[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NFkB activity is critical for survival and proliferation of normal lymphoid cells and many kinds of B-cell tumors, including multiple myeloma (MM). NFkB activating mutations, which are apparent progression events, enable MM tumors to become less dependent on bone marrow signals that activate NFkB. Mutations that activate NFkB-inducing kinase (NIK) protein are the most prevalent among the many kinds of NFkB mutations in MM tumors. NIK is the main activating kinase of the alternative NFkB pathway, although over-expression of NIK also can activate the classical pathway. Two NIK inhibitors and an isomeric control were tested with human myeloma cell lines. These specific NIK inhibitors are selectively cytotoxic for cells with NIK-dependent activation of NFkB. Combination therapy targeting NIK and IKKbeta (as a main kinase of the classical NFkB pathway) represents a promising treatment strategy in MM. NIK inhibitors can also be useful tool for assessing the role of NIK and alternative NFkB pathway in different cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment in medical oncology is gradually shifting from the use of non-specific chemotherapeutic agents towards an era of novel targeted therapy in which drugs and their combinations target specific aspects of the biology of tumor cells. Multiple myeloma (MM) has become one of the best examples in this regard, reflected in the identification of new pathogenic mechanisms, together with the development of novel drugs that are being explored from the preclinical setting to the early phases of clinical development. We review the biological rationale for the use of the most important new agents for treating MM and summarize their clinical activity in an increasingly busy field. First, we discuss data from already approved and active agents (including second- and third-generation- proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents (IMIDs) and alkylators). Then we focus on agents with novel mechanisms of action, such as monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), cell cycle specific drugs, deacetylase inhibitors, agents acting on the unfolded protein response, signaling transduction pathway inhibitors, and kinase inhibitors. Among this plethora of new agents or mechanisms some are specially promising: Anti-CD38 MoAb, such as daratumumab, are the first antibodies with clinical activity as single agents in MM. Also the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor Arry-520 is effective in monotherapy as well as in combination with dexamethasone in heavily pretreated patients. Immunotherapy against MM is also being explored, and probably the most attractive example of this approach is the combination of the anti-CS1 MoAb elotuzumab with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, that has produced exciting results in the relapsed/refractory setting.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 20 November 2013. doi:10.1038/leu.2013.350.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 11/2013; · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initial therapy of multiple myeloma with lenalidomide-based regimens can compromise stem cell collection, which can be overcome with the addition of plerixafor. Plerixafor is typically given subcutaneously (SQ), with collection ∼11 h later for maximum yield. Intravenous administration may allow more rapid and predictable mobilization. This trial was designed to assess the efficacy and feasibility of IV plerixafor in patients receiving initial therapy with a lenalidomide-based regimen. Patients received G-CSF at 10 μg/kg/day for 4 days followed by IV plerixafor at 0.24 mg/kg/dose starting on day 5; plerixafor was administered early in the morning with apheresis 4-5 h later. Thirty-eight (97%) patients collected at least 3 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg within 2 days of apheresis. The median CD34+ cells/kg after 1 day of collection was 3.9 × 10(6) (range: 0.7-9.2) and after 2 days of collection was 6.99 × 10(6) (range: 1.1-16.5). There were no grade 3 or 4 non-hematological adverse events, and one patient experienced grade 4 thrombocytopenia. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea and abdominal bloating. IV plerixafor is an effective strategy for mobilization with low failure rate and is well tolerated. It offers flexibility with a schedule of early-morning infusion followed by apheresis later in the day.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 4 November 2013; doi:10.1038/bmt.2013.175.
Bone marrow transplantation 11/2013; · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis remains incurable despite recent therapeutic advances. Given the activity of the lenalidomide-alkylating agent combination in myeloma, we designed this phase 2 trial of lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone in AL amyloidosis. Thirty-five patients, including 24 previously untreated, were enrolled. Nearly one-half of the patients had cardiac stage III disease and 28% had ≥ 3 organs involved. The overall hematologic response (≥ partial response [PR]) rate was 60%, including 40% with very-good partial response or better. Using serum-free light chain for assessing response, 77% of patients had a hematologic response. Organ responses were seen in 29% of patients and were limited to those with a hematologic response. The median hematologic progression-free survival was 28.3 months, and the median overall survival was 37.8 months. Hematologic toxicity was the predominant adverse event, followed by fatigue, edema, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A grade 3 or higher toxicity occurred in 26 patients (74%) including ≥ grade 3 hematologic toxicity in 16 patients (46%) and ≥ grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity in 25 patients (71%). Seven patients (20%) died on study, primarily because of advanced disease. Lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CRd) is an effective combination for treatment of AL amyloidosis and leads to durable hematologic responses as well as organ responses with manageable toxicity. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00564889).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Routine incorporation of FISH into multiple myeloma (MM) diagnostic testing has led to a better appreciation of the heterogeneity of genetic abnormalities associated with this disease. We studied a group of 484 patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic MM to better understand the prevalence of the various abnormalities and the prognostic significance of the overlapping abnormalities. A translocation involving the IgH locus and 1 of the 5 recurrent partner chromosomes was seen in 161 (33%) patients, and 275 (57%) had trisomy of at least 1 odd-numbered chromosome. High-risk FISH, defined as the presence of t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), or loss of P53, was seen in 115 (24%) patients; the median overall survival for this group was 3.9 years, compared with "not reached" for standard-risk patients (P < .001). Among the patients with high-risk FISH, 49 patients who also had at least 1 trisomy had a median overall survival that was not reached, compared with 3 years for high-risk patients without a concurrent trisomy (P = .01). Based on the current findings, we conclude that the presence of trisomies in patients with t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), or p53 deletion abnormalities in MM ameliorates the usual adverse impact associated with these prognostic markers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway controls cell proliferation and survival. Everolimus is an oral agent targeting raptor mTOR (mTORC1). The trial's goal was to determine the antitumor activity and safety of single-agent everolimus in patients with relapsed/refractory Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). PATIENTS AND METHODS Eligible patients had measurable disease (immunoglobulin M monoclonal protein > 1,000 mg/dL with > 10% marrow involvement or nodal masses > 2 cm), a platelet count more than 75,000 x 10(6)/L, a neutrophil count more than 1,000 x 10(6)/L, and a creatinine and bilirubin less than 2 x the laboratory upper limit of normal. Patients received everolimus 10 mg orally daily and were evaluated monthly. Tumor response was assessed after cycles 2 and 6 and then every three cycles until progression. Results Fifty patients were treated. The median age was 63 years (range, 43 to 85 years). The overall response rate (complete response plus partial remission [PR] plus minimal response [MR]) was 70% (95% CI, 55% to 82%), with a PR of 42% and 28% MR. The median duration of response and median progression-free survival (PFS) have not been reached. The estimated PFS at 6 and 12 months is 75% (95% CI, 64% to 89%) and 62% (95% CI, 48% to 80%), respectively. Grade 3 or higher related toxicities were observed in 56% of patients. The most common were hematologic toxicities with cytopenias. Pulmonary toxicity occurred in 10% of patients. Dose reductions due to toxicity occurred in 52% of patients. CONCLUSION Everolimus has high single-agent activity with an overall response rate of 70% and manageable toxicity in patients with relapsed WM and offers a potential new therapeutic strategy for this patient group.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2010; 28(8):1408-14. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The past decade has witnessed a paradigm shift in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma with the introduction of novel agents such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib, leading to improved outcomes. High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation remains an important therapeutic option for patients with multiple myeloma eligible for the procedure. Before the advent of the novel agents, patients underwent stem cell collection prior to significant alkylating agent exposure, given its potential deleterious effect on stem cell collection. With increasing use of the novel agents in the upfront setting, several reports have emerged raising concerns about their impact on the ability to collect stem cells. An expert panel of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) was convened to examine the implications of these therapies on stem collection in patients with myeloma and to develop recommendations for addressing these issues. Here we summarize the currently available data and present our perspective on the problem and potential options to overcome this problem. Specifically, we recommend early mobilization of stem cells, preferably within the first 4 cycles of initial therapy, in patients treated with novel agents and encourage participation in clinical trials evaluating novel approaches to stem cell mobilization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium has established a tissue bank for the deposition of bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma to be mailed and processed under good laboratory practices. To date, over 1,000 samples have been collected. At this time, limited information is available on shipped bone marrow aspirates in regards to cell viability, yield, purity, and subsequent RNA yield and quality. To test these determinants, we did a pilot study on behalf of the Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium where samples were drawn at Mayo Clinic Rochester (MCR) pooled and split into two equal aliquots. One-half of each sample was processed following good laboratory practices compliant standard operating procedures, immediately after sample procurement, at MCR. The CD138+ cells were stored at -80 degrees C as a Trizol lysate. The other half of the aspirate was sent overnight to Mayo Clinic Scottsdale where they were processed using identical standard operating procedures. The RNA was extracted and analyzed in a single batch at MCR. At both locations, samples were assayed for the following quality determinants: Viability was assessed using a three-color flow cytometric method (CD45, CD38, and 7-AAD). Cell counts were done to determine plasma cell recovery and post-sort purity determined by means of a slide-based immunofluorescent assay. RNA recovery and integrity was assessed using the Agilent Bioanalyzer. Lastly, gene expression profiles were compared to determine the signature emanating from the shipment of samples. Despite minor differences, our results suggest that shipment of samples did not significantly affect these quality determinants in aggregate.