N. Kalyvas

Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athínai, Attica, Greece

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Publications (33)40.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the absolute luminescence efficiency (AE) of mixed oxyorthosilicate (Lu,Gd)2SiO5:Ce (LGSO:Ce) single crystals, under X-ray irradiation. Six (Lu,Gd)2SiO5:Ce crystal samples, with dimensions of 3 × 3 × 5, 3 × 3 × 6, 3 × 3 × 10, 3 × 3 × 15, 10 × 10 × 10 and 10 × 10 × 20 mm3 were examined. The light emitted by the crystals, was evaluated by performing measurements of the AE under X-ray exposure conditions, with tube voltages ranging from 50 to 130 kV. Results were compared with previously published data for GSO:Ce and LSO:Ce crystals. The spectral compatibility of the (Lu,Gd)2SiO5:Ce crystal, with various existing optical detectors, was investigated after emission spectra measurements. Absolute efficiency was found maximum at 130 kVp for the 3 × 3 × 15 mm3 (Lu,Gd)2SiO5:Ce crystal (25.40 E.U). AE of the 10 × 10 × 10 mm3 (Lu,Gd)2SiO5:Ce crystal was found higher than both GSO:Ce and LSO:Ce crystals, in the whole X-ray tube range. The emission spectrum of (Lu,Gd)2SiO5:Ce is excellent matched with the spectral sensitivities of photocathodes and silicon photomultipliers often employed in radiation detectors. Considering the high luminescence efficiency values and the spectral compatibility with the various photodetectors, (Lu,Gd)2SiO5:Ce crystal could be considered for use in combined medical imaging detectors i.e. integrated PET/CT detectors.
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    ABSTRACT: During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Radiation Protection Dosimetry 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/rpd/ncv093 · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medical X-ray digital imaging systems such as mammography, radiography and computed tomography (CT), are composed from efficient radiation detectors, which can transform the X-rays to electron signal. Scintillators are materials that emit light when excited by X-rays and incorporated in X-ray medical imaging detectors. Columnar scintillator, like CsI:T1 is very often used for X-ray detection due to its higher performance. The columnar form limits the lateral spread of the optical photons to the scintillator output, thus it demonstrates superior spatial resolution compared to granular scintillators. The aim of this work is to provide an analytical model for calculating the MTF, the DQE and the emission efficiency of a columnar scintillator. The model parameters were validated against published Monte Carlo data. The model was able to predict the overall performance of CsI:Tl scintillators and suggested an optimum thickness of 300 μm for radiography applications.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 04/2015; 779. DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2015.01.027 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to assess the information content of structured CsI:Tl scintillating screens, specially treated to be compatible to a CMOS digital imaging optical sensor, in terms of the information capacity (IC), based on Shannon’s mathematical communication theory. IC was assessed after the experimental determination of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) in the mammography and general radiography energy range. The CMOS sensor was coupled to three columnar CsI:Tl scintillator screens obtained from the same manufacturer with thicknesses of 130, 140 and 170 μm respectively, which were placed in direct contact with the optical sensor. The MTF was measured using the slanted-edge method while NNPS was determined by 2D Fourier transforming of uniformly exposed images. Both parameters were assessed by irradiation under the mammographic W/Rh (130, 140 and 170 μm CsI screens) and the RQA-5 (140 and 170 μm CsI screens) (IEC 62220-1) beam qualities. The detector response function was linear for the exposure range under investigation. At 70 kVp, under the RQA-5 conditions IC values were found to range between 2229 and 2340 bits/mm2. At 28 kVp the corresponding IC values were found to range between 2262 and 2968 bits/mm2. The information content of CsI:Tl scintillating screens in combination to the high resolution CMOS sensor, investigated in the present study, where found optimized for use in digital mammography imaging systems.
    Radiation Measurements 02/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.radmeas.2015.02.007 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphor materials are widely used in X-ray medical imaging detector applications, coupled with suitable photoreceptors. Upon the most demanding imaging modality is X-ray mammography, since the best defense against breast cancer is its early detection. A material suitable as a mammographic detector should efficiently absorb X-ray photons and transforms them to optical photons, so as to minimize breast dose. The aim of the present study was to investigate the X-ray absorption efficiency and the absolute efficiency (AE), defined as the output optical photon power divided by the incident exposure, of Gd2O2S:Pr powder scintillator. For the purposes of this study, three scintillating screens with coating thicknesses, 34.1, 46.0 and 81.5 mg/cm2 respectively, were prepared in our laboratory from Gd2O2S:Pr powder (Phosphor Technology, Ltd) by sedimentation on silica substrates. The quantum detection efficiency (QDE), the energy absorption efficiency (EAE), the spectral matching factor and the absolute efficiency (AE) were evaluated for X-ray mammographic conditions. Furthermore theoretical models were utilized to investigate the optical photon transmission properties through the phosphor mass. Gd2O2S:Pr presented high X-ray absorption properties and good spectral compatibility with several photoreceptors. It may be utilized for X-ray mammographic imaging if is put in conjunction with a sensitive photoreceptor, so as to enhance Gd2O2S:Pr light emission properties.
    Journal of Luminescence 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jlumin.2015.01.044 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2015; 574:012075. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/574/1/012075
  • Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2015; 574:012076. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/574/1/012076
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to obtain modified X-ray spectra, by using appropriate filter materials for use in applications such as dual energy X-ray imaging. K-edge filtering technique was implemented in order to obtain narrow energy bands for both dual-and single-kVp techniques. Three lanthanide filters (cerium, holmium, and ytterbium) and a filter outside lanthanides (barium), with low K-edge, were used to modify the X-ray spectra. The X-ray energies that were used in this work ranged from 60 to 100 kVp. Relative root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of variation were used for filter selection. The increasing filter thicknesses led to narrower energy bands. For the dual-kVp technique, 0.7916 g/cm(2) Ho, 0.9422 g/cm(2) Yb, and 1.0095 g/cm(2) Yb were selected for 70, 80, and 90 kVp, respectively. For the single-kVp technique 0.5991 g/cm(2) Ce, 0.8750 g/cm(2) Ba, and 0.8654 g/cm(2) Ce were selected for 80, 90, and 100 kVp, respectively. The filtered X-ray spectra of this work, after appropriate modification, could be used in various X-ray applications, such as dual-energy mammography, bone absorptiometry, and digital tomosynthesis.
    01/2015; 2015:1-8. DOI:10.1155/2015/563763
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the absolute luminescence efficiency of gadolinium oxysulfide powder scintillators, doped with praseodymium, cerium and fluorine (Gd2O2S:Pr,Ce,F). Gd2O2S:Pr,Ce,F is a non-hygroscopic material, emitting green light with short decay time. For the purposes of this study, two scintillating screens with coating thicknesses 35.7 and 71.2 mg/cm2, were prepared in our laboratory from Gd2O2S:Pr,Ce,F powder (Phosphor Technology, Ltd) by sedimentation on silica substrates. The light emitted by the phosphors under investigation was evaluated by performing measurements of the absolute efficiency under X-ray exposure conditions with tube voltages ranging from 50 to 130 kV. Results were compared with previously published data for Gd2O2S:Eu screens. The spectral compatibility of Gd2O2S:Pr,Ce,F with various existing optical detectors, was investigated after emission spectra measurements. Particle size and morphology parameters of the Gd2O2S:Pr,Ce,F powder phosphor were verified via scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Absolute efficiency was found to maximize at 60 kVp for the 71.2 mg/cm2 and at 90 kVp for the 35.7 mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Pr,Ce,F screens. Absolute efficiency of the 71.2 mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Pr,Ce,F screen was higher in the whole X-ray tube voltage range showing potential interest for non-CT medical imaging (i.e. dental radiology) or industrial digital radiography.
    Radiation Measurements 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.radmeas.2014.09.008 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanocrystallic europium-activated lutetium oxide (Lu2O3:Eu) is a strong candidate for use in digital medical imaging applications, due to its spectroscopic and structural properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the imaging and efficiency properties of a 33.3 mg/cm2 Lu2O3:Eu scintillating screen coupled to a high resolution RadEye HR CMOS photodetector under radiographic imaging conditions. Since Lu2O3:Eu emits light in the red wavelength range, the light emission efficiency and the imaging performance were compared with results for a Gd2O2S:Eu phosphor screen. Parameters such as the Absolute Efficiency (AE), the X-ray Luminescence Efficiency (XLE), and the Detector Quantum Gain (DQG), were investigated. The imaging characteristics of Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor screen were investigated in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) and the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE). It was found that Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor has higher AE and XLE by a factor of 1.32 and 1.37 on average, respectively, in the whole radiographic energy range in comparison with the Gd2O2S:Eu screen. DQG was also found higher in the energy range from 50 kVp to 100 kVp and comparable thereafter. The imaging quality of Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor coupled to the CMOS sensor was found to outmatch in any aspect in comparison with the Gd2O2S:Eu screen. These results indicate that Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor could be considered for further research in order to be used in medical imaging applications.
    Journal of Luminescence 07/2014; 151:229–234. DOI:10.1016/j.jlumin.2014.02.017 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. In this work, a simple technique to assess the image quality characteristics of the postprocessed image is developed and an easy to use figure of image quality (FIQ) is introduced. This FIQ characterizes images in terms of resolution and noise. In addition information capacity, defined within the context of Shannon's information theory, was used as an overall image quality index. Materials and Methods. A digital mammographic image was postprocessed with three digital filters. Resolution and noise were calculated via the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the coefficient of variation, and the figure of image quality. In addition, frequency dependent parameters such as the noise power spectrum (NPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were estimated and used to assess information capacity. Results. FIQs for the "raw image" data and the image processed with the "sharpen edges" filter were found 907.3 and 1906.1, correspondingly. The information capacity values were 60.86 × 10(3) and 78.96 × 10(3) bits/mm(2). Conclusion. It was found that, after the application of the postprocessing techniques (even commercial nondedicated software) on the raw digital mammograms, MTF, NPS, and NEQ are improved for medium to high spatial frequencies leading to resolving smaller structures in the final image.
    BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:634856. DOI:10.1155/2014/634856 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single crystal scintilators are used in various radiation detectors applications. The efficiency of the crystal can be determined by the Detector Optical Gain (DOG) defined as the ratio of the emitted optical photon flux over the incident radiation photons flux. A parameter affecting DOG is the intrinsic conversion efficiency (nC) giving the percentage of the X-ray photon power converted to optical photon power. nC is considered a constant value for X-ray energies in the order of keV although a non proportional behavior has been reported. In this work an analytical model, has been utilized to single crystals scintillators GSO:Ce, LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce to examine whether the intrinsic conversion efficiency shows non proportional behavior under X-ray excitation. DOG was theoretically calculated as a function of the incident X-ray spectrum, the X-ray absorption efficiency, the energy of the produced optical photons and the light transmission efficiency. The theoretical DOG values were compared with experimental data obtained by irradiating the crystals with X-rays at tube voltages from 50 to 140 kV and by measuring the light energy flux emitted from the irradiated screen. An initial value for nC (calculated from literature data) was assumed for the X-ray tube voltage of 50 kV. For higher X-ray tube voltages the optical photon propagation phenomena was assumed constant and any deviations between experimental and theoretical data were associated with changes in the intrinsic conversion efficiency. The experimental errors were below 7% for each experimental setup. The behavior of nC values for LSO:Ce and LYSO:Ce were found very similar, i.e., ranging with values from 0.089 at 50 kV to 0.015 at 140 kV, while for GSO:Ce, nC demonstrated a peak at 80 kV.
    Optics and Spectroscopy 05/2014; 116(5):743-747. DOI:10.1134/S0030400X14050117 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate the imaging characteristics of the Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor thin screen coupled to a high resolution CMOS sensor under radiographic conditions. Parameters such as the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) and the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) were investigated at 70 kVp under three exposure levels (20 mAs, 63 mAs and 90 mAs). Since Lu2O3:Eu emits light in the red wavelength range, the imaging characteristics of a 33.3 mg/cm2 Gd2O2S:Eu conventional phosphor screen were also evaluated for comparison purposes. The Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor powder was produced by the combustion synthesis, using urea as fuel. A scintillating screen of 30.2 mg/cm2 was prepared by sedimentation of the nanophosphor powder on a fused silica substrate. The CMOS/Lu2O3:Eu detector`s imaging characteristics were evaluated using an experimental method proposed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) guidelines. It was found that the CMOS/Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor system has higher MTF values compared to the CMOS/Gd2O2S:Eu sensor/screen combination in the whole frequency range examined. For low frequencies (0 to 2 cycles/mm) NNPS values of the CMOS/Gd2O2S:Eu system were found 90% higher compared to the NNPS values of the CMOS/Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor system, whereas from medium to high frequencies (2 to 13 cycles/mm) were found 40% higher. In contrast with the CMOS/ Gd2O2S:Eu system, CMOS/Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor system appears to retain high DQE values in the whole frequency range examined. Our results indicate that Lu2O3:Eu nanophosphor is a promising scintillator for further research in digital X-ray radiography.
    SPIE Medical Imaging; 03/2014
  • N. Kalyvas, P. Liaparinos
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    ABSTRACT: Luminescent materials are employed as radiation to light converters in detectors of medical imaging systems, often referred to as phosphor screens. Several processes affect the light transfer properties of phosphors. Amongst the most important is the interaction of light. Light attenuation (absorption and scattering) can be described either through "diffusion" theory in theoretical models or "quantum" theory in Monte Carlo methods. Although analytical methods, based on photon diffusion equations, have been preferentially employed to investigate optical diffusion in the past, Monte Carlo simulation models can overcome several of the analytical modelling assumptions. The present study aimed to compare both methodologies and investigate the dependence of the analytical model optical parameters as a function of particle size. It was found that the optical photon attenuation coefficients calculated by analytical modeling are decreased with respect to the particle size (in the region 1- 12 μm). In addition, for particles sizes smaller than 6μm there is no simultaneous agreement between the theoretical modulation transfer function and light escape values with respect to the Monte Carlo data.
    SPIE Medical Imaging; 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the luminescence efficiency (XLE) of gadolinium aluminum perovskite (GdAlO3:Ce) powder scintillator. This powder phosphor, also known as GAP:Ce scintillator, is a non-hygroscopic material, emitting blue light with short decay time. For the purposes of this study, five scintillating screens with coating thicknesses, 14.7, 31.0, 53.7, 67.2 and 121.1 mg/cm(2), were prepared in our laboratory from GdAlO3:Ce powder (Phosphor Technology, Ltd) by sedimentation on silica substrates. The light emitted by the phosphors under investigation was evaluated by performing measurements of the absolute luminescence efficiency (AE), X-ray luminescence efficiency and detector quantum gain (DQG) under X-ray exposure conditions with tube voltages ranging from 50 to 140 kV. The quantum detection efficiency (QDE) and energy absorption efficiency (EAE) were also evaluated. The spectral compatibility of GdAlO3:Ce, with various existing optical detectors, was investigated after emission spectra measurements. A theoretical model, describing radiation and light transfer, was used to fit experimental AE data. This has allowed the estimation of optical attenuation coefficients of the scintillator. GdAlO3:Ce exhibited higher QDE and EAE values, compared to aluminium perovskite (YAlO3: Ce) but lower absolute efficiency values. Absolute efficiency was found to increase with increasing X-ray tube voltage, although for values higher than 120 kVp a decrease was observed.
    Journal of Luminescence 12/2013; 144:45-52. DOI:10.1016/j.jlumin.2013.06.041 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of imaging performance in digital mammography, using indirect detector instrumentation, by combining the Linear Cascaded Systems (LCS) theory and the Signal Detection Theory (SDT). Observer performance was assessed, by examining frequently employed detectors, consisting of phosphor-based X-ray converters (granular Gd2O2S:Tb and structural CsI:Tl), coupled with the recently introduced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. By applying combinations of various irradiation conditions (filter-target and exposure levels at 28 kV) on imaging detectors, our study aimed to find the optimum system set-up for digital mammography. For this purpose, the signal to noise transfer properties of the medical imaging detectors were examined for breast carcinoma detectability.Methods An analytical model was applied to calculate X-ray interactions within software breast phantoms and detective media. Modeling involved: (a) three X-ray spectra used in digital mammography: 28 kV Mo/Mo (Mo: 0.030 mm), 28 kV Rh/Rh (Rh: 0.025 mm) and 28 kV W/Rh (Rh: 0.060 mm) at different entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) of 3 mGy and 5 mGy, (b) a 5 cm thick Perspex software phantom incorporating a small Ca lesion of varying size (0.1–1 cm), and (c) two 200 μm thick phosphor-based X-ray converters (Gd2O2S:Tb, CsI:Tl), coupled to a CMOS based detector of 22.5 μm pixel size.ResultsBest (lowest) contrast threshold (CT) values were obtained with the combination: (i) W/Rh target-filter, (ii) 5 mGy (ESAK), and (iii) CsI:Tl-CMOS detector. For lesion diameter 0.5 cm the CT was found improved, in comparison to other anode/filter combinations, approximately 42% than Rh/Rh and 55% than Mo/Mo, for small sized carcinoma (0.1 cm) and approximately 50% than Rh/Rh and 125% than Mo/Mo, for big sized carcinoma (1 cm), considering 5 mGy X-ray beam. By decreasing lesion diameter and thickness, a limiting CT (100%) was occurred for size values less than 0.2 cm.ConclusionCT was found to be affected by the selection of target/filter and exposure combination. It was found that the optimum thickness of CsI:Tl was approximately 190 μm and for Gd2O2S:Tb 120 μm for the studied energy and ESAK range.
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 01/2013; 697:87–98. DOI:10.1016/j.nima.2012.08.014 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports a theoretical model of the optical gain of single-crystal scintillators of Nuclear Imaging. The model described the generation, propagation and escape of scintillation light as function of thickness and absorbed gamma ray energy. The latter was calculated via Monte Carlo methods at various crystal depths. The energies of 140 keV, 364 keV and 512 keV were investigated. The adopted thickness and energy values cover the range utilized in nuclear medicine imaging. For the semi-empirical approach, theoretical results were compared to experimental data for photon energies of 140 keV and 364 keV and the model's optical parameters were determined by the trial and error method. The results rendered the calculation of the optimum crystal thickness per investigated gamma ray energy. The presented results could be useful in designing nuclear medicine imaging systems.
    Journal of Instrumentation 11/2012; 7(11):P11021. DOI:10.1088/1748-0221/7/11/P11021 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scintillator materials are widely used in X-ray medical imaging detector applications, coupled with available photoreceptors like radiographic film or photoreceptors suitable for digital imaging like a-Si, charge-coupled devises (CCD), complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) and GaAs). In addition, scintillators can be utilized in non-medical imaging detectors such as industrial detectors for non-destructive testing (NDT) and detectors used for security purposes (i.e. airport luggage control). Image quality and dose burden in the above applications is associated with the amount of optical photons escaping the scintillator as well as the amount of optical photons captured by the photoreceptor. The former is characterized by the scintillator efficiency and the latter by the spectral matching between the emission spectrum of the scintillator and the spectral response of the photoreceptor. Recently, a scintillator material, europium-activated lutetium oxide (Lu2O3:Eu), has shown improved scintillating properties. Lu2O3:Eu samples of compact nanocrystalline non-agglomerated powder were developed in our laboratory using homogeneous precipitation from a water-toluene solution in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant. In order to test their light-emission properties, experimental measurements under the excitation of X-ray spectra with X-ray tube voltages between 50 kVp and 140 kVp were performed. This range of applied voltages is appropriate for X-ray radiology, NDT and security applications. Lu2O3:Eu was evaluated with respect to output yield and spectral compatibility of digital imaging photoreceptors (CCD-based, CMOS-based, amorphous silicon a:Si flat panels, ES20 and GaAs). High light yield and spectral compatibility increase the performance of the medical detector and reduce the dose burden to the personnel involved. In addition a theoretical model was used to determine the values for the Lu2O3:Eu optical photon light propagation parameters. The inverse diffusion length was found to be equal to 33 cm2/g. In addition Lu2O3:Eu was found to match well with several photoreceptors capable of digital imaging (i.e. GaAs).
    Applied Physics A 01/2011; 106(1). DOI:10.1007/s00339-011-6640-5 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A theoretical model based on Linear Cascaded Systems (LCS) theory was developed in order to study the noise properties of a commercially available high resolution CMOS sensor (RadEye CMOS). The parameters studied were the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) and the Noise Transfer Function (NTF). The modeling was applied to digital mammography conditions. It considered the physical properties of the scintillator incorporated into RadEye CMOS as well as the probability of X-ray absorption directly in the photoreceptor. Furthermore it took into account the pixel pitch and the thickness of the photoreceptor. The model was compared with experimental results obtained from literature. The NTF curves were I good agreement with the experimentally determined. NNPS curves deviations were attributed to the effect of the digitization procedure as well as the non-linear behavior of CMOS detector.
    01/2011; DOI:10.1109/NSSMIC.2011.6152669
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate Gd2O2S:Eu powder phosphor as a radiographic image receptor and to compare it to phosphors often used in radiography. Gd2O2S:Eu is nonhygroscopic, emitting red light with decay time close to that of Gd2O2S:Tb. The light intensity emitted per unit of x-ray exposure rate (absolute luminescence efficiency) was measured for laboratory prepared screens with coating thicknesses of 33.1, 46.4, 63.1, 78.3, and 139.8 mg/cm2 and tube voltages ranging from 50 to 140 kVp. Parameters related to image quality such as the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were also experimentally examined. In addition, a previously validated Monte Carlo code was used to estimate intrinsic x-ray absorption and optical properties, as well as the MTF and the Swank factor (I) of the Gd2O2S:Eu scintillators. Gd2O2S:Eu light intensity was found higher than that of single CsI:T1 crystal for tube voltages up to 100 kVp. The MTF and the DQE were found to be comparable with those of Gd2O2S:Tb and CsI:T1 screens. MTF estimated by the Monte Carlo code was found very close to the experimental MTF values. Gd2O2S:Eu showed peak emission in the wavelength range 620-630 nm. Its emission spectrum was excellently matched to various optical detectors (photodiodes, photocathodes, CCDs, and CMOS) employed in flat panel detectors. Gd2O2S:Eu is an efficient phosphor potentially well suited to radiography and especially to some digital detectors sensitive to red light.
    Medical Physics 07/2010; 37(7):3694-703. · 3.01 Impact Factor