M. Z. Tidrow

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States

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Publications (66)77.72 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) are well known for their stability, high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability which are quintessential parameters for large area imaging arrays. In this paper we report the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP focal plane array (FPA). The dual-band QWIP device was developed by stacking two multi-quantum-well stacks tuned to absorb two different infrared wavelengths. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the midwave infrared (MWIR) band extends from 4.4-5.1 ¿m and FWHM of the long-wave infrared (LWIR) band extends from 7.8-8.8 ¿m. Dual-band QWIP detector arrays were hybridized with direct injection 30 ¿m pixel pitch megapixel dual-band simultaneously readable CMOS read out integrated circuits using the indium bump hybridization technique. The initial dual-band megapixel QWIP FPAs were cooled to 68 K operating temperature. The preliminary data taken from the first megapixel QWIP FPA has shown system NE¿T of 27 and 40 mK for MWIR and LWIR bands, respectively.
    IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 03/2010; · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively developing the III-V based infrared detector and focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA, DoD, and commercial applications. Currently, we are working on multi-band Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs), Superlattice detectors, and Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIPs) technologies suitable for high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability large area imaging arrays. In this paper we report the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP focal plane array (FPA). In addition, we will present the latest advances in QDIPs and Superlattice infrared detectors at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    Proc SPIE 08/2009;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA). The dual-band QWIP device was developed by stacking two multi-quantum-well stacks tuned to absorb two different infrared wavelengths. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) band extends from 4.4 to 5.1 μm and the FWHM of a long-wave infrared (LWIR) band extends from 7.8 to 8.8 μm. Dual-band QWIP detector arrays were hybridized with custom fabricated direct injection read out integrated circuits (ROICs) using the indium bump hybridization technique. The initial dual-band megapixel QWIP FPAs were cooled to 70 K operating temperature. The preliminary data taken from the first megapixel QWIP FPA has shown system NEΔT of 27 and 40 mK for MWIR and LWIR bands, respectively.
    Infrared Physics & Technology 01/2009; 52(6):395-398. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes and a 320x256 pixel dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array have been demonstrated as pathfinders. In this paper, we discuss the development of 1024x1024 MWIR/LWIR dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array.
    Proc SPIE 08/2008;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes and a 320x256 pixel dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array have been demonstrated as pathfinders. In this paper, we discuss the development of 1024x1024 MWIR/LWIR dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array.
    Proc SPIE 05/2008;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDeltaT) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDeltaT of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. It is well known that III-V compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP, etc. are easy to grow and process into devices. In addition, III-V compound semiconductors are available in large diameter wafers, up to 8-inches. Thus, III-V compound semiconductor based infrared focal plane technologies such as QWIP, InSb, and strain layer superlattices (SLS) are potential candidates for the development of large format focal planes such as 4096x4096 pixels and larger. In this paper, we will discuss the possibility of extending the infrared detector array size up to 16 megapixels.
    Proc SPIE 12/2007;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been demonstrated with excellent imagery. MWIR FPA has given noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDeltaT) of 19 mK at 95K operating temperature and LWIR FPA has given NEDeltaT of 13 mK at 70K operating temperature. In addition, epitaxially grown self-assembled InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format FPAs. The QD devices were fabricated into the first LWIR 640x512 pixel QDIP FPA, which has produced excellent infrared imagery with NEDeltaT of 40 mK at 60K operating temperature.
    Proc SPIE 01/2007;
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024×1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEΔT) of 17mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEΔT of 13mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEΔT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024×1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.
    Infrared Physics & Technology 01/2007; 50(2):217-226. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDeltaT) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDeltaT of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDeltaT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024x1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.
    Proc SPIE 09/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: High Performance Radiation Hardened LWIR and Multicolor Focal Plane Arrays are critical for many space applications. Reliable focal plane arrays are needed for these applications that can operate in space environment without any degradation. In this paper, we will present various LWIR and Multicolor Focal Plane architectures currently being evaluated for LWIR and Multicolor applications that include focal plane materials such as HgCdTe, PbSnTe, QWIP and other Superlattice device structures. We also present AR Coating models and experimental results on several promising multi-layer AR coatings that includes CdTe, Si3N4 and diamond like Carbon, that have the necessary spectral response in the 2-25 microns and are hard materials with excellent bond strength. A combination of these materials offers the potential of developing anti-reflection coatings with high optical quality with controlled physical properties.
    Proc SPIE 06/2006;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024times1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array has been demonstrated with excellent imagery. MWIR focal plane has given noise equivalent differential temperature (NETD) of 19 mK at 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and LWIR focal plane has given NEDT of 13 mK at 70 K operating temperature with same optical and background conditions as MWIR array. Both of these focal plane arrays have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures with the same optics and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss their performance in quantum efficiency, NETD, uniformity, and operability
    Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2006. LEOS 2006. 19th Annual Meeting of the IEEE; 01/2006
  • Source
    M.Z. Tidrow, S.C. Tidrow
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A method of fabricating a colossal magneto-resistive detector using a thin film transfer method includes the use of a perovskite oxide material as a substrate, and a rock salt structure material as a buffer layer, template layer, and release layer. Advantages associated with the method include not only the ability to produce a detector of the requisite film quality, but one which satisfies the temperature coefficient of resistance and fabrication temperature constraints. In addition, when employed as either the substrate or the buffer layer, template layer, and release layer, after bonding the rock salt structure material can be easily removed using water, and the excess rock salt structure material/water solution can then be removed with known techniques.
    Ref. No: U.S. Patent 6,910,261, Year: 06/2005
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDeltaT) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDeltaT of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we are in the process of developing MWIR and LWIR pixel collocated simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDeltaT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024x1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.
    Proc SPIE 05/2005;
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 × 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEΔT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEΔT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEΔT, uniformity, operability and modulation transfer functions.
    Semiconductor Science and Technology 03/2005; 20(5):473. · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDeltaT) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDeltaT of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDeltaT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions.
    Proc SPIE 03/2005;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) megapixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR detector array has shown noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 17 mK at 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has given NETD of 13 m K at 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR array. Two portable prototype infrared cameras were fabricated using these two focal planes. The MWIR and the LWIR prototype cameras with similar optics have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, at 300 K background. In this paper, we will discuss their performance in quantum efficiency, NETD, uniformity, and operability.
    Infrared Physics & Technology 01/2005; 47:67-75. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Techniques for the preparation of highly integrated arrays of IV–VI semiconductors are presented. PbSnTeSe films were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and array structures are fabricated by photolithography, electrical contact formation, and etching. The rationale for forming electrical contacts with low specific contact resistivity is provided. Characterization of the specific contact resistivity was performed using a transmission line technique. Using a procedure discussed in this letter, specific contact resistivity measurements as low as 7×10−8 Ω cm2 have been obtained and demonstrate the feasibility of a class of highly integrated IV–VI device technology.
    Applied Physics Letters 11/2004; 85(22):5415-5417. · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    M.Z. Tidrow, S.C. Tidrow
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A method of fabricating a colossal magneto-resistive detector using a thin film transfer method includes the use of a rock salt structure material as a substrate. In a second embodiment, the method includes the use of a perovskite oxide material as the substrate, and the rock salt structure material as a buffer layer, template layer, and release layer. Advantages associated with the method include not only the ability to produce a detector of the requisite film quality, but one which satisfies the temperature coefficient of resistance and fabrication temperature constraints. In addition, when employed as either the substrate or the buffer layer, template layer, and release layer, after bonding the rock salt structure material can be easily removed using water, and the excess rock salt structure material/water solution can then be removed with known techniques.
    Ref. No: U.S. Patent 6,708,392, Year: 03/2004
  • Source
    Steven C. Tidrow, M. Z. Tidrow
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A method of fabricating an uncooled ferroelectric/pyroelectric infrared detector having a semi-transparent electrode material includes using a lattice matched substrate material and a crystallographically oriented bottom electrode material as a template for the growth of a crystallographically oriented ferroelectric/pyroelectric film. In a second preferred embodiment, the method includes fabricating a detector assembly, inverting the assembly, and attaching the inverted assembly to a circuit. This embodiment avoids temperature processing constraints associated with the circuit, and thus facilitates the use of higher growth temperatures. Advantages associated with the embodiments of the present invention include the ability to fabricate a crystallographically oriented bottom electrode material as a template for the growth of a crystallographically oriented ferroelectric/pyroelectric film. Furthermore, once the fabrication is complete, the substrate upon which the electrode is deposited can be easily removed. Finally, by virtue of the crystallographically oriented ferroelectric/pyroclectric film, a significant improvement in the overall performance of the detector, and thus in a device such as a focal plane array, is achieved.
    Ref. No: U.S. Patent 6,699,521, Year: 03/2004
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High Performance LWIR Focal Plane Arrays are critical for many space applications. Reliable LWIR focal plane arrays are needed for these applications that can operate in space environment without any degradation. In this paper, we present various LWIR detector array architectures currently being evaluated for LWIR applications. These include backside-illuminated configurations for HgCdTe fabricated on CdZnTe and Silicon substrates. To optimize the LWIR device performance, minimize the anti-reflection losses, and significant reduction in the effects of solarization in space, innovative Anti-reflection coatings are needed, that will enhance the performance of the LWIR detector / focal plane arrays. We also present AR Coating models and experimental results on several promising multi-layer AR coatings that includes CdTe, Si3N4 and diamond like Carbon, that have the necessary spectral response in the 8-14 microns and are hard materials with excellent bond strength. A combination of these materials offers the potential of developing anti-reflection coatings with high optical quality with controlled physical properties.
    Proc SPIE 01/2004;

Publication Stats

94 Citations
77.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2010
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 1999–2002
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • Army Research Laboratory
      Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States