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    ABSTRACT: Visual-syntactic text formatting (VSTF) algorithms first analyze, then reformat a sentence into cascading patterns that cue syntactic structure and assist visual- processing. VSTF was evaluated in yearlong, classroom- based, randomized controlled trials, with in-class reading sessions (25 minutes per session, twice a week), using electronic textbooks for high school students. Pretest- posttest analysis showed that, in each grade, VSTF students had significantly higher scores on nationally standardized (and conventionally formatted) reading proficiency tests over controls; effect sizes ranged from .41 to . 69 standard deviations, and the one-year growth in reading proficiency with VSTF was equivalent to 2 to 3 years' of additional growth in study and national controls. VSTF groups also significantly increased scores, with medium effect sizes, on standardized quizzes and examinations for comprehension and retention of the material in the textbooks.
    Professional Communication Conference, 2007. IPCC 2007. IEEE International; 11/2007