P.J. Resnick

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States

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Publications (29)23.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Microsystems-enabled photovoltaics (MEPV) has great potential to meet the increasing demands for light-weight, photovoltaic solutions with high power density and efficiency. This paper describes effective failure analysis techniques to localize and characterize nonfunctional or underperforming MEPV cells. The defect localization methods such as electroluminescence under forward and reverse bias, as well as optical beam induced current using wavelengths above and below the device band gap, are presented. The current results also show that the MEPV has good resilience against degradation caused by reverse bias stresses.
    IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 01/2014; 4(1):470-476. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Back-contacted, ultrathin (
    Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications 08/2013; 21(5). · 7.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) technology is a promising approach to lower the cost of solar energy to competitive levels. This paper describes current development efforts to leverage existing silicon integrated circuit (IC) failure analysis (FA) techniques to study MEPV devices. Various FA techniques such as light emission microscopy and laser-based fault localization were used to identify and characterize primary failure modes after fabrication and packaging. The FA results provide crucial information used in provide corrective actions and improve existing MEPV fabrication techniques.
    Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2013 IEEE International; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the radial bulk-mode vibrations in a gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire (SiNW) transistor at 25.3GHz, with a quality factor of ∼850 measured in air. The radial bulk-mode resonance is excited capacitively in the SiNW using the surrounding gate and gate dielectric as the transducer; the output is sensed piezoresistively by modulating the drain current in SiNW. The SiNWs are defined using standard lithography in a top-down front-end CMOS process, which allows for resonators with different frequencies to be fabricated on the same chip.
    Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the experimental procedure to create lattice mismatched multijunction photovoltaic (PV) cells using 3D integration concepts. Lattice mismatched multijunction photovoltaic (PV) cells with decoupled electrical outputs could achieve higher efficiencies than current-matched monolithic devices. Growing lattice mismatched materials as a monolithic structure generates defects and decreases performance. We propose using methods from the integrated circuits and microsystems arena to produce the PV cell. The fabricated device consists of an ultrathin (6 μm) series connected InGaP/GaAs PV cell mechanically stacked on top of an electrically independent silicon cell. The InGaP/GaAs PV cell was processed to produce a small cell (750 μm) with back-contacts where all of the contacts sit at the same level. The dual junction and the silicon (c-Si) cell are electrically decoupled and the power from both cells is accessible through pads on the c-Si PV cell. Through this approach, we were able to fabricate a functional double junction PV cell mechanically attached to a c-Si PV cell with independent connections.
    Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: We report up to 75 times enhancement in emission from lithographically produced photonic crystals with postprocessing close-packed colloidal quantum-dot incorporation. In our analysis, we use the emission from a close-packed free-standing film as a reference. After discounting the angular redistribution effect, our analysis shows that the observed enhancement is larger than the combined effects of Purcell enhancement and dielectric enhancement with the microscopic local field. The additional enhancement mechanisms, which are consistent with all our observations, are thought to be spectral diffusion mediated by phonons and local polarization fluctuations that allow off-resonant excitons to emit at the cavity wavelengths.
    Journal of the Optical Society of America B 05/2011; 28(6):1365-1373. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microsystem-Enabled Photovoltaic (MEPV) cells allow solar PV systems to take advantage of scaling benefits that occur as solar cells are reduced in size. We have developed MEPV cells that are 5 to 20 microns thick and down to 250 microns across. We have developed and demonstrated crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells with solar conversion efficiencies of 14.9%, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells with a conversion efficiency of 11.36%. In pursuing this work, we have identified over twenty scaling benefits that reduce PV system cost, improve performance, or allow new functionality. To create these cells, we have combined microfabrication techniques from various microsystem technologies. We have focused our development efforts on creating a process flow that uses standard equipment and standard wafer thicknesses, allows all high-temperature processing to be performed prior to release, and allows the remaining post-release wafer to be reprocessed and reused. The c-Si cell junctions are created using a backside point-contact PV cell process. The GaAs cells have an epitaxially grown junction. Despite the horizontal junction, these cells also are backside contacted. We provide recent developments and details for all steps of the process including junction creation, surface passivation, metallization, and release.
    Proc SPIE 02/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Crystalline silicon solar cells 10–15 times thinner than traditional commercial c-Si cells with 14.9% efficiency are presented with modeling, fabrication, and testing details. These cells are 14 μm thick, 250 μm wide, and have achieved 14.9% solar conversion efficiency under AM 1.5 spectrum. First, modeling results illustrate the importance of high-quality passivation to achieve high efficiency in thin silicon, back contacted solar cells. Then, the methodology used to fabricate these ultra thin devices by means of established microsystems processing technologies is presented. Finally, the optimization procedure to achieve high efficiency as well as the results of the experiments carried out with alumina and nitride layers as passivation coatings are discussed.Graphical Abstract
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 01/2011; 95(2):551-558. · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reducing the thickness of crystalline silicon wafers has evolved in the solar industry. As of 2010, most of the silicon solar cell companies were working with 6 inch wafers with thicknesses between 180 and 200 µm. In addition, a significant portion of the crystalline silicon material is lost during sawing. The effective material usage is equivalent to a wafer with a thickness of 310–475 µm depending on the thickness of the cut wire. Although there is a strong cost driver to use thinner wafers, handling wafers thinner than 180 µm is challenging while maintaining adequate yield. We present an approach to create ultrathin (15%), highly-flexible PV modules should be possible with this approach.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present an approach to create ultrathin (<;20 μm) and highly flexible crystalline silicon sheets on inexpensive substrates. We have demonstrated silicon sheets capable of bending at a radius of curvature as small as 2 mm without damaging the silicon structure. Using microsystem tools, we created a suspended submillimeter honeycomb-segmented silicon structure anchored to the wafer only by small tethers. This structure is created in a standard thickness wafer enabling compatibility with common processing tools. The procedure enables all the high-temperature steps necessary to create a solar cell to be completed while the cells are on the wafer. In the transfer process, the cells attach to an adhesive flexible substrate which, when pulled away from the wafer, breaks the tethers and releases the honeycomb structure. We have previously demonstrated that submillimeter and ultrathin silicon segments can be converted into highly efficient solar cells, achieving efficiencies up to 14.9% at a thickness of 14 μm. With this technology, achieving high efficiency (>;15%) and highly flexible photovoltaic (PV) modules should be possible.
    IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 01/2011; 1(1):3-8. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a newly developed microsystem enabled, back-contacted, shade-free GaAs solar cell. Using microsystem tools, we created sturdy 3 μm thick devices with lateral dimensions of 250 μm, 500 μm, 1 mm, and 2 mm. The fabrication procedure and the results of characterization tests are discussed below. The highest efficiency cell had a lateral size of 500 μm and a conversion efficiency of 10%, open circuit voltage of 0.9 V and a current density of 14.9 mA/cm<sup>2</sup> under one-sun illumination.
    Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2010 35th IEEE; 07/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Thin and small form factor cells have been researched lately by several research groups around the world due to possible lower assembly costs and reduced material consumption with higher efficiencies. Given the popularity of these devices, it is important to have detailed information about the behavior of these devices. Simulation of fabrication processes and device performance reveals some of the advantages and behavior of solar cells that are thin and small. Three main effects were studied: the effect of surface recombination on the optimum thickness, efficiency, and current density, the effect of contact distance on the efficiency for thin cells, and lastly the effect of surface recombination on the grams per Watt-peak. Results show that high efficiency can be obtained in thin devices if they are well-passivated and the distance between contacts is short. Furthermore, the ratio of grams per Watt-peak is greatly reduced as the device is thinned.
    Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2010 35th IEEE; 07/2010
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    ABSTRACT: High Purcell spontaneous emission enhancement factor of 116 is achieved by integrating a self-assembled, close packed monolayer of colloidal PbS quantum dots with a L3-type silicon photonic crystal cavity.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We are exploring fabrication and assembly concepts developed for microsystems/MEMS technology to reduce the cost of solar PV power. These methods have the potential to reduce many system level costs of current PV systems including, among others, silicon material costs, module assembly costs, and installation costs. We have demonstrated a direct c-Si material reduction of approximately 20X (including wire-saw kerf loss and polishing loss). The cells have achieved efficiencies of almost 9% and J<sub>sc</sub> of 30 mA/cm<sup>2</sup>. We are currently using integrated-circuit (IC) fabrication tools that will lead to higher efficiencies and improved yield. These advantages and the material reduction are expected to reduce the current module manufacturing costs.
    Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2009 34th IEEE; 07/2009
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    ABSTRACT: In order to observe and quantify pressure levels generated during testing of energetic materials, a sensor array with high temporal resolution (~1 ns) and extremely high pressure range (> 1 GPa) is needed. We have developed such a sensor array which utilizes a novel integrated high performance CMOS+MEMS process.
    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2009. MEMS 2009. IEEE 22nd International Conference on; 03/2009
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    ABSTRACT: A high fill-factor 61-element array containing 0.5 mm hexagonal mirrors that tip, tilt and piston with a 27 mum stroke has been fabricated in SUMMiT Vtrade technology. Design, fabrication and performance will be discussed
    Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference, 2006. IEEE/LEOS International Conference on; 09/2006
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    ABSTRACT: Co-fabricated transistors in the SUMMiTtrade process enable large scale micromirror arrays with practical pin-out. Novel drive circuitry and optical/electrical performance for initial micromirror arrays are described
    Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference, 2006. IEEE/LEOS International Conference on; 09/2006
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    ABSTRACT: Surface-micromachined deformable mirrors that exhibit greater than 10 μm of stroke are presented. The segmented arrays described here consist of 61 and 85 hexagonal, piston/tip/tilt mirrors (three actuators each) with diameters of 500 and 430 μm, respectively, and fill a 4 mm circular aperture. Devices were packaged in 208 and 256 pin-grid arrays and driven by a compact control board designed for turn-key operation. After metallization and packaging mirror bow is ∼680 nm (λ/1), but a heat-treatment procedure is proposed for controlling mirror curvature to better than λ/10. An optical test bed was used to demonstrate basic beam splitting and open-loop aberration correction, the results of which are also presented.
    Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 07/2006; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off wafer surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual contamination on the wafer surface was measured. The addition of small amounts of a chemical base such as ammonium hydroxide to the rinse water has been found to be effective in reducing the surface concentration of sulfur and also mitigates the particle growth that occurs on SPM cleaned wafers. The volume of room temperature water required to rinse these wafers is also significantly reduced.
    07/1997
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    ABSTRACT: The use of dilute SC-1 (NH40H:H202:H20) chemistry cleaning processes for particle removal from silicon surfaces has been investigated. Dilute chemistries can be highly effective, especially when high- frequency acoustic energy (megasonics) is applied. The high particle removal efficacy of the dilute chemistry processes presumably arises due to increased double layer effects caused by reduced ionic strength. Dilute chemistry SC- I solutions exhibit somewhat reduced efficacy for removal of certain light organics; however, when dilute SC-1 is used along with other pre-gate cleaning steps (e.g. HF, SC-2, and piranha), then the overall cleaning sequence is quite effective. In addition to providing robust cleaning processes, dilute chemistries also result in significantly lower chemical and rinse water usage. Waste water treatment requirements are also lessened when dilute chemistry cleaning solutions are employed.
    01/1997;