M. Z. Tidrow

Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States

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Publications (90)123.88 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the results of the radiometric characterization of an ``M'' structure long wavelength infrared Type-II strained layer superlattice (SLS) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) developed by Northwestern University (NWU). The performance of the M-structure SLS IRFPA was radiometrically characterized as a function of photon irradiance, integration time, operating temperature, and detector bias. Its performance is described using standard figures of merit: responsivity, noise, and noise equivalent irradiance. Assuming background limited performance operation at higher irradiances, the detector quantum efficiency for the SLS detector array is approximately 57%. The detector dark density at 80 K is 142 μA/cm2, which represents a factor of seven reduction from previously measured devices.
    Optical Engineering 06/2012; 51(6):4002-. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a type-II superlattice mid-wave infrared 320×256 imager at 81 K with the M-barrier design that achieved background limited performance (BLIP) and ∼99% operability. The 280 K blackbody's photon irradiance was limited by an aperture and a band-pass filter from 3.6 μm to 3.8 μm resulting in a total flux of ∼5×10(12) ph.cm(-2).s(-1). Under these low-light conditions, and consequently the use of a 13.5 ms integration time, the imager was observed to be BLIP thanks to a ∼5 pA dark current from the 27 μm wide pixels. The total noise was dominated by the photon flux and read-out circuit which gave the imager a noise equivalent input of ∼5×10(10) ph.cm(-2).s(-1) and temperature sensitivity of 9 mK with F/2.3 optics. Excellent imagery obtained using a 1-point correction alludes to the array's uniform responsivity.
    Optics Letters 06/2012; 37(11):2025-7. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) are well known for their stability, high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability which are quintessential parameters for large area imaging arrays. In this paper we report the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP focal plane array (FPA). The dual-band QWIP device was developed by stacking two multi-quantum-well stacks tuned to absorb two different infrared wavelengths. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the midwave infrared (MWIR) band extends from 4.4-5.1 ¿m and FWHM of the long-wave infrared (LWIR) band extends from 7.8-8.8 ¿m. Dual-band QWIP detector arrays were hybridized with direct injection 30 ¿m pixel pitch megapixel dual-band simultaneously readable CMOS read out integrated circuits using the indium bump hybridization technique. The initial dual-band megapixel QWIP FPAs were cooled to 68 K operating temperature. The preliminary data taken from the first megapixel QWIP FPA has shown system NE¿T of 27 and 40 mK for MWIR and LWIR bands, respectively.
    IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 03/2010; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively developing the III-V based infrared detector and focal plane arrays (FPAs) for NASA, DoD, and commercial applications. Currently, we are working on multi-band Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs), Superlattice detectors, and Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIPs) technologies suitable for high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability large area imaging arrays. In this paper we report the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP focal plane array (FPA). In addition, we will present the latest advances in QDIPs and Superlattice infrared detectors at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    Proc SPIE 08/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors have experienced significant improvements in material quality, structural designs, and imaging applications. They now appear to be a possible alternative to the state-of-the-art HgCdTe (MCT) technology in the long (LWIR) and very long wavelength infrared regimes. At the Center for Quantum Devices, we have successfully realized very high quantum efficiency, very high dynamic differential resistance R<sub>0</sub>A-product LWIR Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes with efficient surface passivation techniques. The demonstration of high-quality LWIR focal plane arrays that were 100% fabricated in-house reaffirms the pioneer position of this university-based laboratory.
    Proceedings of the IEEE 07/2009; · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the growth and characterization of type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes grown on a GaAs substrate. Through a low nucleation temperature and a reduced growth rate, a smooth GaSb surface was obtained on the GaAs substrate with clear atomic steps and low roughness morphology. On the top of the GaSb buffer, a p+-i-n+ type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiode was grown with a designed cutoff wavelength of 4 μm. The detector exhibited a differential resistance at zero bias (R0A) in excess of 1600 Ω cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 36.4% at 77 K, providing a specific detectivity of 6×1011 cm/W and a background limited operating temperature of 100 K with a 300 K background. Uncooled detectors showed similar performance to those grown on GaSb substrates with a carrier lifetime of 110 ns and a detectivity of 6×108 cm/W.
    Applied Physics Letters 06/2009; 94(22):223506-223506-3. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA). The dual-band QWIP device was developed by stacking two multi-quantum-well stacks tuned to absorb two different infrared wavelengths. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) band extends from 4.4 to 5.1 μm and the FWHM of a long-wave infrared (LWIR) band extends from 7.8 to 8.8 μm. Dual-band QWIP detector arrays were hybridized with custom fabricated direct injection read out integrated circuits (ROICs) using the indium bump hybridization technique. The initial dual-band megapixel QWIP FPAs were cooled to 70 K operating temperature. The preliminary data taken from the first megapixel QWIP FPA has shown system NEΔT of 27 and 40 mK for MWIR and LWIR bands, respectively.
    Infrared Physics & Technology 01/2009; 52(6):395-398. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Meimei Z. Tidrow
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    ABSTRACT: Type II strained layer superlattice (SLS) has been making tremendous progress in the past few years funded by the Missile Defense Agency Advanced Technology Directorate (MDA/DV) under the Passive EO/IR Program. SLS has shown great potential as a future solution for infrared military systems. In this presentation, the most recent progress in SLS development will be presented. The presentation will also discuss the comparison of SLS with mercury–cadmium–telluride (HgCdTe) using Rule 07, SLS minority carrier lifetime issues, and future directions.
    Infrared Physics & Technology 01/2009; · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe p-on-n double-layer heterojunctions (DLHJs) for infrared detector applications have been grown on 100mm Ge (112) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The objective of this current work was to grow our baseline p-on-n DLHJ detector structure (used earlier on Si substrates) on 100mm Ge substrates in the 10μm to 11μm LWIR spectral region, evaluate the material properties, and obtain some preliminary detector performance data. Material characterization techniques included are X-ray rocking curves, etch pit density (EPD) measurements, compositional uniformity determined from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) transmission, and doping concentrations determined from secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Detector properties include resistance-area product (RoA), spectral response, and quantum efficiency. Results of LWIR HgCdTe detectors and test structure arrays (TSA) fabricated on both Ge and silicon (Si) substrates are presented and compared. Material properties demonstrated include X-ray full-width of half-maximum (FWHM) as low as 77 arcsec, typical etch pit densities in mid 106cm−2 and wavelength cutoff maximum/minimum variation <2% across the full wafer. Detector characteristics were found to be nearly identical for HgCdTe grown on either Ge or Si substrates.
    Journal of Electronic Materials 08/2008; 37(9):1465-1470. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes and a 320x256 pixel dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array have been demonstrated as pathfinders. In this paper, we discuss the development of 1024x1024 MWIR/LWIR dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array.
    Proc SPIE 08/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: A variation on the standard homodiode type-II superlattice with an M -barrier between the π -region and the n -region is shown to suppress the dark currents. By determining the optimal doping level of the M -superlattice, dark current densities of 4.95 mA / cm <sup>2</sup> and quantum efficiencies in excess of 20% have been demonstrated at the moderate reverse bias of 50 mV ; allowing for near background-limted performance with a Johnson-noise detectivity of 3.11×10<sup>10</sup> cm √ Hz / W at 77 K for 14.58 μ m cutoff wavelength for large area diodes without passivation. This is comparable to values for the state-of-the-art HgCdTe photodiodes.
    Applied Physics Letters 08/2008; · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes and a 320x256 pixel dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array have been demonstrated as pathfinders. In this paper, we discuss the development of 1024x1024 MWIR/LWIR dualband pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array.
    Proc SPIE 05/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: A n-i-p-p-i-n photodiode based on type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice was grown on a GaSb substrate. The two channels, with respective 50% of responsivity cutoff wavelengths at 7.7 and 10 μm, presented quantum efficiencies (QEs) of 47% and 39% at 77 K. The devices can be operated as two diodes for simultaneous detection or as a single n-i-p-p-i-n detector for sequential detection. In the latter configuration, the QEs at 5.3 and 8.5 μm were measured as high as 40% and 39% at 77 K. The optical cross-talk between the two channels could be reduced from 0.36 to 0.08 by applying a 50 mV bias.
    Applied Physics Letters 03/2008; 92(11):111112-111112-3. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Missile Defense Agency's Advanced Technology Office is developing advanced passive electro-optical and infrared sensors for future space-based seekers by exploring new infrared detector materials. A Type II strained layer superlattice, one of the materials under development, has shown great potential for space applications. Theoretical results indicate that strained layer superlattice has the promise to be superior to current infrared sensor materials, such as HgCdTe, quantum well infrared photodetectors, and Si:As. Strained layer superlattice-based infrared detector materials combine the advantages of HgCdTe and quantum well infrared photodetectors. The bandgap of strained layer superlattice can be tuned for strong broadband absorption throughout the short-, mid-, long-, and very long wavelength infrared bands. The electronic band structure can be engineered to suppress Auger recombination noise and reduce the tunneling current. The device structures can be easily stacked for multicolor focal plane arrays. The III-V semiconductor fabrication offers the potential of producing low-defect-density, large-format focal plane arrays with high uniformity and high operability. A current program goal is to extend wavelengths to longer than 14 mum for space applications. This paper discusses the advantages of strained layer superlattice materials and describes efforts to improve the material quality, device design, and device processing.
    Proc SPIE 01/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDeltaT) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDeltaT of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. It is well known that III-V compound semiconductor materials such as GaAs, InP, etc. are easy to grow and process into devices. In addition, III-V compound semiconductors are available in large diameter wafers, up to 8-inches. Thus, III-V compound semiconductor based infrared focal plane technologies such as QWIP, InSb, and strain layer superlattices (SLS) are potential candidates for the development of large format focal planes such as 4096x4096 pixels and larger. In this paper, we will discuss the possibility of extending the infrared detector array size up to 16 megapixels.
    Proc SPIE 12/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: We have been actively pursuing the development of long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on large-area silicon substrates. The current effort is focused on extending HgCdTe/Si technology to longer wavelengths and lower temperatures. The use of Si versus bulk CdZnTe substrates is being pursued due to the inherent advantages of Si, which include available wafer sizes (as large as 300mm), lower cost (both for the substrates and number of die per wafer), compatibility with semiconductor processing equipment, and the match of the coefficient of thermal expansion with silicon read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). Raytheon has already demonstrated low-defect, high-quality MBE-grown HgCdTe/Si as large as 150mm in diameter. The focal plane arrays (FPAs) presented in this paper were grown on 100mm diameter (211)Si substrates in a Riber Epineat system. The basic device structure is an MBE-grown p-on-n heterojunction device. Growth begins with a CdTe/ZnTe buffer layer followed by the HgCdTe active device layers; the entire growth process is performed in␣situ to maintain clean interfaces between the various layers. In this experiment the cutoff wavelengths were varied from 10.0μm to 10.7μm at 78K. Detectors with >50% quantum efficiency and R 0 A ∼1000Ohms cm2 were obtained, with 256 × 256, 30μm focal plane arrays from these detectors demonstrating response operabilities >99%.
    Journal of Electronic Materials 07/2007; 36(8):1085-1091. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024×1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEΔT) of 17mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEΔT of 13mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEΔT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024×1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.
    Infrared Physics & Technology 01/2007; 50(2):217-226. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been demonstrated with excellent imagery. MWIR FPA has given noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDeltaT) of 19 mK at 95K operating temperature and LWIR FPA has given NEDeltaT of 13 mK at 70K operating temperature. In addition, epitaxially grown self-assembled InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format FPAs. The QD devices were fabricated into the first LWIR 640x512 pixel QDIP FPA, which has produced excellent infrared imagery with NEDeltaT of 40 mK at 60K operating temperature.
    Proc SPIE 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of Type II InAs/GaSb superlattice was first brought by Nobel Laureate L. Esaki, et al. in the 1970s. There had been few studies on this material system until two decades later when reasonable quality material growth was made possible using molecular beam epitaxy. With the addition of cracker cells for the group V sources and optimizations of material growth conditions, the superlattice quality become significantly improved and the detectors made of these superlattice materials can meet the demand in some practical field applications. Especially in the LWIR regime, it provides a very promising alternative to HgCdTe for better material stability and uniformity, etc. We have developed the empirical tight binding model (ETBM) for precise determination of the superlattice bandgap.
    09/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDeltaT) of 17 mK at a 95K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDeltaT of 13 mK at a 70K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90K and 70K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDeltaT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024x1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.
    Proc SPIE 09/2006;

Publication Stats

593 Citations
123.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2012
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 2005–2010
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 1999–2002
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • Army Research Laboratory
      Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States