[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevanceThe lack of ethnoveterinary surveys in Brazil, especially in the Amazon region, results in losses in the veterinary phytopharmacology field and in scientific documentation of the cultural traditions of plant use in the treatment of animal diseases.Aim of the studyTo catalog, analyze and disseminate the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Colares Island, Pará state, eastern Amazon, Brazil.Materials and methodsA total of 72 interviews were conducted, and semi-structured questionnaires were answered by 18 men and 54 women. The data obtained were quantitatively analyzed using the informant consensus factor (ICF) and use value (UV). The plants with a reported medicinal use for domestic animals were harvested, herbalized and botanically identified.ResultsFifty-six plants, distributed in 49 genera and 35 families, were indicated to have 23 different medicinal uses, divided into six categories of use. The highest ICF (0.80) was obtained for the antiparasitic class. The Euphorbiaceae family exhibited the highest number of citations, and the species with the highest UVs were Caladium cf. bicolor, Bixa orellana, Carapa guianensis, Jatropha curcas and Cymbopogon citratus. The parts of the 56 plants that were most frequently used to prepare ethnoveterinary medications were the leaves (46%), bark (15%), roots and fruit (10%). The use of the macerated leaves was the most common method of application, used by 43% of the interviewees, and the majority of the preparations (87.3%) used a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, the interviewees reported the use of products of animal and mineral origin.Conclusion
The present study contributed to the establishment of an inventory of plants used in ethnoveterinary practices in this region of the Brazilian eastern Amazon. Future phytochemical and pharmacological studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of the identified plants, enabling communities to use them in a more economic, effective and safe manner.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2012; 144(2):346–352. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chelonians have been exploited since ancient times for their meat, eggs, fat, and offal, among other things. Among these animals, there is Scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides) which is an omnivorous turtle with semiaquatic habits and is widely consumed in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different feeding management systems on the reproductive performance of captive-bred Scorpion mud turtles, including egg quality and chemical composition. Study animals included 15 males and 48 females, divided into three groups. Animals were fed with either a commercial diet or a commercial diet supplemented with one of two different mixes (wet diet). All animals were fed at 1 % BW/day divided on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Treatments were as follows: TR = 100 % fish food (22 % CP); TRM1 = 70 % fish food + 30 % mix 1 (bovine offal and fish); TRM2 = 70 % fish food + 30 % mix 2 (bovine offal, fish, and shrimp). Samples were collected during 7 months, and eggs were identified, weighed, measured, and frozen for later analysis. Statistical analyses, including ANOVA, were performed using the program SAEG 9.0. Measurements taken from the nests were compared using the Tukey's test (P < 0.05). The different diets were associated with differential egg-laying performance and eggshell thickness. Animals fed with wet diets containing protein of animal origin displayed the best performance. Furthermore, nests with fewer eggs contained eggs of better external quality (e.g., greater length, width, and eggshell thickness). Finally, animals fed with only commercial feed produced eggs with lower saturated fatty acid content.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 10/2012; · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to characterize anatomical and biochemical properties of owl monkey kidneys in order to provide normal reference values. Sixty-nine Aotus azarai infulatus (45 males and 24 females) were divided into four different age groups (AG1: 3 months-1 year; AG2: 2-3 years; AG3: 4-6 years; and AG4: over 7 years old). The monkeys were evaluated with a serum chemistry profile, focusing on serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and with ultrasound. Mean body mass differed among the age groups. This significance was attributed to AG1 body mass being significantly lower than in AG2 and that in both AG2 and AG3 being significantly lower than in the two older age groups (AG3 and AG4). SCr and BUN concentrations differed significantly between the sexes and SCr level correlated positively with age. In contrast, renal measurements did not differ between males and females. Left and right renal volumes did not differ significantly within age groups, or among AG2, AG3, and AG4. Renal volumes in AG1, however, while not differing from those in AG2, did differ significantly from those in AG3 and AG4. In conclusion, this study provides ultrasonographic reference values for the morphology the kidneys in A. a. infulatus. Evidence is also provided that SCr and BUN levels in owl monkeys are influenced by the sex and age of the individual, factors that should be considered when interpreting test results.
American Journal of Primatology 05/2012; 74(5):482-90. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in Brazilian Amazonia. The objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the Island of Marajó, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. In the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. Use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. Samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. Fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. The family Asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; Carapa guianensis Aubl., Copaifera martii Hayne, Crescentia cujete L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Jatropha curcas L. and Momordica charantia L. were species with highest use- value. The plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%), bark (18%), roots (14%), seeds (14%) and fruit (8%). With regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9%) utilized only a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of Marajó Island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydroelectric projects are one of the well known factors responsible for habitat loss and fragmentation in the Amazon. The Tucuruí Lake Protected Area (Tucuruí Lake APA), in the state of Pará, Brazil, Eastern Brazilian Amazon, is under the influence of the Tucuruí dam. Zones of wildlife protection (ZWPs), where no human activities should be allowed, were created inside this protected area. However, human populations and their domestic animals still reside within the ZWPs. Domestic carnivores have been implicated in wild carnivore population declines, particularly in Africa, as a consequence of disease transmission, especially involving the canine distemper virus. This study examined the seroprevalence of antibodies to this pathogen in domestic dogs from the ZWPs and its immediate surroundings at the Tucuruí Lake Protected Area, and revealed 27% seropositivity. Wild carnivore species such as the jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), coati (Nasua nasua), among others, inhabit the ZWPs and information provided by the local community indicates their close contact with the human and domestic dog populations. Such evidence supports the concern that relates the presence of the domestic dogs to disease transmission and conservation risks for wild carnivores in the ZWPs of the Tucuruí Lake APA.