[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chk1 inhibitors have emerged as promising anticancer therapeutic agents particularly when combined with antimetabolites such as gemcitabine, cytarabine or hydroxyurea. Here, we address the importance of appropriate drug scheduling when gemcitabine is combined with the Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776, and the mechanisms involved in the schedule dependence.
Growth inhibition induced by gemcitabine plus MK-8776 was assessed across multiple cancer cell lines. Experiments used clinically relevant "bolus" administration of both drugs rather than continuous drug exposures. We assessed the effect of different treatment schedules on cell cycle perturbation and tumor cell growth in vitro and in xenograft tumor models.
MK-8776 induced an average 7-fold sensitization to gemcitabine in 16 cancer cell lines. The time of MK-8776 administration significantly affected the response of tumor cells to gemcitabine. Although gemcitabine induced rapid cell cycle arrest, the stalled replication forks were not initially dependent on Chk1 for stability. By 18 h, RAD51 was loaded onto DNA indicative of homologous recombination. Inhibition of Chk1 at 18 h rapidly dissociated RAD51 leading to the collapse of replication forks and cell death. Addition of MK-8776 from 18-24 h after a 6-h incubation with gemcitabine induced much greater sensitization than if the two drugs were incubated concurrently for 6 h. The ability of this short incubation with MK-8776 to sensitize cells is critical because of the short half-life of MK-8776 in patients' plasma. Cell cycle perturbation was also assessed in human pancreas tumor xenografts in mice. There was a dramatic accumulation of cells in S/G2 phase 18 h after gemcitabine administration, but cells had started to recover by 42 h. Administration of MK-8776 18 h after gemcitabine caused significantly delayed tumor growth compared to either drug alone, or when the two drugs were administered with only a 30 min interval.
There are two reasons why delayed addition of MK-8776 enhances sensitivity to gemcitabine: first, there is an increased number of cells arrested in S phase; and second, the arrested cells have adequate time to initiate recombination and thereby become Chk1 dependent. These results have important implications for the design of clinical trials using this drug combination.
BMC Cancer 12/2013; 13(1):604. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S1 is a putative BH3 mimetic proposed to inhibit BCL2 and MCL1 based on cell-free assays. However, we previously demonstrated that it failed to inhibit BCL2 or induce apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, which are dependent on BCL2 for survival. In contrast, we show here that S1 rapidly increases reactive oxygen species, initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress, and upregulates the BH3-only protein NOXA. The BCL2 inhibitors, ABT-737, ABT-263, and ABT-199, have demonstrated pro-apoptotic efficacy in cell lines, while ABT-263 and ABT-199 have demonstrated efficacy in early clinical trials. Resistance to these inhibitors arises from the upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors, such as MCL1, BFL1, and BCLXL. This resistance can be induced by co-culturing CLL cells on a stromal cell line that mimics the microenvironment found in patients. Since NOXA can inhibit MCL1, BFL1, and BCLXL, we hypothesized that S1 may overcome resistance to ABT-737. Here we demonstrate that S1 induces NOXA-dependent sensitization to ABT-737 in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (NB4). Furthermore, S1 sensitized CLL cells to ABT-737 ex vivo, and overcame resistance to ABT-737 induced by co-culturing CLL cells with stroma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins of the BCL2 family provide a survival mechanism in many human malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The BCL2 inhibitor ABT-263 (navitoclax) is active in clinical trials for lymphoid malignancies, yet resistance is expected based on preclinical models. We recently demonstrated that vinblastine can dramatically sensitize several leukemia cell lines to ABT-737 (the experimental congener of ABT-263). The goal of these experiments was to determine the impact of vinblastine on ABT-737 sensitivity in CLL cells isolated from peripheral blood and to define the underlying mechanism. Freshly isolated CLL cells from 35 patients, as well as normal lymphocytes and platelets, were incubated with various microtubule disrupting agents plus ABT-737 to assess sensitivity to the single agents and the combination. ABT-737 and vinblastine displayed a range of sensitivity as single agents, and vinblastine markedly sensitized all CLL samples to ABT-737 within 6 h. Vinblastine potently induced the pro-apoptotic protein PMAIP1 (NOXA) in both a time- and dose-dependent manner and this was required for the observed apoptosis. Combretastatin A4, which dissociates microtubules by binding a different site, had the same effect confirming that interaction of these agents with microtubules is the initial target. Similarly, vincristine and vinorelbine induced NOXA and enhanced CLL sensitivity to ABT-737. Furthermore, vinblastine plus ABT-737 overcame stroma-mediated resistance to ABT-737 alone. Apoptosis was induced with clinically achievable concentrations, with no additional toxicity to normal lymphocytes or platelets. These results suggest that vinca alkaloids may improve the clinical efficacy of ABT-263 in patients with CLL.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 05/2013; · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many anticancer agents damage DNA and activate cell cycle checkpoints that permit time for the cells to repair their DNA and recover. These checkpoints have undergone intense investigation as potential therapeutic targets, and Chk1 inhibitors have emerged as promising novel therapeutic agents. Chk1 was initially recognized as a regulator of the G2/M checkpoint, but has since been demonstrated to have additional roles in replication fork stability, replication origin firing and homologous recombination. Inhibition of these pathways can dramatically sensitize cells to some antimetabolites. Current clinical trials with Chk1 inhibitors are primarily focusing on their combination with gemcitabine. Here, we discuss the mechanisms of, and emerging uses for Chk1 inhibitors as single agents and in combination with antimetabolites. We also discuss the pharmacodynamic issues that need to be addressed in attaining maximum efficacy in vivo. Following administration of gemcitabine to mice and humans, tumor cells accumulate in S phase for at least 24 h before recovering. In addition, stalled replication forks evolve over time to become more Chk1 dependent. We emphasize the need to assess cell cycle perturbation and Chk1 dependence of tumors in patients administered gemcitabine. These assessments will define the optimum dose and schedule for administration of these drug combinations.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 04/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is widely used as a "nutraceutical" for weight loss. CLA has anticancer effects in preclinical models, and we demonstrated in vitro that this can be attributed to the suppression of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. We tested the hypothesis that administration of CLA to breast cancer patients would inhibit expression of markers related to FA synthesis in tumor tissue, and that this would suppress tumor proliferation. Women with Stage I-III breast cancer were enrolled into an open label study and treated with CLA (1:1 mix of 9c,11t- and 10t,12c-CLA isomers, 7.5 g/d) for ≥10 days before surgery. Fasting plasma CLA concentrations measured pre- and post-CLA administration, and pre/post CLA tumor samples were examined by immunohistochemistry for Spot 14 (S14), a regulator of FA synthesis, FA synthase (FASN), an enzyme of FA synthesis, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the enzyme that allows FA uptake. Tumors were also analyzed for expression of Ki-67 and cleaved caspase 3. 24 women completed study treatment, and 23 tumors were evaluable for the primary endpoint. The median duration of CLA therapy was 12 days, and no significant toxicity was observed. S14 expression scores decreased (p = 0.003) after CLA administration. No significant change in FASN or LPL expression was observed. Ki-67 scores declined (p = 0.029), while cleaved caspase 3 staining was unaffected. Decrements in S14 or Ki-67 did not correlate with fasting plasma CLA concentrations at surgery. Breast tumor tissue expression of S14, but not FASN or LPL, was decreased after a short course of treatment with 7.5 g/day CLA. This was accompanied by reductions in the proliferation index. CLA consumption was well-tolerated and safe at this dose for up to 20 days. Overall, CLA may be a prototype compound to target fatty acid synthesis in breast cancers with a "lipogenic phenotype".
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2013; 138(1):175-83. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) is prescribed for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Clinically achievable concentrations of bortezomib cause less than 85% inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome, but little attention has been paid as to whether in vitro studies are representative of this level of inhibition. Patients receive bortezomib as an intravenous or subcutaneous bolus injection, resulting in maximum proteasome inhibition within one hour followed by a gradual recovery of activity. In contrast, most in vitro studies use continuous treatment so that activity never recovers. Replacing continuous treatment with 1 h-pulse treatment increases differences in sensitivity in a panel of 7 multiple myeloma cell lines from 5.3-fold to 18-fold, and reveals that the more sensitive cell lines undergo apoptosis at faster rates. Clinically achievable inhibition of active sites was sufficient to induce cytotoxicity only in one cell line. At concentrations of bortezomib that produced similar inhibition of peptidase activities a different extent of inhibition of protein degradation was observed, providing an explanation for the differential sensitivity. The amount of protein degraded per number of active proteasomes correlated with sensitivity to bortezomib. Thus, (i) in vitro studies of proteasome inhibitors should be conducted at pharmacologically achievable concentrations and duration of treatment; (ii) a similar level of inhibition of active sites results in a different extent of inhibition of protein breakdown in different cell lines, and hence a difference in sensitivity.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56132. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage induces the canonical p53 pathway including elevation of p21 (waf1) resulting in arrest of cell cycle progression. This can protect cells from subsequent Chk1 inhibition. Some p53 wild-type cancer cells such as HCT116 and U2OS exhibit attenuated p21 (waf1) induction upon DNA damage due to translational inhibition, and are incapable of maintaining arrest upon Chk1 inhibition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this attenuated p21 (waf1) induction also occurred with the non-DNA damaging agent Nutlin-3 which induces p53 by disrupting binding to its negative regulator MDM2. We find that Nutlin-3 circumvented the attenuated induction of p21 (waf1) protein by increasing its half-life which led to G 1 and G 2 arrest in both cell lines. Interestingly, the p21 (waf1) protein half-life remained short on Nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type MCF10A cells; these cells achieve high p21 (waf1) levels through transcriptional upregulation. Consequently, all three p53 wild-type cells but not p53 mutant MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were protected from subsequent incubation with a combination of DNA damage plus a checkpoint inhibitor.
Cancer biology & therapy 09/2012; 13(11):1047-57. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage induces cell cycle arrest through both Chk1 and the p53 tumor suppressor protein, the latter arresting cells through induction of p21(waf1) protein. Arrest permits cells to repair the damage and recover. The frequent loss of p53 in tumor cells makes them more dependent on Chk1 for arrest and survival. However, some p53 wild type tumor cell lines, such as HCT116 and U2OS, are also sensitive to inhibition of Chk1 due to attenuated p21(waf1) induction upon DNA damage. The purpose of this study is to determine the cause of this attenuated p21(waf1) protein induction. We find that neither the induction of p21(waf1) mRNA nor protein half-life is sufficient to explain the low p21(waf1) protein levels in HCT116 and U2OS cells. The induced mRNA associates with polysomes but little protein is made suggesting these two cell lines have a reduced rate of p21(waf1) mRNA translation. This represents a novel mechanism for disruption of the p53-p21(waf1) pathway as currently known mechanisms involve either mutation of p53 or reduction of p53 protein levels. As a consequence, this attenuated p21(waf1) expression may render some p53 wild type tumors sensitive to a combination of DNA damage plus checkpoint inhibition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Chk1 kinase is required for the arrest of cell cycle progression when DNA is damaged, and for stabilizing stalled replication forks. As a consequence, many Chk1 inhibitors have been developed and tested for their potential to enhance DNA damage-induced tumor cell killing. However, inhibition of Chk1 alone, without any additional exogenous agent, can be cytotoxic. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of this sensitivity is critical for defining which patients might respond best to therapy with Chk1 inhibitors. We have investigated the mechanism of sensitivity in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Upon incubation with the Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776, single-stranded DNA regions (ssDNA) and double-strand breaks (DSB) begin to appear within 6 h. These DSB have been attributed to the structure-specific DNA endonuclease, Mus81. The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex is known to be responsible for the resection of DSB to ssDNA. However, we show that inhibition of the Mre11 nuclease activity leads, not only to a decrease in the amount of ssDNA following Chk1 inhibition, but also inhibits the formation of DSB, suggesting that DSB are a consequence of ssDNA formation. These findings were corroborated by the discovery that Mre11-deficient ATLD1 cells are highly resistant to MK-8776 and form neither ssDNA nor DSB following treatment. However, once complimented with exogenous Mre11, the cells accumulate both ssDNA and DSB when incubated with MK-8776. Our findings suggest that Mre11 provides the link between aberrant activation of Cdc25A/Cdk2 and Mus81. The results highlight a novel role for Mre11 in the production of DSB and may help define which tumors are more sensitive to MK-8776 alone or in combination with DNA damaging agents.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e44021. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many anticancer agents damage DNA and arrest cell-cycle progression primarily in S or G(2) phase of the cell cycle. Previous studies with the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN38 have shown the efficacy of the Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01 to overcome this arrest and induce mitotic catastrophe. UCN-01 was limited in clinical trials by unfavorable pharmacokinetics. SCH900776 is a novel and more selective Chk1 inhibitor that potently inhibits Chk1 and abrogates cell-cycle arrest induced by SN38. Like UCN-01, abrogation of SN38-induced arrest enhances the rate of cell death but does not increase overall cell death. In contrast, SCH900776 reduced the growth-inhibitory concentration of hydroxyurea by 20- to 70-fold. A similar magnitude of sensitization was observed with cytarabine. A 5- to 10-fold sensitization occurred with gemcitabine, but no sensitization occurred with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, or 6-thioguanine. Sensitization occurred at hydroxyurea concentrations that marginally slowed DNA replication without apparent activation of Chk1, but this led to dependence on Chk1 that increased with time. For example, when added 18 hours after hydroxyurea, SCH900776 induced DNA double-strand breaks consistent with rapid collapse of replication forks. In addition, some cell lines were highly sensitive to SCH900776 alone, and these cells required lower concentrations of SCH900776 to sensitize them to hydroxyurea. We conclude that some tumors may be very sensitive to the combination of SCH900776 and hydroxyurea. Delayed administration of SCH900776 may be more effective than concurrent treatment. SCH900776 is currently in phase I clinical trials, and these results provide the rationale and schedule for future clinical trials.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 12/2011; 11(2):427-38. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents can be attenuated by expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-1. Flavopiridol and dinaciclib are cyclin-dependent kinase 7 and 9 inhibitors that transcriptionally inhibit expression of Mcl-1. We have investigated the ability of flavopiridol and dinaciclib to sensitize a panel of leukemia cell lines to vinblastine and paclitaxel. Both drugs acutely sensitized most of the leukemia lines to vinblastine, with 100% apoptosis in 4 h. Furthermore, dinaciclib sensitized freshly isolated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to vinblastine. This rapid induction of apoptosis was attributed to vinblastine-mediated activation of JNK because (a) flavopiridol and dinaciclib failed to induce apoptosis when combined with non-JNK activating concentrations of vinblastine; (b) JNK inhibitors suppressed JNK activity and prevented apoptosis; (c) flavopiridol did not potentiate apoptosis induced by paclitaxel which does not activate JNK in these cells; and (d) Jurkat cells failed to activate JNK in response to vinblastine and were not sensitive to combinations of vinblastine and flavopiridol or dinaciclib. The rapid induction of apoptosis by this combination in multiple cell systems but not in normal lymphocytes provides justification for performing a clinical trial to assess the efficacy in patients.
Cancer biology & therapy 08/2011; 12(4):314-25. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BH3 mimetics are small molecules designed or discovered to mimic the binding of BH3-only proteins to the hydrophobic groove of antiapoptotic BCL2 proteins. The selectivity of these molecules for BCL2, BCL-X(L), or MCL1 has been established in vitro; whether they inhibit these proteins in cells has not been rigorously investigated. In this study, we used a panel of leukemia cell lines to assess the ability of seven putative BH3 mimetics to inhibit antiapoptotic proteins in a cell-based system. We show that ABT-737 is the only BH3 mimetic that inhibits BCL2 as assessed by displacement of BAD and BIM from BCL2. The other six BH3 mimetics activate the endoplasmic reticulum stress response inducing ATF4, ATF3, and NOXA, which can then bind to and inhibit MCL1. In most cancer cells, inhibition of one antiapoptotic protein does not acutely induce apoptosis. However, by combining two BH3 mimetics, one that inhibits BCL2 and one that induces NOXA, apoptosis is induced within 6 h in a BAX/BAK-dependent manner. Because MCL1 is a major mechanism of resistance to ABT-737, these results suggest a novel strategy to overcome this resistance. Our findings highlight a novel signaling pathway through which many BH3 mimetics inhibit MCL1 and suggest the potential use of these agents as adjuvants in combination with various chemotherapy strategies.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(28):24882-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is a regulator of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. Defects in MRN can lead to defective S-phase arrest when cells are damaged. Such defects may elicit sensitivity to selected drugs providing a chemical synthetic lethal interaction that could be used to target therapy to tumors with these defects. The goal of this study was to identify these defects in the NCI60 panel of cell lines and identify compounds that might elicit selective cytotoxicity.
We screened the NCI60 panel in search of cell lines that express low levels of MRN proteins, or that fail to arrest in S-phase in response to the topisomerase I inhibitor SN38. The NCI COMPARE program was used to discover compounds that preferentially target cells with these phenotypes.
HCT116 cells were initially identified as defective in MRN and S phase arrest. Transfection with Mre11 also elevated Rad50 and Nbs1, and rescued the defective S-phase arrest. Cells of the NCI60 panel exhibited a large range of protein expression but a strong correlation existed between Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1 consistent with complex formation determining protein stability. Mre11 mRNA correlated best with protein level suggesting it was the primary determinant of the overall level of the complex. Three other cell lines failed to arrest in response to SN38, two of which also had low MRN. However, other cell lines with low MRN still arrested suggesting low MRN does not predict an inability to arrest. Many compounds, including a family of benzothiazoles, correlated with the failure to arrest in S phase. The activity of benzothiazoles has been attributed to metabolic activation and DNA alkylation, but we note several cell lines in which sensitivity does not correlate with metabolism. We propose that the checkpoint defect imposes an additional mechanism of sensitivity on cells.
We have identified cells with possible defects in the MRN complex and S phase arrest, and a series of compounds that may preferentially target S phase-defective cells. We discuss limitations of the COMPARE program when attempting to identify compounds that selectively inhibit only a few cell lines.
BMC Cancer 05/2011; 11:206:1-13. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapeutic agents modify intracellular signaling that culminates in the inhibition of Bcl-2 family members and initiates apoptosis. Inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase by PD98059 dramatically accelerates vinblastine-mediated apoptosis in ML-1 leukemia with cells dying in 4 hours from all phases of the cell cycle. Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide also markedly accelerated vinblastine-induced apoptosis, showing that the proteins required for this acute apoptosis are constitutively expressed. Vinblastine induced the rapid induction of Mcl-1 that was inhibited by PD98059 and cycloheximide. No change in Bcl-2 or Bcl-X was observed. We hypothesize that ML-1 cells use Mcl-1 for protection from the rapid vinblastine-induced apoptosis. This was confirmed by targeting Mcl-1 with short hairpin RNA. We also investigated the response of 13 other leukemia and lymphoma cell lines and cells from seven chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Four cell lines and all chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells were killed in 6 hours by vinblastine alone. Two additional cell lines were sensitized to vinblastine by PD98059, which suppressed Mcl-1. This acute apoptosis either alone or in combination with PD98059 required vinblastine-mediated activation of c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase. PD98059 did not suppress Mcl-1 in other cell lines whereas sorafenib did, but this did not sensitize the cells to vinblastine, suggesting that the acute apoptosis varies depending on which Bcl-2 protein mediates protection. Most of the cell lines were sensitized to vinblastine by cycloheximide, suggesting that inhibition of a short-lived protein in addition to Mcl-1 can acutely sensitize cells. These results suggest several clinical strategies that might provide an effective therapy for selected patients. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 791-802. (c)2010 AACR.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 04/2010; 9(4):791-802. · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common solid tumors of 15- to 35-year-old men. TGCT patients are frequently cured with cytotoxic cisplatin-based therapy. However, TGCT patients refractory to cisplatin-based chemotherapy have a poor prognosis, as do those having a late relapse. Pluripotent embryonal carcinomas (EC) are the malignant counterparts to embryonic stem cells and are considered the stem cells of TGCTs. Here, we show that human EC cells are highly sensitive to 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) compared with somatic solid tumor cells. Decreased proliferation and survival with low nanomolar concentrations of 5-aza-CdR is associated with ATM activation, H2AX phosphorylation, increased expression of p21, and the induction of genes known to be methylated in TGCTs (MGMT, RASSF1A, and HOXA9). Notably, 5-aza-CdR hypersensitivity is associated with markedly abundant expression of the pluripotency-associated DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) compared with somatic tumor cells. Knockdown of DNMT3B in EC cells results in substantial resistance to 5-aza-CdR, strongly indicating that 5-aza-CdR sensitivity is mechanistically linked to high levels of DNMT3B. Intriguingly, cisplatin-resistant EC cells retain an exquisite sensitivity to low-dose 5-aza-CdR treatment, and pretreatment of 5-aza-CdR resensitizes these cells to cisplatin-mediated toxicity. This resensitization is also partially dependent on high DNMT3B levels. These novel findings indicate that high expression of DNMT3B, a likely byproduct of their pluripotency and germ cell origin, sensitizes TGCT-derived EC cells to low-dose 5-aza-CdR treatment.
Cancer Research 12/2009; 69(24):9360-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Checkpoint inhibitors potentially could be used to enhance cell killing by DNA-targeted therapeutic modalities such as radiotherapy. UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) inhibits S and G2 checkpoint arrest in the cells of various malignant cell lines and has been investigated in combination with chemotherapy. However, little is known about its potential use in combination with radiotherapy. We report the effect of 20 Gy radiation given in conjunction with UCN-01 on the pO2 and growth of subcutaneous RIF-1 tumors. Multisite EPR oximetry was used for repeated, non-invasive tumor pO2 measurements. The effect of UCN-01 and/or 20 Gy on tumor pO2 and tumor volume was investigated to determine therapeutic outcomes. Untreated RIF-1 tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO2 of 5-7 mmHg. Treatment with 20 Gy or UCN-01 significantly reduced tumor growth, and a modest increase in tumor pO2 was observed in tumors treated with 20 Gy. However, irradiation with 20 Gy 12 h after UCN-01 treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth and a significant increase in tumor pO2 to 16-28 mmHg from day 1 onward compared to the control, UCN-01 or 20-Gy groups. Treatment with UCN-01 12 h after 20 Gy also led to a similar growth inhibition of the tumors and a similar increase in tumor pO2. The changes in tumor pO2 observed after the treatment correlated inversely with the tumor volume in the groups receiving UCN-01 with 20 Gy. This multimodal approach could be used to enhance the outcome of radiotherapy. Furthermore, tumor pO2 could be a potential marker of therapeutic response.
Radiation Research 11/2009; 172(5):592-7. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spot 14 (THRSP, S14) is a nuclear protein involved in the regulation of genes required for fatty acid synthesis in normal and malignant mammary epithelial and adipose cells. Harvatine and Bauman (1) reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits S14 gene expression in bovine mammary and mouse adipose tissues and reduces milk fat production in cows. We hypothesized that CLA inhibits S14 gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells and that this will retard their growth. Exposure of T47D breast cancer cells to a mixture of CLA isomers reduced the expression of the S14 and fatty acid synthase (FAS) genes. The mixture caused a dose-related inhibition of T47D cell growth, as did pure c9, t11 and t10, c12-CLA, but not linoleic acid. Similar effects were observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Provision of 8 mircoM palmitate fully (CLA mix, t10, c12-CLA) or partially (c9, t11-CLA) reversed the antiproliferative effect in T47D cells. CLA likewise suppressed levels of S14 and FAS mRNAs in liposarcoma cells and caused growth inhibition that was prevented by palmitic acid. CLA did not affect the growth of nonlipogenic HeLa cells or human fibroblasts. We conclude that as in bovine mammary and mouse adipose cells, CLA suppresses S14 and FAS gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells. Rescue from the antiproliferative effect of CLA by palmitic acid indicates that reduced tumor lipogenesis is a major mechanism for the anticancer effects of CLA.
Nutrition and Cancer 02/2009; 61(1):114-22. · 2.70 Impact Factor