[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure the surface loss of dental restorative zirconia and the short-term bond strength between an indirect composite resin (ICR) and zirconia ceramic after various sandblasting processes.
Three hundred zirconia bars were randomly divided into 25 groups according to the type of sandblasting performed with pressures of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 MPa, sandblasting times of 7, 14 and 21 seconds, and alumina powder sizes of 50 and 110 µm. The control group did not receive sandblasting. The volume loss and height loss on zirconia surface after sandblasting and the shear bond strength (SBS) between the sandblasted zirconia and ICR after 24-h immersion were measured for each group using multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Least Significance Difference (LSD) test (α=.05). After sandblasting, the failure modes of the ICR/zirconia surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy.
The volume loss and height loss were increased with higher sandblasting pressure and longer sandblasting treatment, but they decreased with larger powder size. SBS was significantly increased by increasing the sandblasting time from 7 seconds to 14 seconds and from 14 seconds to 21 seconds, as well as increasing the size of alumina powder from 50 µm to 110 µm. SBS was significantly increased from 0.1 MPa to 0.2 MPa according to the size of alumina powder. However, the SBSs were not significantly different with the sandblasting pressure of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 MPa. The possibilities of the combination of both adhesive failure and cohesive failure within the ICR were higher with the increases in bonding strength.
Based on the findings of this study, sandblasting with alumina particles at 0.2 MPa, 21 seconds and the powder size of 110 µm is recommended for dental applications to improve the bonding between zirconia core and ICR.
The journal of advanced prosthodontics 06/2015; 7(3):214-23. DOI:10.4047/jap.2015.7.3.214 · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Derived from mature adipocytes, dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells represent a special group of multipotent cells. However, their phenotype and cellular nature remain unclear. Our study found that human DFAT cells adopted perivascular characteristics and behaviors. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining revealed that human DFAT cells positively expressed markers highly related to perivascular cell lineages, such as CD140b, NG2 and desmin, but were negative for common endothelial markers, including CD31, CD34, and CD309. Furthermore, DFAT cells displayed vascular network formation ability in Matrigel, and they noticeably promoted and stabilized the vessel structures formed by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. These results provide novel evidence on the pericyte nature of human DFAT cells, further supporting the recent model for the perivascular origin of adult stem cells, in which tissue-specific progenitor cells in mesenchymal tissues associate with blood vessels, exhibiting perivascular characteristics and functions.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2015; 457(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.01.033 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, CGA) is a phenolic compound that is found ubiquitously in plants, fruits and vegetables and is formed via the esterification of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In addition to its notable biological functions against cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and inflammatory conditions, CGA was recently hypothesized to be an alternative for the treatment of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and neuropathic pain disorders. However, its mechanism of action is unclear. Voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) is a crucial factor in the electro-physiological processes of sensory neurons. Kv has also been identified as a potential therapeutic target for inflammation and neuropathic pain disorders. In this study, we analysed the effects of CGA on the two main subtypes of Kv in trigeminal ganglion neurons, namely, the IK,A and IK,V channels. Trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons were acutely disassociated from the rat TRG, and two different doses of CGA (0.2 and 1 mmol⋅L(-1)) were applied to the cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to observe alterations in the activation and inactivation properties of the IK,A and IK,V channels. The results demonstrated that 0.2 mmol⋅L(-1) CGA decreased the peak current density of IK,A. Both 0.2 mmol⋅L(-1) and 1 mmol⋅L(-1) CGA also caused a significant reduction in the activation and inactivation thresholds of IK,A and IK,V. CGA exhibited a strong effect on the activation and inactivation velocities of IK,A and IK,V. These findings provide novel evidence explaining the biological effects of CGA, especially regarding its neurological effects.International Journal of Oral Science (2014) 6, doi:10.1038/ijos.2014.58; published online 14 November 2014.
International Journal of Oral Science 11/2014; 6(4). DOI:10.1038/ijos.2014.58 · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and first-dimensional fractionation is widely used for reducing sample complexity in large-scale proteomic profiling experiments. However, the limited number of proteins identified and the relatively long running time are a barrier to the successful application of this approach. In this study, off-line high pH reversed-phase fractionation (RPF) was combined with nano-LC–MS/MS in order to develop an improved method for global proteomic profiling of different cell lines. In the first dimensional reverse phase HPLC separation, 300 μg of digested cell protein was separated into 78 fractions under high pH conditions and condensed into 26 fractions for the second nano-LC–MS/MS analysis at low pH. The chromatographic conditions for the first and second steps were optimized, and the accuracy and reproducibility of protein quantification were investigated with an average Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.94. The method was then applied in the identification of proteins in six common cell lines (DMS, MFM, HepG2, U2OS, 293T and yeast), which resulted in identification of 7300–8500 and 8956 proteins in heavy/light labeled and label-free cell samples, respectively, in 1.5 days. The performance of the developed method was compared with isoelectric focusing (IEF)-nano-LC–MS/MS and the previously reported method; and off-line high pH RPF-nano-LC–MS/MS proved advantageous in terms of the number of proteins identified and the analytical time needed to achieve a successful global proteomic profiling outcome. The RPF-nano-LC–MS/MS method identified more proteins from low abundance (150 μg) samples with an average sequence coverage for each cell line of 23.4–35.1%. RPF-nano-LC–MS/MS may therefore be an efficient alternative tool for achieving improved proteomic coverage of multiple cell lines.
Journal of Chromatography B 11/2014; 974. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.10.031 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Masticatory movements have been hypothesized to have a close relationship with the endochondral ossification of mandibular distraction gap tissue. This study investigated whether the local biomechanical environment of the gap tissue contributes to endochondral ossification of new tissue during the early consolidation period of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) in the case of unstable fixation. A 3D finite element model was used to evaluate the compressive hydrostatic pressure stresses and shear stresses of new tissue in the unilateral mandibular DO gap after 4 weeks of consolidation. Four basic clenching conditions—namely clenching in the intercuspal position (ICP), left unilateral molar clenching (L-MOL), right unilateral molar clenching (R-MOL), and incisal clenching (INC)—were investigated. The gap tissue was always subjected to compressive hydrostatic pressure stresses and shear stresses, but the stress value of a specific location varied with clenching conditions. Under ICP, the gap tissue gained the maximum compressive hydrostatic pressure stresses and shear stresses; L-MOL experienced lower compressive hydrostatic pressure stresses and shear stresses, followed by R-MOL, while INC experienced minimum stress. During ICP, L-MOL, and R-MOL conditions, the junction area of lingual and distal surfaces of the gap tissue showed a greater compressive hydrostatic pressure stress, especially the area close to the inferior mandibular border, an area in which endochondral ossification has been observed in vivo during the early phase of consolidation. The results suggest that masticatory movement may contribute to endochondral ossification in the distraction gap in the early phase of consolidation under unstable fixation. During DO, stable fixation is an important factor in ensuring comparability of the results.
ARABIAN JOURNAL FOR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 10/2014; 39(10). DOI:10.1007/s13369-014-1269-2 · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 08/2014; 190C:66-71. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.08.021 · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively.
Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 07/2014; 51(7). DOI:10.1007/s13197-012-0651-x · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is aimed to investigate the effect of rest-inserted loading on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes. In the investigation, cultured MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells were strained on cyclic compressive force (CCF) by the self-made compressive loading device. Then we observed the effect of different rest periods-inserted loading (5 s, 15 s, 30 s, respectively) on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes. We then determined the levels of secreted nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by Griess method and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. We then stained the cytoskeleton F-actin using immunofluorescence. We found that the expressions of NO and PGE2 in rest-inserted strained groups (> 15 s) were significantly increased compared to those in the continuous strained group. And rest-inserted loading promoted the parallel alignment of stress fibers. It indicates that rest-inserted loading could promote the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes, and this might be related to the parallel alignment of stress fibers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial injury is a major cause of many cardiovascular diseases. The proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a pivotal role in endothelial regeneration and repair after vascular injury. Recently, liver X receptor (LXR) activation has been suggested as a potential target for novel therapeutic interventions in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of LXR activation on endothelial regeneration and repair, as well as EPC function, have not been investigated. In the present study, we demonstrate that LXRs, including LXRα and LXRβ, are expressed and functional in rat bone marrow-derived EPCs. Treatment with an LXR agonist, TO901317 (TO) or GW3965 (GW), significantly increased the proliferation and migration of EPCs, as well as Akt and eNOS phosphorylation in EPCs. These effects were attenuated by pretreatment with either a phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME). Moreover, LXR agonist treatment enhanced the expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in EPCs. LXR agonists accelerated re-endothelialization in injured mouse carotid arteries in vivo. These data confirm that LXR activation may improve endothelial regeneration and repair after vascular injury by increasing the proliferation and migration of EPCs. The mechanism by which LXR activation improved EPC function required the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. We conclude that LXRs may be attractive targets for drug development in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases associated with vascular injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of different salt concentrations on the quality changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillets were evaluated in terms of biogenic amines, adenosine triphosphate and its related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and total viable counts during 4 and 20°C storage. Grass carp fillets were brined in solutions of 2% NaCl (T1) and 10% NaCl (T2), and unsalted carp fillets were used as controls (CK). T1 and T2 showed higher sensory scores than CK. According to the TVB-N values, CK, T1, and T2 could maintain the freshness of carp for approximately 9, 12, and 27 days, respectively, when stored at 4°C. The higher salt concentration had better inhibitory effect on the accumulation of some biogenic amines, such as tryptamine (TRM), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), and cadaverine (CAD). TVB-N of untreated grass carp fillets showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TRM, PHE, PUT, and CAD during storage. PUT and CAD showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TVB-N for T2 at 20°C and T1 at 4°C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-6 has a dual role in bone remodeling. The ERK1/2 pathway partially upregulated IL-6 secretion in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells exposed to CCF. We have now investigated the possible role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway in the CCF-induced IL-6 expression. MLO-Y4 cells were treated with CCF 2000 µstrain, 2 Hz, or 10, 30min, 1, 3 and 6h. IL-6 expression, Akt and ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation were determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and western blotting. Inihbition of PI3K/Akt with LY294002 or ERK1/2 with PD98059 significantly attenuated IL-6 upregulation, and IL-6 expression was abolished by inhibiting both pathways. Inhibition of one pathway downregulated the other's phosphorylation level. In conclusion, concomitant activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways mediated IL-6 expression in MLO-Y4 cells under CCF.
Cell Biology International 05/2014; 38(5). DOI:10.1002/cbin.10235 · 1.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between Ceramco3 opaque porcelain and indirect composite resin. Five groups of Co-Cr metal alloy substrates were fabricated according to manufacturer's instruction. The surface of metal alloy with a layer of dental opaque porcelain was heated by fire. After the surface of opaque porcelain was etched, five different surface treatments, i.e. RelyX Ceramic Primer (RCP), Porcelain Bond Activator and SE Bond Primer (mixed with a proportion of 1:1) (PBA), Shofu Porcelain Primer (SPP), SE bond primer (SEP), and no primer treatment (as a control group), were used to combine P60 and opaque porcelain along with resin cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested in a universal testing machine. The failure modes of specimens in all groups were observed and classified into four types. Selected specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy to reveal the relief of the fracture surface and to confirm the failure mode of different types. The experimental results showed that the values of the tested items in all the tested groups were higher than that in the control group. Group PBA exhibited the highest value [(37.52 +/- 2.14) MPa] and this suggested a fact that all of the specimens in group PBA revealed combined failures (failure occurred in metal-porcelain combined surface and within opaque porcelain). Group SPP and RCP showed higher values than SEP (P < 0.05) and most specimens of SPP and RCP performed combined failures (failure occurred in bond surface and within opaque porcelain or composite resin) while all the specimens in group SEP and control group revealed adhesive failures. Conclusions could be drawn that silane coupling agents could reinforce the bond strength of dental composite resin to metal-opaque porcelain substrate. The bond strength between dental composite resin and dental opaque porcelain could meet the clinical requirements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to use a three-component photoinitiation system comprising 1wt% CQ (camphorquinone), 2wt% DMAEMA (2-(dimethylamino) ethyl meth acrylate) and 2wt% Ph2I+PF6 − (diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate) to initiate the copolymerization of the matrix resins which combine bisphenol-S-bis (3-methacrylate-2-hydroxy propyl) ether (BisS-GMA) with the expanding monomer unsaturated spiro orthoesters 2-methylene-1,4,6-trispiro[4,4] nonane (MTOSN), for minimizing the volumetric shrinkage that generally occurs during polymerization. It was hypothesized that MTOSN would expand volumetrically during polymerization under the three-component photoinitiator system and further reductions in volumetric shrinkage would be obtained. The performance study which consists of degree of conversion and condition of the ring-opening reactions of MTOSN, volumetric shrinkage and mechanical properties including tensile bond strength, compressive strength and Vicker’s hardness were carried out respectively by Fourier transfer infrared, the dilatometer and the universal testing machine. The results supported that the dental composites based on the expanding monomer and three-component photoinitiator system engendered a greater decrease of volumetric shrinkage and better mechanical properties.
Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater Sci Ed 04/2014; 29(2):384-390. DOI:10.1007/s11595-014-0926-3 · 0.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the effect of platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β) transfected endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on vascular regeneration.
Spleen-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and induced with special culture medium. EPCs transfection was performed with Lipofectamine(TM) 2000 reagent according to the instruction manual. Carotid artery injury was induced in splenectomized mice. EPCs were injected by tail vein immediately and at 24 h after endothelial injury of the carotid artery. Evans blue staining was performed to evaluate reendothelialization at 7 days after endothelial injury of the carotid artery.
Most adherent cells were LDL and UEA-I double positive. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed that transfection efficiency was about 50%-60%. The reendothelialized area in the PDGFR-β-EPCs group was significantly larger than that in EGFP-EPCs group.
Transplantation of PDGFR-β over-expressed EPCs can promote reendothelialization in the early phase after carotid artery injury.
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi [Chinese journal of cardiovascular diseases] 03/2014; 42(3):214-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to explore the treatment and outcomes of bilateral craniomaxillofacial post-traumatic deformities with surgical planning, 3-dimensional (3D) model surgery, and preshaped implants.
We analyzed the preoperative computed tomography (CT) data and designed preliminary surgical plans for 3 patients with bilateral craniomaxillofacial post-traumatic deformities. 3D resin skull models were produced using rapid prototyping technology, and 3D model surgery was performed to determine the location, reduction direction, and shift distance of the osteotomy and to optimize the surgical plans. Titanium plates or mesh were preshaped on the models and then implanted into the patients. The complications, symmetry of the maxillofacial regions, mouth opening, and occlusion were observed 1 month postoperatively.
The patients had good recovery of their facial contour, occlusion, and mouth opening and acceptable symmetry of the bilateral maxillofacial regions. No complications were observed.
The combination of surgical planning, 3D model surgery, and preshaped implants can provide surgical accuracy and efficiency and good therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of bilateral craniomaxillofacial post-traumatic deformities.
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2014.02.023 · 1.28 Impact Factor