Giovanni De Micheli

École Polytechnique, Paliseau, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (474)258.43 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a complete study is carried out investigating the relationship between the biosensing and the electrical characteristics of freestanding two-terminal Schottky-barrier silicon nanowires. This paper successfully reproduces computationally the electrical behavior obtained experimentally from the nanowire devices before and after the surface biomodification. Throughout modeling and simulations, this paper confirms that the experimental results obtained from the electrical characterization of bare two-terminal Schottky-barrier silicon nanowires present current-to-voltage characteristics fully equivalent to that of a pure memristor device, according to the literature. Furthermore, this paper shows that the voltage gap appearing in the current-to-voltage characteristics for nanowires with biomodified surface is related to capacitive effects due to minority carriers in the nanowire and it is also indicated that those effects are strongly affected by the concentration of antigens uptaken on the device surface. Overall, this paper confirms the implication of the memristive effect for biosensing applications and therefore, demonstrates the memristive biosensors.
    IEEE Sensors Journal 11/2015; 15(11):6208-6217. DOI:10.1109/JSEN.2015.2456336 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • Pierre-Emmanuel Gaillardon · Xifan Tang · Gain Kim · Giovanni De Micheli
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we investigate the opportunity brought by controllable-polarity transistors to design efficient reconfigurable circuits. Controllable-polarity transistors are devices whose polarity can be electrostatically programmed to be either n- or p-type. Such devices are used to build ultrafine grain computation cells. These cells are arranged into regular matrices, called MClusters, with a fixed and incomplete interconnection pattern, employed to minimize the reconfigurable interconnection overhead. We subsequently use them into field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). To assess this architectural scheme in an efficient and objective manner, we present a complete benchmarking tool flow and focus on the packing algorithm developed to handle the architecture. We finally perform the evaluation with widely used benchmark circuits. Leveraging the ultrafine grain cells compactness from a system-level perspective, we show that FPGAs exploiting MClusters demonstrate average savings of 43% and 23% in area and delay, respectively, as compared with the CMOS lookup table FPGA counterpart at 22-nm technological node.
    IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 10/2015; 23(10):2187-2197. DOI:10.1109/TVLSI.2014.2359385 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of fast and mobile drug detection is an important aspect of personalized medicine. It enables the quick assessment of inter-individual differences in drug metabolism and corresponding adjustments of the dose. Recent developments of amperometric biosensors using cytochrome P450 (CYP) show great promise, by lowering the detection limit to physiological range for several drugs via the usage of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT). The next challenge is to develop algorithms for processing the resulting sensor data compatible with low-power hardware, which would allow the development of portable battery-powered devices. In this work we pursue a novel approach to this problem. Here we provide a proof of principle by demonstrating how sensor data could be analyzed using a conventional multi-layer perceptron network with error-backpropagation.
    International Joint Conference On Neural Networks 2015, Killarney, Ireland; 07/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound imaging is a technique widely used in medicine to visualize organs and other body structures, capturing their position, size, morphology and any pathological lesions. Its use is unfortunately limited to specialized centers with trained personnel, and it would be bene�cial to expand its applicability to environments like on-the-�eld emergency response and family physician cabinets. This requires the development of new ultrasound platforms that must be faster, lower-power, easier to use, safe and reliable. One of the major challenges to be met is to dynamically manage a myriad of di�erent imaging options and con�guration parameters, which impact image quality and computation cost at the same time. Focusing on this challenge, in this paper we fi�rst give an overview of ultrasound imaging techniques and of their possible con�guration and parameterization options. We then discuss the impact of these options on computation cost and image quality, showing outcomes from a prototype Matlab ultrasound imaging pipeline.
    6th Workshop on Medical Cyber-Physical Systems, Seattle, WA, USA; 04/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Manipulating logic functions via majority operators recently drew the attention of researchers in computer science. For example, circuit optimization based on majority operators enables superior results as compared to traditional logic systems. Also, the Boolean satisfiability problem finds new solving approaches when described in terms of majority decisions. To support computer logic applications based on majority a sound and complete set of axioms is required. Most of the recent advances in majority logic deal only with ternary majority (MAJ- 3) operators because the axiomatization with solely MAJ-3 and complementation operators is well understood. However, it is of interest extending such axiomatization to n-ary majority operators (MAJ-n) from both the theoretical and practical perspective. In this work, we address this issue by introducing a sound and complete axiomatization of MAJ-n logic. Our axiomatization naturally includes existing majority logic systems. Based on this general set of axioms, computer applications can now fully exploit the expressive power of majority logic.
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    Sungroh Yoon · Nahmsuk Oh · Peivand Tehrani · Eui-Young Chung · Giovanni De Micheli
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a method called Fast and Realistic Attacker Modeling and Evaluation (FRAME) that can reduce pessimism in static noise analysis by exploiting temporal logical correlation of attackers and using novel techniques termed envelopes and $\sigma$ functions. Unlike conventional pruning-based approaches, FRAME efficiently considers all relevant attackers, thereby producing more realistic results. FRAME was tested with complex industrial design and successfully reduced the pessimism of conventional techniques by 30.4% on average, with little computational overhead.
  • IEEE Sensors Journal 01/2015; DOI:10.1109/JSEN.2015.2433836 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society 01/2015; DOI:10.1109/JEDS.2015.2482123
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    ABSTRACT: This paper represents the extended version of the conference paper "Developing highly-integrated subcutaneous biochips for remote monitoring of human metabolism" presented at the IEEE Sensors Conference 2012, and presents data on assembly, packaging and short term in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of a fully implantable biosensor array. The device was realized integrating three building blocks: 1) a multielectrode platform; 2) an inductive coil; and 3) an integrated circuit. The entire system measures 2.2 mm x 2.2 mm x 15 mm. Corrosion of electronic components and leaking of potentially hazardous substances in the body is prevented with a conformal coating of Parylene C, while an outer package of medical grade silicone was employed to create a soft shell suitable for implantation. Biocompatibility experiments did not show in vitro cytotoxicity in the considered period of 7 days, while comparison between 7 and 30 days in vivo implantations showed significant reduction of the inflammatory response in time, suggesting normal host recovery.
    IEEE Sensors Journal 01/2015; 15(1):417-424. DOI:10.1109/JSEN.2014.2339638 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • the 25th edition; 01/2015
  • Luca Amaru · P.-E. Gaillardon · Giovanni De Micheli
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present biconditional binary decision diagrams (BBDDs), a novel canonical representation form for Boolean functions. BBDDs are binary decision diagrams where the branching condition, and its associated logic expansion, is biconditional on two variables. Empowered by reduction and ordering rules, BBDDs are remarkably compact and unique for a Boolean function. The interest of such representation form in modern electronic design automation (EDA) is twofold. On the one hand, BBDDs improve the efficiency of traditional EDA tasks based on decision diagrams, especially for arithmetic intensive designs. On the other hand, BBDDs represent the natural and native design abstraction for emerging technologies where the circuit primitive is a comparator, rather than a simple switch. We provide, in this paper, a solid ground for BBDDs by studying their underlying theory and manipulation properties. Thanks to an efficient BBDD software package implementation, we validate (1) speed-up in traditional decision diagrams applications with up to 4.4 × gain with respect to other DDs, and (2) improved synthesis of circuits in emerging technologies, with about 32% shorter critical path than state-of-art synthesis techniques.
    IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 12/2014; 4(4):487-500. DOI:10.1109/JETCAS.2014.2361058 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a novel electrochemical sensor based on nanographite grown on platinum microelectrodes for the determination of bilirubin in the presence of normal concentrations of albumin. The albumin is a protein with an intrinsic ability to bind the bilirubin therefore reducing the concentration of the free electroactive metabolite in human fluids. In addition, the proposed device permits the discrimination of free bilirubin from two interferents, uric acid and ascorbic acid, by the separation of their oxidation peaks in voltammetry. Preliminary measurements in human serum prove that the proposed nanostructured platform can be used to detect bilirubin.
    Talanta 12/2014; 130C:423-426. DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2014.07.009 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    Alena Simalatsar · Romain Bornet · Wenqi You · Yann Thoma · Giovanni De Micheli
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    ABSTRACT: Poor adherence to medical regimen causes approximately 33% to 69% of medication-related hospitalizations and accounts for $100 billion in annual health care costs. In this paper we address the problem of unintentional non adherence, when patient fails to take a medication due to forgetfulness or carelessness. We present the safe approach to software implementation of a portable reminder device with enabled personalization of medical regimen. The presented prototype is designed for imatinib administration, a drug used to treat Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). However, thanks to the component-based structure of the software, the method can be applied to other cases by replacing implementation of certain components.
    IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (BIBE; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The total power budget of Ultra-Low Power (ULP) VLSI Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) is often dominated by the leakage power of embedded memories as well as status registers. On the one hand, supply voltage scaling down to the near-threshold (near- VT) or even to the subthreshold (sub- VT) domain is a commonly used, efficient technique to reduce both leakage power and active energy dissipation. On the other hand, emerging CMOS-compatible device technologies such as Resistive Memories (ReRAMs) enable non-volatile, on-chip data storage and zero-leakage sleep periods. For the first time, we present and compare ReRAM-based Non-Volatile Flip-Flop (NVFF) topologies which are optimized for low-voltage operation (including near-VT and sub-VT operation). Three low-voltage NVFF circuit topologies are proposed and evaluated in terms of energy dissipation and reliability. Using topologies with two complementary programmed ReRAM devices, Monte Carlo simulations accounting for parametric variations confirm reliable data restore operation from the ReRAM devices at a sub- VT voltage as low as 400 mV. A topology using a single ReRAM device exhibits lower write energy, but requires a near-VT voltage for robust read. Energy characterization is performed at nominal, near- VT, and sub- VT supply voltages. The minimum energy point is reached for near- VT read operation with a total read+write energy of 735 fJ.
    Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on 11/2014; 61(11):3155-3164. DOI:10.1109/TCSI.2014.2334891 · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 11/2014; 13(6):1019-1019. DOI:10.1109/TNANO.2014.2360284 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As the current MOSFET scaling trend is facing strong limitations, technologies exploiting novel degrees of freedom at physical and architecture level are promising candidates to enable the continuation of Moore's predictions. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of novel ambipolar Silicon nanowire (SiNW) Schottky-barrier (SB) FET transistors featuring two independent gate-all-around electrodes and vertically stacked SiNW channels. A top-down approach was employed for the nanowire fabrication, using an e-beam lithography defined design pattern. In these transistors, one gate electrode enables the dynamic configuration of the device polarity (n - or p-type) by electrostatic doping of the channel in proximity of the source and drain SBs. The other gate electrode, acting on the center region of the channel switches ON or OFF the device. Measurement results on silicon show Ion/Ioff >106 and subthreshold slopes approaching the thermal limit, ≈ 64 mV/dec (70 mV/dec) for p(n)-type operation in the same physical device. Finally, we show that the XOR logic operation is embedded in the device characteristic, and we demonstrate for the first time a fully functional two-transistor XOR gate.
    IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 11/2014; 13(6):1029-1038. DOI:10.1109/TNANO.2014.2363386 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowires enable an unprecedented electrostatic control on the semiconductor channel that can push device performance with continuous scaling. In modern electronic circuits, the control of the threshold voltage is essential for improving circuit performance and reducing static power consumption. Here, we propose a silicon nanowire transistor with three independent GAA electrodes, demonstrating, within a unique device, a dynamic configurability in terms of both polarity and threshold voltage (VT). This silicon nanowire transistor is fabricated using a vertically stacked structure with a top-down approach. Unlike conventional threshold voltage modulation techniques, the threshold control of this device is achieved by adapting the control scheme of the potential barriers at the source and drain interfaces and in the channel. Compared to conventional dual-threshold techniques, the proposed device does not tradeoff the leakage reduction at the detriment of the ON-state current, but only through a later turn-ON coming from a higher VT. This property offers leakage control at a reduction of loss in performance. The measured characteristic demonstrates a threshold voltage difference of ~0.5 V between low-VT and high-VT configurations, while high-VT configuration reduces the leakage current by two orders of magnitude as compared to low-VT configuration.
    IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 11/2014; 61(11):3654-3660. DOI:10.1109/TED.2014.2359112 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Luca Amaru · Pierre-Emmanuel Gaillardon · Giovanni De Micheli
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    ABSTRACT: Double-gate (DG) controllable-polarity field-effect transistors (FETs) are devices whose n- or p- polarity is online configurable by adjusting the second gate voltage. Such emerging transistors have been fabricated in silicon nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and graphene technologies. Thanks to their enhanced functionality, DG controllable-polarity FETs implement arithmetic functions, such as XOR and MAJ, with limited physical resources enabling compact and high-performance datapaths. In order to design digital circuits with this technology, automated design techniques are of paramount importance. In this paper, we describe a design automation framework for DG controllable-polarity transistors. First, we present a novel dedicated logic representation form capable to exploit the polarity control during logic synthesis. Then, we tackle challenges at the physical level, presenting a regular layout technique that alleviates the interconnection issue deriving from the second gate routing. We use logic and physical synthesis tools to form a complete design automation flow. Experimental results show that the proposed flow is able to reduce the area and delay of digital circuits, based on 22-nm DG controllable-polarity Silicon nanowire (SiNW) FETs, by 22% and 42%, respectively, as compared to a commercial synthesis tool. With respect to a 22-nm FinFET technology, the proposed flow produces circuits, based on 22-nm DG controllable-polarity SiNWFETs, with 2.9 × smaller area-delay product.
    IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 11/2014; 13(6):1074-1083. DOI:10.1109/TNANO.2014.2361059 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we show the realization of a fully-implantable device for monitoring free-moving small animals. The device integrates a microfabricated sensing platform, a coil for power and data transmission and two custom designed integrated circuits. The device is intended to be implanted in mice, free to move in a cage, to monitor the concentration of metabolites. We show the system level design of each block of the device, and we present the fabrication of the passive sensing platform and its employment for the electrochemical detection of endogenous and exogenous metabolites. Moreover, we describe the assembly of the device to test the biocompatibility of the materials used for the microfabrication. To ensure biocompatibility, an epoxy enhanced polyurethane membrane was used to cover the device. We proved through an in-vitro characterization that the membrane was capable to retain enzyme activity up to 35 days. After 30 days of implant in mice, in-vivo experiments proved that the membrane promotes the integration of the sensor with the surrounding tissue, as demonstrated by the low inflammation level at the implant site.
    IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems 10/2014; 8(5). DOI:10.1109/TBCAS.2014.2359094 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Camilla Baj-Rossi · Giovanni De Micheli · Sandro Carrara
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    ABSTRACT: A multi-sensing platform for applications in wireless and batteryless monitoring of free-moving small animals is presented in this paper. The proposed platform hosts six sensors: four biosensors for sensing of both disease biomarkers and therapeutic compounds, and two further sensors (T and pH) for biosensor calibration. Electrodeposition of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the subsequent function-alization with proper enzymes is used to assure sensitivity and specificity in electrochemical biosensing. The realized sensors are demonstrated to be capable of measuring several parameters: lactate with a sensitivity of 77±26 μA/mM· cm(2) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 4±1 μM; glucose with a sensitivity of 63±15 μA/mM· cm(2) and a LOD of 8±2 μM; Etoposide (a well known anti-cancer agent) with a sensitivity of 0.15±0.04 mA/mM· cm(2) and a LOD of 4±1 μM; Open Circuit Potential (OCP) measurements are used on a Pt/IrOx junction to sense pH with a sensitivity of around -75±5mV/pH; while a Pt resistive thermal device is used to measure physiological temperature-range with an average sensitivity of 0.108±0.001 kΩ/°C.

Publication Stats

13k Citations
258.43 Total Impact Points


  • 2012–2014
    • École Polytechnique
      Paliseau, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009–2014
    • Eawag: Das Wasserforschungs-Institut des ETH-Bereichs
      Duebendorf, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2005–2014
    • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
      • • Integrated Systems Laboratory
      • • Microelectronic Systems Laboratory
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • CSL Behring
      King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2013
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
    • Integrated Laboratory Systems
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • imec Belgium
      • Smart Systems and Energy Technology
      Louvain, Flanders, Belgium
  • 1999–2010
    • University of Bologna
      • "Guglielmo Marconi" Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering DEI
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2008
    • Life Science Investments
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
      • Vital-IT Group
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2004–2007
    • Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo"
      Urbino, The Marches, Italy
  • 1988–2007
    • Stanford University
      • • Computer Systems Laboratory
      • • Center for Integrated Systems
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • Università degli studi di Cagliari
      • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
      Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy
  • 2001
    • Synopsys
      Mountain View, California, United States
  • 1998
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • School of Electrical & Computer Engineering
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 1996
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  • 1994
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 1982–1983
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences
      Berkeley, California, United States