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Publications (3)44.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are significant human pathogens that provide one of the best-described examples of viral latency and reactivation. HSV latency occurs in sensory neurons, being characterized by the absence of virus replication and only fragmentary evidence of protein production. In mouse models, HSV latency is especially stable but the detection of some lytic gene transcription and the ongoing presence of activated immune cells in latent ganglia have been used to suggest that this state is not entirely quiescent. Alternatively, these findings can be interpreted as signs of a low, but constant level of abortive reactivation punctuating otherwise silent latency. Using single cell analysis of transcription in mouse dorsal root ganglia, we reveal that HSV-1 latency is highly dynamic in the majority of neurons. Specifically, transcription from areas of the HSV genome associated with at least one viral lytic gene occurs in nearly two thirds of latently-infected neurons and more than half of these have RNA from more than one lytic gene locus. Further, bioinformatics analyses of host transcription showed that progressive appearance of these lytic transcripts correlated with alterations in expression of cellular genes. These data show for the first time that transcription consistent with lytic gene expression is a frequent event, taking place in the majority of HSV latently-infected neurons. Furthermore, this transcription is of biological significance in that it influences host gene expression. We suggest that the maintenance of HSV latency involves an active host response to frequent viral activity.
    PLoS Pathogens 07/2014; 10(7):e1004237. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) provide superior protection against infection in extralymphoid tissues. Here we found that CD103(+)CD8(+) TRM cells developed in the skin from epithelium-infiltrating precursor cells that lacked expression of the effector-cell marker KLRG1. A combination of entry into the epithelium plus local signaling by interleukin 15 (IL-15) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was required for the formation of these long-lived memory cells. Notably, differentiation into TRM cells resulted in the progressive acquisition of a unique transcriptional profile that differed from that of circulating memory cells and other types of T cells that permanently reside in skin epithelium. We provide a comprehensive molecular framework for the local differentiation of a distinct peripheral population of memory cells that forms a first-line immunological defense system in barrier tissues.
    Nature Immunology 10/2013; · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although circulating memory T cells provide enhanced protection against pathogen challenge, they often fail to do so if infection is localized to peripheral or extralymphoid compartments. In those cases, it is T cells already resident at the site of virus challenge that offer superior immune protection. These tissue-resident memory T (T(RM)) cells are identified by their expression of the α-chain from the integrin α(E)(CD103)β(7), and can exist in disequilibrium with the blood, remaining in the local environment long after peripheral infections subside. In this study, we demonstrate that long-lived intraepithelial CD103(+)CD8(+) T(RM) cells can be generated in the absence of in situ antigen recognition. Local inflammation in skin and mucosa alone resulted in enhanced recruitment of effector populations and their conversion to the T(RM) phenotype. The CD8(+) T(RM) cells lodged in these barrier tissues provided long-lived protection against local challenge with herpes simplex virus in skin and vagina challenge models, and were clearly superior to the circulating memory T-cell cohort. The results demonstrate that peripheral T(RM) cells can be generated and survive in the absence of local antigen presentation and provide a powerful means of achieving immune protection against peripheral infection.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2012; 109(18):7037-42. · 9.74 Impact Factor