for comb arrays but is crucial for annular arrays in order to achieve optimal mode selection. Finite element analyses and experimental data are used to verify the calculations and demonstrate the significance of the compensation factor.
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 01/2013; 133(1):127-35. · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Jaya P Koduru, Joseph L Rose
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    ABSTRACT: For structural health monitoring applications, ultrasonic guided wave mode control is critical for obtaining simple signals that can be easily analyzed as well as special modes and frequencies for improved sensitivity to certain defects. This paper discusses the development of an annular array transducer for omnidirectional guided wave mode control in plate like structures. Using a flexible piezoelectric material like polyvinlydine fluoride (PVDF), annular array transducers that are low cost, low profile and conformable to the structure can be made rapidly. Two different array patterns, namely ones of comb and inter-digital (IDT) type, are studied. The loadings of these transducers on a structure differ from one another and hence so do their source influences. An axi-symmetric finite element modeling is employed to study the surface displacement pattern of these two transducer configurations. The source influence of the transducer configurations is studied experimentally by exciting an anti-symmetric (A1) and a symmetric (S1) type guided wave mode in a steel plate. It was observed that IDT type transducers were able to couple well to the guided wave modes at the wavelengths that they are designed for. The comb type transducers have a weak coupling to symmetric guided wave modes at frequencies where the wave structure has high in-plane displacement and negligible out-of-plane displacement on the surface of the structure.
    Smart Materials and Structures 12/2012; 22(1):015010. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: The nonlinear forcing terms for the wave equation in general curvilinear coordinates are derived based on a hyperelastic material. The expressions for the nonlinear part of the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress are specialized for axisymmetric torsional and longitudinal fundamental wave fields in a cylinder. The matrix characteristics of the nonlinear forcing terms and secondary mode wavestructures are manipulated to analyze the higher harmonic generation due to the guided wave mode self interactions and mutual interactions. It is proven that both torsional and longitudinal mode secondary fields can be cumulative by specific type of guided wave mode interactions. A method for the selection of preferred fundamental excitations that generate strongly cumulative higher harmonics is formulated, and described in detail for second harmonic generation. Hyperelastic finite element models are built to simulate second harmonic generation by T(0,3) and L(0,4) modes. A linear increase of the modal amplitude ratio A2/A1^2 over the propagation distance is observed for both cases, which indicates mode L(0,5) is effectively generated as cumulative second harmonics.
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: An ultrasonic guided wave based damage detection technique has been developed for structural health monitoring (SHM) of composite structures submerged in water. Specially designed guided wave transducers are utilized to selectively excite and receive guided waves with dominant shear horizontal particle displacements. It has been shown that the SH type waves are insensitive to water loading conditions. With appropriate water sealing, the transducers can be applied to composite structures submerged in water. The guided wave signals collected from an underwater composite structure are almost identical to the signals that are obtained before the structure is submerged. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of damage detection in underwater composite structures. A thick carbon/epoxy composite beam is used as the test sample. Excellent damage detection results were obtained for both dry and underwater tests.
    Proc SPIE 03/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Variations of Lamb wave propagation reflect some changes in effective thickness and material properties caused by such structural flaws as corrosion, fatigue cracks, disbonds and voids that can then be mapped via a reconstructed tomographic image. Ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography can be used to evaluate structural integrity based on the variations in features extracted from measurements made by a transducer array from a reference point in time. In this paper, several tomographic imaging techniques, such as the filtered backprojection algorithm, the algebraic reconstruction technique and the reconstruction algorithm for probabilistic inspection of damage are compared, and the advantages and drawbacks of these methods, as well as practical considerations such as reconstruction fidelity, quality, efficiency and the minimum number of sensors required for each array geometry, are discussed, and some application examples are given.
    Smart Materials and Structures 08/2011; 20(10):105002. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mode and frequency control always plays an important role in ultrasonic guided wave applications. In this paper, theoretical understanding of guided wave excitations of axisymmetric sources on plate structures is established. It is shown that a wave number spectrum can be used to investigate the guided wave excitations of an axisymmetric source. The wave number spectrum is calculated from a Hankel transform of the axial source loading profile. On the basis of the theoretical understanding, phased annular array transducers are developed as a powerful tool for guided wave mode and frequency control. By applying appropriate time delays to phase the multiple elements of an annular array transducer, guided wave mode and frequency tuning can be achieved fully electronically. The phased annular array transducers have been successfully used for various applications. Example applications presented in this paper include phased annular arrays for guided wave beamforming and a novel ultrasonic vibration modal analysis technique for damage detection.
    Proc SPIE 03/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasonic guided waves are now proving to be a viable method for real-world long-range Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) applications. In order to generate a specific guided wave mode optimally, knowledge of the sensor parameters becomes imperative. This paper attempts to experimentally measure the beam divergence in an Electro- Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) that is used to generate Shear Horizontal (SH) guided waves in a mild steel plate. The commercial finite element package ABAQUS TM is then used to run 3D simulations to validate these experimental results. Based on these results, a planar defect study is also carried out. From all these investigations, the minimum degree of rotation of the EMAT can be set when used in a real-time ultrasonic guided wave omni-directional inspection system. Keywords-NDE; Guided waves; EMAT; Beam Divergence
    01/2011;
  • Fei Yan, Joseph L. Rose
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    ABSTRACT: A new ultrasonic guided wave modal analysis technique (UMAT) is being studied to bridge the gap between ultrasonic guided wave methods and lower frequency vibration modal analysis methods for Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). The new technique provides improved defect detection sensitivity superior to modal analysis alone, and, at the same time, reduces the number of inspection positions required by the guided wave techniques for a complete coverage of the structures being inspected. Instead of focusing on the transient structural response to a guided wave input, the proposed UMAT puts the emphasis on the long time structural response to a specifically defined ultrasonic guided wave input. Since different guided wave modes and frequencies yield good sensitivities to different kinds of defects, the specified guided wave input which is selected to target on a certain defect type provides a special sensitivity to the defect type. By varying the input guided wave modes and frequencies, good sensitivities to all different kinds of defects can be achieved. In UMAT, the defect information is extracted through modal analyses on the long time structural responses to the controlled guided wave inputs. Thanks to the fact that the long time structural responses result from multiple reflections and scatterings of the input guided wave energy, an overall coverage of the structure can be reached from a very limited number of tests. UMAT is also capable of inspecting odd shaped parts with different attachment considerations or boundary conditions and even hidden, coated, or insulated parts as long as a small section is accessible.
    Proc SPIE 03/2010;

Publication Stats

749 Citations
67.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2–2014
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • GE India Industrial Pvt. Ltd.
      New Dilli, NCT, India
  • 2003
    • Nagoya Institute of Technology
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • William Penn University
      University Park, Florida, United States
  • 2000
    • Inje University
      Kŭmhae, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 1991
    • Mississippi State University
      Mississippi, United States
  • 1988–1991
    • Drexel University
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics
      Philadelphia, PA, United States